(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Creative Computing Magazine (November 1982) Volume 08 Number 11"
















Apple 

Atari 

IBM 

PET 7 VIC 

TRS-80 

Graphics 

Logo 

Books 



TK! Solver 

Mathemagic 

4 Slide Show 
Systems 
14 Language 




tor TRS-80 

Color Computer 

Micro Dynamo 
MMS Forth 
Flight Simulator 

KDOS 

Z Basic 2.2 

J RT Pascal 



M 



ii i ii i ii i II llll III I III II II II 1 1 



90£Q8 



18*TT 



£8«dW STfrT tr6Z<L£9T8 H3S 09T0TE 





% 






USING YOUR COMPUTER 

TO DRIVE YOUR PRINTER 

IS A WASTE OF TIME. 

While your printer is running, your 
computer is tied up . All you can 
do is twiddle your thumbs until 
the program is finished. 

MICROBUFFER ALLOWS YOU 

TO PRINT AND PROCESS 

SIMULTANEOUSLY. 

You just dump your printing data 
directly to Microbuffer, whoosh!, 
and continue processing. 

Microbuffer accepts data as 
fast as your computer can send 
it. It first stores the data in its 
own memory buffer, then takes 
control of your printer. 

It's that easy. 

THERE IS A MICROBUFFER 

FOR ANY COMPUTER/PRINTER 

COMBINATION. 



FOR APPLE II COMPUTERS, 

Microbuffer II features on-board 
firmware for text formatting and 
advanced graphics dump 
routines. Both serial and parallel 
versions have very low power 
consumption. Special functions 
include Basic listing formatter, 
self-test, buffer zap, and 
transparent and maintain modes. 
The 16K model is priced at $259 
and the 32K, at $299. 

FOR EPSON PRINTERS, Microbuffer 
is $159 in either an 8K serial or a 
16K parallel version. The serial 
buffer supports both hardware 
handshaking and XON-XOFF 
software handshaking at baud 
rates up to 19,200. Both inter- 
faces are compatible with Epson 
commands including Graftrax-80 
and Graftrax-80 +. Both are user- 
expandable to 32K. 

ALL OTHER COMPUTER/PRINTER 

COMBINATIONS are served by the 
in-line, stand-alone Microbuffers. 
(Pictured here, twice actual size.) 

Both serial and parallel ver- 
sions are expandable up to 256K. 




The serial stand-alone will sup- 
port different input and output 
baud rates and handshake pro- 
tocol. The 32K model starts at 
$299, $349 for 64K, and 64K add- 
ons (for up to a total of 256K) are 
just $179. 

SIMPLE TO INSTALL. 

Microbuffer II is slot-independent. 
It will fit directly inside the Apple 
II in any slot except zero. 

Microbuffer for your Epson 
mounts easily in the existing 
auxiliary slot directly inside the 
Epson printer. 

The stand-alone Microbuffer is 
installed in-line between virtually 
auT^pnnte^K^S^omputer^ 

MICROBUFFER FROM 
PRACTICAL PERIPHERALS. 

When you think of how much 

time Microbuffer will save, 

can you afford to not have one? 

PRACTICAL PERIPHERALS, INC.™ 
31245 LA BAYA DRIVE 
WESTLAKE VILLAGE, CA 91362 
(213) 991-8200 




Nov. 29-Dec. 2, 1982 

La%J/egas ConvenHGH^enter 



CIRCLE 248 ON READER SERVICE CARD 









MK Ofr SM 

rXi rl-i rXt rl-i rl-i rli rXi rXn rXi rXi 



.-ex .-o-. .<y. .<y. .<*. .-o. 



GALAXY INVASION 

A fleet of invading aliens has landed and you are 
HM Earth s only hope Can you protect our planet 
from these creatures 7 (With Sound!) 






*«JO tt 



ttt muj 



super imova-::- 

Large and threatening asteroids and meteors are 
floating everywhere Destroy them quickly or 
your ship will be disintegrated! 



I 






%> 



ATTACK FORCE 

Your ship is being followed by Ramships lh.it .!-»■ 
loos»- in the quandrant Be quick with your lasers 
or be crushed' (With Sound') 









cosmic: fighter 

Your fuel level is low and you must rHuH soon. 
Can you survivr- the alien's missilo .itticks before 
fuH runs out? (With Sound) 



METEOR MISSION 2 

A huge enplosion has occuned and many 
astrori.iuts ar.- trapped on a remote planet Are 
you brave enough to rescue them? (With Sound!) 



ROBOT ATTACK 

Robots have overtaken a local space station. Fire 
your laser-pistol quickly because they are 
programmed to kill you! (With VOICE Sound) 



F i : Si 17 11 : i = 



IRCLE 122 <>N READER SERVICE CA*D 



5 per Game: TRS-80 16K Kew2 Modi /Mod3 Cassetl 
/ /TRS-80 32ryLev2 Modi /Mod3 Disketl 

/ Optional Joystick for Model 1 — 
0°fo discoun/for 2 items, 1J5°/o for 3 or m/re. / 



- $1595 

— $1995 
$39 95 



All Gimes 1980,Vl981 by Bill Hogue & Jeff\onyu. 






sions. 



-"-Audiovisual licensed from Atari. 



r 



K 



in this issue 

evaluations & profiles 

-I Q DEC Rainbow 100 Ahl 

The mighty mini maker enters the fray 

33 TK! Solver Ahl 

A new computing tool kit 

50 Mathemagic Murphy 

CC PFS: Graph Ahl 

Charts and graphs from the Apple 

g3 Electronic Slide Show Systems Ahl 

64 Lotus Executive Briefing System 

70 Screen Director 

78 Slide Show 

84 Apple Flasher 

88 Poor Mans Slide Show System 

Q3 Micro-Dynamo Light 

A language for simulating the world 

1 Q3 ZBasic 2.2 McCracken 

Finally, a compiler for everyone 

I 09 MMSForth Scarpelli 

Forth for the TRS-80 

I I 3 JRT Pascal Edelson 

Pascal for CP/M Systems 

1 20 Pro |B rammm 9 m Pascal Greene 

An individual learning course 

"| 24 Languages For the Color Computer Norman 

Alternatives to Basic 

1 42 EDTA SM+ Wilkins 

An editor-assembler for the Color Computer 

148 K_DOS Leemon 

w An alternative to Atari DOS 

1 52 MON + Ahl 

Enhance your Apple monitor 

1 54 Casino Games For The Apple Murphy 

Poker, 21 , roulette, and craps 

1 61 Cornsoft Flight Simulator Norman 

Any landing you can walk away from is OK 

1 66 Gamma Hockey Schreiber & Urbanowicz 

-1 7Q Programmer's Guides Blank 

A programmer's guide 

November, 1982 WBPA Fm% 

Volume 8, Number 11 V Sir LUU 

Creative Computing (ISSN 097-8140) is published monthly by Ahl Computing, 

Inc.. a subsidiary of Ziff-Davis Publishing Company. David Ahl, President; Elizabeth 

B. Staples, Vice President; Selwyn Taubman, Treasurer; Bertram A. Abrams, 

Secretary. P.O. Box 789-M Morristown. N.J. 07960. Second Class postage paid at 

New York, NY 10001 and at additional mailing offices. 

Copyright ©1982 by Ahl Computing, Inc. All rights reserved. 

Editorial offices located at 39 East Hanover Ave., Morris Plains, NJ 07950. Phone 

(201)540-0445. 

Domestic Subscriptions 12 issues $24.97; 24 issues $43.97; 36 issues $57.97. 

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Creative Computing, P.O. Box 5214. 

Boulder, CO 80321. Call 800-631-8112 toll-free (in New Jersey call 201-540- 

0445) to order a subscription. 

November 1982 c Creative Computing 



"\ 



articles 

1 Oft Tron Coffey 

The graphics of tomorrow 

1 81 pl,ot Tutorla| Smith 

First in a series 

1 85 Lo °° ,deas Lawler 

1 °** Advice to a teacher 

i Qg The Countess And the Computer Gilpin 

1 ww An Ada tutorial 

applications & software 

1 Q4 The Pascal Directory In Depth Page 

And Pascal sytle in brief 

202 Towers of Hanoi Rudeen 

A lesson in recursive Basic 

OA7 Programming Data Structures Mitchell 

fcW f How to find it 

21 8 Makmo < Every Vote Count Parr 

Tallying the single transferable vote 

234 Using Step Functions In Microsoft Basic Smith 

238 ,NTBAS| C Lives Hubbard 

Moving and using INTBASIC 

242 A Padd,e Control For The Color Computer Ahl 

Build it yourself 

249 Computer Art For The Tektronix 4052 Jacobson 

departments 

Q Input/Output Readers 

8 Notices Fee 

254 Tne G raDn Paper Lubar 

Part Five: ROM routines 

260 New Products Hecht 

266 ADDle Cart Trainor 

Epson graphics accessories 

OTF O Outpost: Atari Anderson 

Telecommunications and games 

282 Tne O tner Side Kewney 

fc ° Computing in Britain 

284 IBM Iroaoos Fastie 

Languages, new products, service and EasyWriter 

294 Personal Electronic Transactions Yob 

Languages and games 

306 TRS " 80 Strings Gray 

Word processing and money management 

316 Book Reviews Gray, eta/ 

330 ,ndex to Advertisers 



staff 



Editor-in-Chief 



David H. Ahl 



Editor 
Managing Editor 

Technical Editor 

Associate Editor 

Contributing Editors 



»5f 



V 1 -- 



eS 



Editorial Assistants 



Secretary 



Elizabeth B. Staples 
Peter Fee 

Michael Coffey 
John Anderson 

Dale Archibald 

Charles Carpenter 

Thomas W. Dwyer 

Will Fastie 

Stephen B. Gray 

Glenn Hart 

David Lubar 

Guy Kewney 

Stephen Kimmel 

Ted Nelson 

Harold Novick 

Peter Payack 

David Small 

Alvin Toffler 

C. Barry Town send 

Gregory Yob 

Karl Zinn 

Andrew Brill 
Karyn Hecht 

Elizabeth Magin 



Production Coordinator Christina L. Erickson 



Art Director 
Assistant Art Director 
Artists 



Typesetters 



Susan Gendzwil 

Chris DeMilia 

Diana Negri Rudio 

Candace Figueroa 

Yukiko Sakai 

Eugene Bicknell 

Karen K.Brown 
Renea C. Cole 



Advertising Director 



Jeff Weiner 



Creative Computing Press Laura Conboy 

Claudette Moore 



Software Development 



Software Production 



Kerry Shetline 

Eric F. Wolcott 

Owen Linzmayer 

Neil Radick 

Chris Vogeli 

Bill Rogalsky 

Nick Ninni 

Mary Ellen Mendl 

Mark Levitt 



Operations Manager 
Comptroller 
Accounting 
Bookkeeping 
Retail Marketing 

Fulfillment 



Shipping & Receiving 



v 



William L. Baumann 

Patricia Kennedy 

Jennifer H. Shaler 

Ethel Fisher 

Jennifer Burr 
Laura Gibbons 

Frances Miskovich 

Rosemary Bender 

Linda Blank 

Pat Champion 

Susan DeMark 

Moira Fenton 

Elsie Graff 

Gail Harris 

Linda McCatharn 

Bridget Maher 

Joanne Sapio 

Carol Vita 

Barbara Worry 

Jim Zecchin 

Ronald Antonaccio 

Mark Archambault 

Bill Thomas 

Scott McLeod 

Mike G ribbon 



r 



advertising sales 

Advertising Director 

Jeff Weiner 
Creative Computing 
Ziff-Davis Publishing Company 
One Park Avenue 
New York, NY 10016 
(212)725-7957 



Advertising Coordinator 

Ruth Darling 
Creative Computing 
Ziff-Davis Publishing Company 
One Park Ave. 
New York, NY 10016 
(212)725-3446 

Northern California, Northwest 

Jules E. Thompson, Inc. 

1290 Howard Ave., Suite 303 

Burlingame, CA 94010 

(415)348-8222 

From Colorado (303) 595-9299 

Southern California, Southwest 

Jules E. Thompson, Inc. 

2560 Via Tejon 

Palos Verdes Estates, CA 90274 

(213)378-8361 

New England 

CEL Associates, Inc. 
27 Adams Street 
Braintree, MA 02184 
(617)848-9306 

Midwest 

The Pattis Group 
4761 W. TouhyAve. 
Lincolnwood, IL 60646 
(312)679-1100 

Mid-Atlantic 
Larry Levine 

Ziff-Davis Publishing Company 

One Park Ave. 

New York, NY 10016 

(212) 725-7668 

Southeast 

Browning Publications 
P.O. Box 81306 
Atlanta, GA 30366 
(404) 455-3430 

Canada 

The Pattis Group 
1623 Yonge St. 
Toronto, Ontario M4T 241 
(416)482-6288 



r 



mbpcfcpm 



V 



Creative Computing is available on per- 
manent record microfilm. For complete 
information contact University Microfilms 
International, Dept. FA. 300 North Zeeb 
Road, Ann Arbor, Ml 48106, or 18 Bedford 
Road, London WC1R 4EJ. England, and 
Micro Photo Division of Bell & Howell 
Company, Old Mansfield Road, Wooster. 
OH 44691 



where to send it 



^v 



All editorial material, including article 
submissions, press releases, and products 
for evaluation should be sent to: 

Creative Computing 

39 E. Hanover Ave. 

Morris Plains, NJ 07950 

Correspondence regarding other Creative 
Computing products and publications 
should also be sent to the Morris Plains 
address. 

Correspondence related to advertising, 
including ad copy, questions on billing, and 
requests for rates, should be sent to: 

Advertising Department 

Creative Computing 

Ziff-Davis Publishing Co. 

One Park Ave. 

New York, NY 10016 

Correspondence regarding subscriptions, 
including orders, changes of address, and 
problems should be sent to: 

Creative Computing 

P.O. Box 5214 

Boulder, CO 80321 

Your help in choosing the correct address 
for your correspondence is appreciated. 
An incorrectly addressed letter or package 
can take as long as several weeks to reach 
its proper destination. 

subscriptions 

All subscriptions orders and other corre- 
spondence related to subscriptions 
should be addressed to: 

Creative Computing 

P.O. Box 5214 

Boulder, Colorado 80321. 
Foreign subscriptions must be accom- 
panied by payment in U.S. currency. 



Subscription prices: 

U.S. Canada 

1 year $24.97 1 year 29 97 

2 years 43.97 2 years 53 97 

3 years 57.97 3 years 72 97 



Foreign 

1 year 34.97 

2 years 63.97 

3 years 87 97 



Airmail delivery on foreign subscriptions 
is available for a one-year period only at 
$75.00 additional for mail to Asia and 
Australia, and $50.00 additional for all 
other foreign. 

Subscribers in the United Kingdom 
may send payment in sterling to: 

Hazel Gordon 

27 Andrew Close 

Stoke Golding 

Nuneaton, CV13 6EL 

Please allow at least eight weeks for 
change of address. Include old address 
as well as new— enclosing if possible an 
address label from a recent issue. 






r 



attention suthore 

Creative Computing will not be responsible 
for the return of unsolicited manuscripts, cas- 
settes, floppy disks, program listings, etc. not 
submitted with a self-addressed, stamped 
envelope. 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 




lb Do It Right. 

To make a Winchester disk for just Apple®!!. 



That's how we set out to design our hard disk for 
the Apple®II. To understand the needs of serious 
users and programmers, and to correct the errors 
of our predecessors. 

You want user-friendliness. So we wrote hard disk 
versions of Apple DOS, CP/M® and Pascal that 
are highly user-friendly and loaded with 
useful features. 

□ Auto-boot hard disk 
D Menu -driven utilities 

□ Single-keystroke program execution in DOS 

□ Disk search with wild cards, and many more 

\bu want flexibility. So we made every 
feature variable. 

D From 1 to 16 operating systems on each disk 

□ Operating system spaces grow as needed 

□ Slot independence 

□ Variable size volumes (to 400K in DOS) 

□ Mountable and unmountable volumes (even in CP/M) 

□ Custom DOS allowed 

You want reliability. We use Seagate drives only. 
And Corona's unique data protection technology. 

□ DataGuard™ 32-bit error correction code 

□ FailSafe™ read-after-write and automatic bad-sector reallocation 

□ 2 -level impact-protection packaging 



You want low-cost backup. So we wrote backup 
utilities that make floppy backup convenient. 

□ File compacting to reduce the number of floppies 

□ Volume selective backup in all operating systems 

□ Date selective backup in Pascal 

□ Automatic diskette sequencing to ease floppy handling 

You want compatibility. We maximize compati- 
bility with existing software and peripheral cards. 

□ 9K interface card leaves main memory untouched 

□ Interrupts are allowed 

□ Boot protected floppies from slot 6 without removing hard disk 

□ Automatic slot/drive to hard disk remapping 

And you want support. We do that right too. 

□ Hardware depot service in every region 

□ Programmer's guides at each level 

□ Software theft-protection on the hard disk 

Compare the features that matter to you. 
And visit our local dealer or distributor for 
a demonstration. You'll see the difference 
specialization makes. 

Corona Starfire™— The Winchester Disk for Apple II 

$2495 / 5 MB $2995 / 10 MB 

(All software included. Pascal not needed for CP/M.) 




corona 



TM 



The Third Generation Microcomputer Company 
CIRCLE 155 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

31364 Via Colinas Section 110 Westlake Village CA 91361 (213) 706-1505 

Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research, Inc Corona, Starfire, DataGuard. FailSafe are trademarks of Corona Data Systems, Inc. 




Not So, Good 

Dear Editor: 

After reading Phillip Good's review of the Atari Word 
Processors in the June issue of Creative Computing I'm sure 
that many Atari owners started to gnash and wail. Take 
heart, folks, it's not as bad as Mr. Good implies. 

Now I don't know about the Letter Perfect or Text Wizard 
word processors, but I do know about Atari's, because I 
bought one a day ago in spite of his review. 

In his review he makes several mistakes: You can use a 
Centronics 739 or the new Smith-Corona TP-1 (which I'm 
sure Smith-Corona considers to be letter quality) Printer. He 
also implies that the tutorials are hopeless. Gosh, how did I 
learn to use it in about two hours from those hopeless 
tutorials? Also he says there is no back-up. Maybe they just 
made a mistake when one* was included in my package. 

Now I'm no expert. I haven't reviewed 70 zillion word 
processors as Mr. Good has, but it appears to me that your 
like of one word processor over another is akin to taste in 
clothes or interior decoration. There is certainly no account- 
ing for taste. 

My advice to those poor Atari owners who want word 
processing would be as follows: Get it. If you're like me and 
love to write (or must write in your job) and can't type well 
(or type superbly), get it. If you just started using computers, 
the documentation, taped lessons, and exercises with the 
Atari software will help immensely. 

I warn you that I'm from Oklahoma, don't drive a Ferrari 
and can only afford beer most of the time. My house is 
modest and so is my expertise, and I can't afford $15,000 for a 
top of the line word processor, but I can say, positively, that 
the Atari Word Processor (even with its limitations) is a joy to 
use. 

James Forrest Dearner Jr. 

2405 N.W. 17th 

Oklahoma City, OK 73107 



It has always been the policy of Creative Computing to 
encourage reviewers to make judgments and express opinions 
about the products they evaluate. We also encourage them to 
put their opinions in context so readers will know from what 
point of view the judgments are made. Indeed, taste in word 
processors varies widely among computer users, and Mr. 
Good apparently has quite different taste from some of our 
other readers. —EBS 



Let's Get Normal 

Dear Editor: 

In the April 1982 Creative Computing (Page 176) Marvin 
Weingast suggests an interesting method for approximating a 



normal distribution. Unfortunately his program does not do 
what he describes. 

He says, for example, that 12.35% of the time X = 
1.5*(A+B-1) where A and B are uniformly distributed random 
variables which vary from to 1. But in the program line 50 
he uses A to determine the times when this formula should be 
used. Thus, to get to X = 1.5*(A+B-1) A must be between 
.8765 and 1. B still varies between and 1. The resulting 
distribution is quite different from that intended. 

The variable used for the test must be independent of the 
values used in the functions. 

To correct the program: 

In Line 30 Add D=RND(1) 

Change lines 40 and 50 to read 

40 IF D< .8765 THEN X=2*(A+B+C-1.5) 

50 IF D=> .8765 THEN X= 1.5*(A+B-1) 

J.K. Quermann 

1431 Plowman Ave. 

Dallas, TX 75203 

Mr. Quermann is correct, and the minor change he suggests 
is all that is needed, although as you can see from the curve in 
the article this error had little effect. 

By the way, I received a few calls from readers who 
apparently empirically modified the equations in order to 
simulate different weapon firing characteristics or operator 
skill levels in various games. —M. Weingast 



New Line Up 



Dear Editor: 

When running the Mu-Torere program for the Apple II 
(August 1982) by Sandy Greenfarb, I found that the numbers 
and the squares on the video display did not line up, making it 
somewhat confusing to play the game. 

By changing line 2080 from: 

IF I < > THEN VTAB 6: HTAB 5+3*1 
to 

IF I < > THEN VTAB 6: HTAB 6+2*1 
It is an otherwise enjoyable program to use. Thank you, 
Sandy! 

Herbert J. Lango 

PSC 1 Box 1179 

Brooks A.F.B., TX 78235 



Tweeter Beater 

Dear Editor: 

I really enjoyed the joystick article in the August '82 issue 
of Creative Computing. It is this kind of exhaustive reporting 
that is of true benefit to your readers. 

The Happ Hi-Fi Adapter certainly sounds like a worthwhile 
solution to the Apple "squeeker-speaker" problem. As is so 



6 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



First, the IBM Personal Computer, 



The Next Step . . . 







Tecmar 



The TECMAR Expansion series is the first 
and only, complete line of expansion options 
available for the IBM Personal Computer. 

Now totaling over twenty-five separate 
options, the TECMAR series gives you the 
broadest range of expansion available for 
your IBM Personal Computer, 




SYSTEM EXPANSION with a comp 
lete Expansion Chassis providing six 
additional system slots, a separate 
power supply and styling that com- 
plements the IBM system. 

MEMORY EXPANSION in 64K 
128K, 192K and 256K Byte incre- 
ments of Dynamic RAM with parity. 
32K Bytes of Static RAM, 32K Bytes 
of CMOS RAM with battery backup, or 
up to 128K Bytes of Read Only 
Memory. 

PRACTICAL EXPANSION with two 
Serial ports and one Parallel port on a 
single board, or a Time of Day 
calendar with battery backup, a Voice 
Synthesizer with vocabulary in ROM 
and phoneme speech generation, 
even a BSR X10™ device controller 
for lights and appliances. 

DISK EXPANSION through the addition of a five or ten megabyte 
Winchester disk. The disk options come enclosed in the TECMAR 
Expansion Chassis, providing additional expansion slots as well as 
Winchester disk storage. This approach assures you of unmatched 
system expandability for nearly any application. 

FUNCTIONAL EXPANSION is also available with TECMAR 
Speed Disk™ and print Spooling Software that give new 
functionality to memory options. 

UNMATCHED EXPANSION for the serious IBM Personal Computer 
user through these and the many other TECMAR Expansion products 
available through participating COMPUTERLAND stores, and other 
fine computer retailers nationwide. 











LABORATORY/INDUSTRIAL EX- 
PANSION through an IEEE 488 
interface, the Lab Tender with an 8 bit 
A/D and D/A, or the Lab Master for 
12 bit A/D and D/A, a two axis 
Stepper Motor Controller, or the Parallel 
Digital-ln/Digital-Out Base 
Board™, Video Digitization 
with Video VanGogh™. 

DEVELOPMENT EXPANSION using 
an E+EEPROM programmer, Proto- 
zoa prototyping boards or a TECMAR 
Extender card. 

NEW PRODUCTS are currently un- 
der development with many soon to 
be announced. At present shipping 
26 unique IBM add-on products, we 
are still looking for needs to meet. If 
you have an need for a new product 
for the IBM Personal Computer, and 
would like to ask us about it, give a 
call on our Product Input Hotline at 
(216)464-8317. 




For IBM Personal Computer Expansion, TAKE THE NEXT STEP . . . 



Tecmar Inc 



PERSONAL COMPUTER PRODUCTS DIVISION 
23600 Mercantile Road, Cleveland, Ohio 44122 
Telephone: (216)464-7410 Telex: 241735 



CIRCLE 302 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



rtjurt . . . input /output . . . mpui 



often the case, there is a software alternative as well. The 
cassette output port can be connected to your hi-fi system or 
run thru a separate low-cost amp 4- speaker setup. This port is 
then "live" and all that remains is to toggle it instead of the 
speaker output. 

In a Basic program this will usually consist of replacing an 
instruction that looks like: 

100 POKE 49200,## with: 100 POKE 49184,## 

For machine language programs the modification is to 
instructions like: 

100 BIT #$C030 to read: 100 BIT #$C020 

It isn't always practical to modify purchased software, and 
therefore that Happ adapter is still a quite neat device to 
have, especially at its reasonable price. 

The CEEMAC (Visual Composition) language solves this 
problem by always hitting both ports and providing the user 
with a "soft switch" to omit toggling the Apple speaker at the 
user's descretion. If the cassette output port is dead (not 
connected), nothing is lost as the signal simply falls away. 

Although not game nuts, we, at Vagabondo, find Creative 
Computing to be tops in reporting the goings on in personal 
computing. Keep up the good work! 

Brooke W. Boering 

Vagabondo Enterprises 

1300 E. Algonquin -3G 

Schaumburg, IL 60195 



It Worked for lacocca 

Dear Editor: 

The subjects of software piracy and over-priced programs 
have been much talked about, often together because they 
appear to be linked. Here's an open suggestion to software 
vendors. Maybe it's not directly useable as-is, but it might 
provide a starting point for discussions of alternatives. 

The suggestion is this: when a vendor offers a new product, 
price it high enough to make a reasonable profit even if it 
doesn't sell too well. Then, if it does turn into a good seller, 
lower the price, and send partial rebate checks to the first 
customers. (One hundred — one thousand — whatever is 
reasonable.) Or send significant discount coupons on other 
software. 

The plan offers these advantages: 

1. People would presumably be less inclined to allow 
copying of their purchase if they were decreasing their 
chances of a rebate check. 

2. People would have no reason to delay because of hopes 
that the price will come down. Sales might start sooner. 

3. It doesn't penalize those customers the vendor needs 
most— the first ones. 

John E. Stith 

P.O. Box 7463 

Colorado Springs, CO 80933-7463 



tlces... notices... nctic 



NCC 83 

The 1983 National Computer Con- 
ference will be held May 16-19, 1983 at 
the Anaheim and Disneyland Hotel Con- 
vention Centers. 

For more information, contact AFIPS, 
1815 N. Lynn St., Arlington, VA 22209. 
(703) 558-3624. 



Siggraph 83 



The Tenth Annual Conference on 
Computer Graphics and Interactive Tech- 
niques will be held in Detroit, MI, July 
25-29, 1983. 

For registration information, contact 
the Siggraph '83 Conference Office, 111 
East Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60601. (312) 
664-6610. 

The conference is sponsored by the 
Association for Computing Machinery's 
Special Interest Group on Graphics. 



Heart Health Contest 

The American Heart Association in 
conjunction with Classroom Computer 
News has announced a "Heart Health 
Computer Programming Contest" to solic- 
it the development of programs on health 
education for eventual national distribu- 
tion to schools. 

Programs should be aimed at an ele- 
mentary, junior high, or high school 
audience, and should deal with ways in 
which heart disease can be prevented. 
The best program entry has the potential 
to receive $1500; eleven other entries may 
receive $500. Programs are to be written 
in Basic language to run on the Apple, 
Atari, TRS-80, Texas Instruments or the 
Commodore PET microcomputers. All 
entries must be received by January 31, 
1983. A panel of computer and education 
experts will act as judges and reach a 
decision by spring 1983. 



For further information, write to "Heart 
Health Computer Programming Contest," 
American Heart Association, Greater 
Boston Division, 33 Fourth Ave., Need- 
ham, MA 02194, before December 1, 
1982. 



Corrections 

We gave an incorrect address for CJM 
Industries in our Joystick review in the 
August 1982 issue (page 88). The proper 
address for ordering the Microstik is: CJM 
Industries, P.O. Box 436, Sterling, VA 
22170. 

The Atari customer service department 
phone numbers we published in the 
August 1982 issue were incorrect. The 
correct numbers are: in California, (800) 
672-1404; in the rest of the U.S., (800) 
538-8543. 



8 



November 1982 • Creative Computing 



THE LEADING EDGE IN PRINTERS 

ONE GREAT LINE. ONE GREAT WARRANTY 

Finally, (hen's one lull family of printers that covers every business or won! processing application- 
all from C. Itoh, a company known foi packing more product into less price; and all distributed 
exclusively by I eading Edge, a company known foi searching out and providing thai very thing. 
Wliu li means that one call to one source can get you any printer, any time you need it, foi .my purpose. 
All backed by a full years 1 warranty from I eading Edge (Try that ou any othei line of printers.) 

THE PRO'S. 

The Prowriters: business printers— and more. I he "more" is a dot matrix process with more dots, it gjves you denser, 
i orrespondence quality <opv (as opposed to business quality copy, which looks like a bad job of spray painting). 
Prowriter: 120 cps. 80 columns dot matrix compressable to 136. 10" carriage. Parallel oi serial interface. 
Prowriter 2: Same as Prowriter, except 15" carriage allows full 136 columns in normal print mode. 

Parallel ot serial interface. 





PROWRTirER 




THE STAR. 

The Starwriter F-10. In short (ot more precisely, in a sleek 6 high. 30 pound unit), it gives you more 
of just j hoi it everything except bulk and noise than any othei punt ei in its price range. It's a 40 cps letter quality 

daisy-wheel with a bunch of built in functions to simplify and speed up word processing. 

It plugs into almost any micro on the market, serial or parallel. 



SfcRWWTOHO 




THE MASTER. 

The Printmaster F-10. Does .ill the same good stuff .is the Starwriter except, at 55 cps, the Mastei does it taster 



PRNTMASTKF-10 




225 ih Stn et, < 

i 'all toll • • • n \4assai .. cc 1? 828 815 l \ 951 ! 24 

CIRCLE ^99 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Mighty minicomputer maker DEC leaps into 
the personal computer market with both feet. 



Digital Equipment Corporation 
Rainbow 1 




' 



creotfue 

computing 



eunluotion 






David H. Ahl 



V 




■#* 



It was with mixed feelings that I 
boarded the 7:00 a.m. People Express 
flight to Boston. I was looking forward to 
returning to DEC, my employer from 1970 
to 1974. I hoped to see some familiar 
faces and perhaps review some old mem- 
ories. On the other hand, my main mission 
was to do an in-depth evaluation of the 
Rainbow 100 Personal Computer. Could 
I do an adequate job? 

For the past few years I have been 
lulled into a sense of complacency by 
using the same few computers to meet 
most of my needs. In my office I have a 
TRS-80 Model III which I use mainly for 
word processing with Electric Pencil and 
financial chores with VisiCalc. At home I 
have an Apple on which I run mostly 
VisiPlot, Executive Briefing System and 
games. My kids have a TRS-80 Color 
Computer on which they are learning to 
program. At Creative Computing we have 
one or two of nearly everything else — 
Atari, IBM, Vic-20, Pet, Sinclair, NEC, 
and a bevy of S-100 CP/M systems. 

However, with the exception of occa- 
sional use of an Altair 8800 (later hatched 
into an IMSAI) some three years ago, I 
have rarely touched CP/M — not that I 
was ever an expert on it. Hence, my 
trepidation facing a sophisticated new 
computer boasting CP/M as its operating 
system. 

The weather in Boston did nothing to 
calm my stomach. Torrential rain and 
strong gusts of wind buffetted my rented 
Datsun as I drove out to the new Mt. 
Royal (Marlboro) facility into which DEC 
had moved their Terminals and Personal 
Computer Groups just a few months 
earlier. 

Pete Sanborn, manager of marketing 
communications for the new Personal 
Computer Group greeted me and showed 
me to the demonstration room. A light, 
airy room as big as any three offices at 
Creative was the home for four lonely- 
looking computers. The room is normally 
very busy with demonstrations, but I was 
fortunate to be visiting during Comdex 
and few demonstrations were scheduled. 
Thus, I nearly had the place to myself. 



/■ 



This was a mixed blessing. For an hour 
or more, Pete searched in vain for some- 
one who could show me how the system 
worked. "Never mind," said I. "I don't 
want a canned demo. Just give me a 
manual and let me learn it on my own." 

Unfortunately, that was even more 
difficult. As Bob Montemerlo, product 
marketing manager, explained to me 



Rainbow 100 uses 

both an 8-bit Z80 

and a 76- bit 8088 

with shared memory, 

disks and I/O. 



later, the system is still in "final develop- 
ment." This means that the "firmware" or 
the ROMs containing the system software 
are still being changed and modified, a 
process that will continue right up until 
volume shipments begin in October. 

This isn't as bad as it sounds. The 
current system works fine and is 
apparently bug free, but the software 
engineers are trying to wring the maxi- 
mum performance from it. The bad news 
for me, however, was that virtually no 
documentation currently existed, and the 
little that did was in extremely preliminary 
form. 



The DEC Heritage 

While Pete was searching for the "right" 
people, I had the opportunity to speak 
with Andy Knowles, vice president group 
manager— whatever that means! It is a 
bit more pretentious title than Andy had 
when I worked for him some 12 years 
ago. In those days, the whole company fit 
into the old woolen mill in Maynard, but 
that's a story for another time. 

In any event, Andy has the overall 
responsibility for the new personal com- 
puters at DEC. When asked why DEC 
hadn't entered the market earlier, Andy 
said it was simply a matter of the technol- 
ogy not having "come together" to permit 
volume production of high quality systems 
with all the desired features. 

Also, DEC has a history of producing 
as much as possible of their systems in- 
house. When entering a new technology, 
they occasionally buy components or 
peripherals outside, but by the time vol- 
ume production is reached, DEC is 
usually producing the item(s). Andy was 
proud that virtually all the components of 
the personal computers are produced in- 
house, and he seemed almost apologetic 
that Winchester disk drives were being 
furnished by Seagate. 

DEC is entering the personal computer 
market with a rather different philosophy 
than practically any other vendor includ- 
ing IBM. From a hardware standpoint, 
DEC makes more peripherals and com- 
ponents internally than any microcom- 
puter manufacturer. 

A printer rolls off a DEC assembly line 
every 45 seconds, a CRT every minute. 
Make no mistake about it, this is high 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



11 



Rainbow 100 continued... 

volume production! Hence, DEC has little 
need for other hardware or peripheral 
manufacturers, even on an OEM basis, in 
order to offer complete systems. Even 
giant IBM was forced to purchase printers 
from Epson on an OEM basis and, to this 
day, does not offer a letter-quality printer. 
DEC, on the other hand, was able to offer 
three printers when the systems were first 
announced. 




■ aaaiiiiiaiiii 
bsbbbbbbbbbbbb 

MiaeaeaieiiiBi 



nasi 

BB91 



Photo 2. The low-profile keyboard is a long 21 inches because of the control keys 
(center) and numeric keypad (right). 



Four DEC personal 

computers share the 

same skin, but 

underneath they 

are quite different 



Brief digression: Although this is a 
review of the Rainbow 100, 1 occasionally 
speak of systems (with an "s"). In fact, 
DEC announced four personal com- 
puters, the Rainbow 100, Decmate II, 
Professional 325 and 350. I hesitate to 
call them a family. While they all use the 
same keyboard, CRT and system unit/ 
disk housing, under the skin they are quite 
different. The Rainbow 100 uses two 
microprocessors (an 8088 and Z80), the 
Decmate II uses a 6120 (PDP-8 on a chip), 
and the Professional series is built around 
an Fll (PDP-11/23). Thus, while some 
hardware and peripherals can be shared, 
software is not compatible across the 
different machines. 



Ergonomic, Low-Profile Keyboard 

The first thing that impressed me upon 
seeing the IBM Personal Computer was 
the ergonomic design, particularly the low 
profile, separate keyboard, previously 
available only on upper end terminals and 
minicomputers. (Andy Knowles was quick 
to point out that DEC had been offering a 
detached keyboard for the past three 
years with the VT-100 terminal.) The IBM 
keyboard is nice, but in the DEC key- 
board it has certainly met its match. 

The low profile DEC keyboard unit 
measures a long 21" x 6.75". It slants from 
0.6" in height at the front to 2" at the 
rear. The extra length is necessary to 
hold at the far right a numeric keypad 
which includes four program function 
keys, three punctuation marks, and an 
ENTER key. The program function keys 
may be defined in software as numeric 
operators, but don't have to be. In addi- 
tion, between the alphabetic keyboard 
and the numeric keypad is a set of ten 
keys for cursor movement and word 
processing manipulation. Only the cursor 
control keys work with the Rainbow 100; 







Photo 1. Andy Knowles and Rainbow 100. Sorry my Olympus was fooled by the 
light from the windows at the right. But the computer came out well. 

12 



the others are for the larger systems. 

Along the top row of the keyboard are 
20 function keys above which is a remov- 
able label strip beneath a hinged plexiglass 
cover. In total, 36 keys are firmware or 
software driven. In all, the keyboard has 
103 keys. Their matte finish with dark-on- 
light legends diminishes glare and insures 
positive finger placement. Although the 
DEC promotional literature boasts that 
"proper arrangement of keys can help 
eliminate errors," I found that the "extra" 
key (with greater and less than symbols) 
located between the SHIFT and Z at the 
bottom left kept masquerading as the 
SHIFT. As a result, before correction, 
this paragraph, as did most of the others, 
started " < along ..." I also found it 
curious that the "5" on the numeric 
keypad was not identified by a raised dot 
for quick finger placement. 

Other than those two minor glitches, 
the keyboard is as near perfect as I have 
seen. It is exactly the right height for 
those who prefer the low-fatigue, palm- 
on-table typing style and, indeed, meets 
the European standard of having the 
home row keys 30mm above the table 
surface. The keys all provide excellent 
tactile and aural feedback (a low-volume 
keyclick reproduced by the self-contained 
speaker). 

The keyboard has its own 8-bit micro- 
processor, 4K ROM and 256 bytes of 
RAM. It connects to the CRT display 
screen with a coiled 6' cable using tele- 
phone-type modular connectors. 

Display Screen 

Upon seeing the CRT display screen, / 
thought, "gee, that's small." However, it 
is not the screen that is small— it is a 
standard 12" diagonal CRT — but the 
housing. The housing measures a dimin- 
utive 11.5" high by 13.75" wide by 12.25" 
deep. Most other housings are 25% larger. 
A balancing leg on the bottom of the 
housing allows it to be tilted from 25 
degrees back to 5 degrees forward (for 
use on an overhead shelf perhaps?). 

Normal display mode is white char- 
acters on a black background. Yes, black. 
None of this light green on dark green or 
yellow on black. A reverse mode will 

November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



A GALAXY of features makes the 
remarkable computer. As you explore the 
LNW80, you will find the most complete, 
powerful, ready to run, feature-packed per- 
sonal and business computer ever made into 
one compact solid unit. * # 




QUALITY CONSTRUCTION - Instrumenta 
tion quality construction sets LNW80 com- 
puters apart from all the rest. Integrated into 
the sleek solid steel case of the LNW80 is a 
professional 74-key expanded keyboard that 
includes a twelve key numeric keypad. 



HIG.H RES9LUTIONGRAPHICS&COLOR- 

The stunning 480 X 1 92 resolution gives you 
total display control - in color or black and 
white. The choice of display formats is yours; 
80, 64, 40 and 32 columns by 24 or 1 6 lines in - 
any combination of eight colors. 

. PERFORMANCE - Lift-off with a 4MHz Z80A 
CPU for twice the performance. The LNW80 
outperforms all computers in its class. 




MODEL I COMPATIBILITY - The LNW&O 

fully hardware and software compatible with 
the Model I. Select from a universe of hardware 
accessories and software - from VisiCalc" to 
space games, your LNW80 will launch you 
into a new world of computing. 




FULLY LOADED - A full payload includes £n 
on-board single and double density disk 
controller for 5 V and 8" single or double 
sided disk drives. RS232C communications 
port, cassette and parallel printer interfaces 
are standard features and ready to go. All 
memory is fully installed - 48K RAM, 16K 
graphics RAM and 12K ROM complete with 
Microsoft BASIC. 



Our down to earth price won't send you into 



orbit 



V Research Corp. 



?6liO\VALNl I Tustin. CA. 056,80 
(71 iWVtl SSf>0 tTUj :>M 5714 

CIRCLE 202 ON READER SERVICE C 



$ 

Monitor and DrsK dri\rt>s not Jr»Clud< 
TM Personal So*tv ! nc* 




Rainbow 100 continued... 

by a 60-image-per-second refresh rate; I 
must confess that I could not see any 
difference between this display and the 
Model III or IBM. Normally, 80 char- 
acters by 24 lines are displayed, however, 
it is possible to select (in software) a 132- 
column width. While this is useful for 
looking at, say, 12 months of a spread- 
sheet, the 5x9 pixel characters used in 
this mode are tiring to view for long 



± 



: * 



"» 











Photo 3. The screen has a matte black finish with white type. 



display black on white. The surface of 
the screen is covered with a non-glare 
finish. While it needed an occasional 
wiping, the absence of glare was almost 
uncanny; I found myself wanting to touch 
it to reassure myself that it was really 
glass. However, it is highly susceptible to 
oily finger prints which destroy the non- 
glare property and are exceptionally 
annoying until wiped off. 

The display generates 7x9 pixel char- 
acters including a two pixel descender for 
g, j, p, q, and y. Screen flicker is reduced 



periods. Nevertheless, it is valuable to be 
able to preview the entire 14" line printer 
width. 

Other software-selectable features 
include a split screen capability which 
allows portions of the 24-line screen to be 
scrolled separately for menu selections, 
messages or prompts. The Select word 
processing package (covered later) holds 
three lines of prompts at the top of the 
screen while 21 lines at the bottom hold 
the scrolling text. 

Also available are full- and split-screen 



INTERRUPT 



Z80 



2KB 

DEDICATED 

RANDOM 

ACCESS 

MEMORY 



RX50 

DISKETTE 

INTERFACE 



SHARED 

64KB 
RANDOM 
ACCESS 
MEMORY 



24 KB READ 
ONLY MEMORY 



OPTIONAL 

64KB, 128KB, OR 

192 KB RANDOM 

ACCESS MEMORY 



24 x 80/132 
VIDEO DISPLAY 



4KB 

ATTRIBUTE 

RAM 



4KB 

SCREEN 

RAM 



8 

BIT 

DATA 

BUS 



\ 



INTEL 8088 



KEYBOARD 



COMMUNICATIONS 



PRINTER PORT 



COLOR/GRAPHICS 
OPTION 



EXTENDED 
CAPABILITIES OPTION 



Figure 1. Rainbow 100 System Block Diagram. 



14 



horizontal and vertical scrolling. Double- 
height lines and double-width characters 
let one add emphasis to sections of text. 
Or, for even more emphasis, bold, blink- 
ing, reverse-video and underline are avail- 
able. 

The standard Rainbow 100 includes 
monochrome (B&W) "character cell" 
video. For some extra dollars, it can be 
converted to a bit-map display for either 
monochrome or color output. This 
optional mode supports 16 colors simul- 
taneously in the low resolution mode of 
320 x 240 pixels or four colors from a 
palette of eight in the high-resolution 
mode of 800 x 240 pixels. Color is via an 
RGB output (three separate outputs for 
red, green and blue) rather than NTSC 
composite video. 

System Unit and Disk Drives 

The system unit contains the micropro- 
cessors and logic circuitry, power supply, 
disk drives, and slots for adding optional 
devices. The unit is designed to be posi- 
tioned either horizontally on the floor or 
vertically on a desk or shelf. The unit is 
relatively large, measuring 19" wide 
(shades of the rack mount days) by 15" 
deep by 6" high (assuming vertical 
mounting). 

The disk drives are unique. Looking 
like no others, each drive accomodates 
two single sided 5 1/4" diskettes on a 
single spindle. Each disk stores 409.6K 
bytes. With two disks on each drive, this 
gives a total of 819K bytes of storage per 
drive, considerably more than any other 
currently-available small computer. Con- 
trast this to the IBM Personal Computer, 
for example, which stores only 160K bytes 
per drive; the Rainbow stores five times 
as much! 

Each system unit can accomodate two 
drives (four disks). For those concerned 
with specifications, here they are: single 
sided, 96 tracks per inch, 80 tracks used 
for storage, 10 sectors per track, 512 bytes 
per sector, 300 revolutions per minute. 

The Rainbow 100 contains two micro- 
processors, an 8-bit Z80 and a 16-bit 8088. 
The two processors divide system 
function— disk operations are controlled 
by the Z80, while the display, keyboard, 
I/O port and options are controlled by 
the 8088. Both processors share 64K bytes 
of main memory. This may be expanded 
to 128 or 256K bytes. (See Figure 1). 

To take advantage of the dual pro- 
cessors, DEC created a hybrid 8-bit CP/M 
80 and 16-bit CP/M 86 operating system 
called CP/M 86/80. This system features 
a capability called "soft sense"which 
allows CP/M 80 and CP/M 86 application 
programs to run on the Rainbow 100 
without operator intervention. The CP/M 
86/80 operating system automatically 
determines if the application is an 8-bit or 
16-bit program and executes the instruc- 
tions with the appropriate processor and 
operating system. 

November 1982 ° Creative Computing 




You havenl lived until youve died in space 




And here's your chance. 

Software author Peter Fokos has created Alien 
Ambush, a space age nightmare. This hi-res, full-color 
arcade game is written completely in assembly 
language to give those nasty aliens every advantage. 

So if you have access to a 48K Apple* with DOS 
3.3, and you're hot for some new thrills, Alien Ambush 
was written for you. But be warned: It just got a lot 
tougher to survive in space. 



Available at finer computer stores everywhere. *Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 
Distributed exclusively by Micro D, 17406 Mt. Cliffwood Circle, Fountain Valley, CA 92708 (714) 540-4781 

CIRCLE 211 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Introducing Spinnaker. 

We mate learning fun. 





TROOPS 




© Spinnaker Software Corp , Cambridge, MA 1982 



At Spinnaker Software, we make edu- 
cational games that are actually fun. 

Because they're fun, your children will 
use them. Instead of letting them collect 
dust in the basement 

And because your children use them, 
they'll be learning. And after all, isn't that 
what educational games are all about? 

Our games are educational, because 
you can't kid parents. 

As a parent you're probably very con- 
cerned with how much time your kids 
spend playing mindless video games. 

Sure, they're fun. But they don't do 
much more than develop reflexes and 
hand-eye coordination. 5pinnaker 
games are different 

All our games have true 
educational value. They 
help develop a child's 
learning skills. And that's 
something your kids can 
take with them wherever 
they go. 

Our games are fun, 
because you can't kid kids. 

Kids like Spinnaker games for the 
same reasons they like roller coasters, 
going to the beach and ice cream 
sundaes. 

They're fun. tots of fun. So much fun 
your kids will probably forget they're 
learning. 

Our games make the computer 
screen come to life. With colorful graph- 
ics, animation and sound. 

And they're easy to use. In fact a lot 
of our games are easy enough for kids 
who've never even used a computer 
before. 

How do we make our games both 
educational and fun? 

We're glad you asked. 

Educators and game programmers 
write our software. 

Educators, because they've been in 
the classroom and know how children 




learn. And what it takes to keep their 
interest 

Game programmers, because they 
know how to have fun with computers. 
These programmers give our games the 
high resolution graphics, animation and 
sound that make them so entertaining. 
And right now, we're introducing four 
new games that can be played on the 
most popular computers, Apple,® Atari,® 
and IBM* 

Eirst there's EACEMAKER. It's for 
young computer users, kids ages 4-8. 
EACEMAKER helps children improve 
memory and concentration and provides 
familiarity with the computer. 

Another game for young 
users is 5TORY MACHINE. 
This game lets children 
ages 5-9 write their own 
stories and see them 
acted out on the screen. 
STORY MACHINE helps 
children learn to write 
correctly and acquaints 
them with the keyboard. 
Our SNOOPER TROOP5™ 
detective series gives your child mys- 
teries to solve. As a 5nooper Trooper, 
your child will have to do some daring 
detective work, including crawling 
through dark houses and talking to mys- 
terious agents. 

Designed for kids ages 10 and older, 
SNOOPER TROOP5 helps children learn 
to take notes, draw maps, classify infor- 
mation, and develops vocabulary and 
reasoning skills. 

All four games are available in stores 
today. 

With Spinnaker products, you can rest 
easy knowing your children are spend- 
ing their time wisely. 

5o ask your retailer about the growing 
line of Spinnaker games. 

Because one of the smartest 
things parents can do is help their chil- 
dren learn. 



We make learning fun. 



Apple. IBM and Atari are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc . International Business Machines Corp and Atari, "nc respectively 



Rainbow 100 continued... 



Rainbow 100 has a built-in asynchro- 
nous/byte synchronous communications 
port that supports speeds up to 9600 baud 
with modem control. It is also equipped 
with a serial RS-232C printer port with 
programmable baud rates, parity bits, etc. 
for supporting a wide variety of printers 
as well as the three printers offered by 
DEC. 

Optional Winchester Disk 

The optional Winchester disk is housed 
in a separate cabinet and provides an 
additional five megabytes of fast-access, 
auxiliary memory. The system consists of 
a 5 1/4" formatted disk. 

Average access time with the Win- 
chester Disk is 95 msec and transfer rate 
is 5 Mbits/sec compared to 290 msec and 
250K b/s for the floppy disk system. Thus 
access time is three times as fast and 
transfer rate is 20 times as fast, a notice- 
able difference. 

We are told that because of the sealed 
head/disk assembly, the drive requires no 
preventive maintenance or adjustments. 
Furthermore, the Winchester subsystem 
has firmware diagnostics that test and 
verify that all components of the system 
are working during power-up. These 
diagnostics also provide continuous error 
checking during normal operation. 

The Rainbow 100 requires the extended 
communications option which contains a 
high-speed disk interface port to use the 
Winchester disk option. This communi- 
cations option also contains an additional 
communications port. 

Three Printers 

DEC offers a choice of three printers 
with the Rainbow 100: the LA50 Personal 
Printer, the Letterprinter 100, and the 
LQP02 Letter-Quality Printer. 

Each printer can accomodate a variety 
of papers: single sheet (such as letter- 
head), fanfold continuous paper, multi- 
part forms, roll paper and labels. Each 
printer also contains internal diagnostic 
tests that are performed automatically on 
power-up. Also, all three have a local- 
mode self-test. 

The LA50 is a dot-matrix printer with 
two print modes: text mode and enhanced 
print mode. In text mode it prints at 100 
characters/second. The enhanced mode 
prints at 50 char/sec and creates a crisper, 
more uniform character than text mode. 
The seven-wire printhead allows for 
underlines and full descenders. The LA50 
also prints double-width characters. 

In addition, the LA50 prints bit-map 
graphics at 144 x 72 dots per inch. These 
dots are printed exactly as the pixels are 
displayed on the screen. 

The LA50 can be set to three character- 
per-inch spacings: 10, 12 or 16.5. Also, 



lines-per-inch can be set to 6, 8 or 12. 
Maximum paper width is 10" although 
with the compressed character spacing, 
132 characters can be printed (in 8"). 
Normal print width is 80 or 96 columns. 

The Letterprinter 100 is a highly versa- 
tile dot matrix printer with three user- 
selectable or program-selectable print 
speeds for different quality output. 

For rough drafts, internal memos or 
data processing, 240 characters per 
second produces good, clear text and 
numbers. The 8-character-per-second 
mode uses a denser dot pattern for each 
character and provides higher definition. 
In the 30-character-per-second corre- 
spondence mode, the printer overlaps two 
sets of dots and produces letter quality 
text. 

The Letterprinter 100 can be placed in 
graphics mode at any point under soft- 
ware control; this allows the mixing of 
text and graphics on the same page. In 
graphics mode it prints 133 x 72 dots per 
inch. 

For maximum creativity in designing a 
document, you can specify characters per 



inch (5, 6, 6.6, 8.25, 10, 12, 13.2, or 16.5), 
lines per inch (2, 3, 4, 6, 8, or 12) as well 
as margins, tabs and form length. These 
parameters can be stored in the non- 
volatile memory of the Letterprinter 100. 

A neat feature of Letterprinter 100 is 
its ability to handle up to five internal 
character fonts. Courier-10 and Orator- 
io are built into all printers. Three addi- 
tional fonts can be field installed (they 
are on ROM chips) or you can get addi- 
tional fonts on plug-in cartridges. The 
fonts can be changed any time during 
printing. 

Thus by combining different fonts with 
expanded/compressed character widths 
and graphics printing— even on a single 
line— you can be very creative indeed. 
However, as I remarked in my review of 
Lotus EBS, combining too many type 
styles and shapes on a single sheet (or 
slide) does not generally lead to a visually 
pleasing image. On the other hand, having 
this exceptional versatility available on 
the Letterprinter 100 means that you can 
select just the right style for virtually any 
document. An example of the fonts and 



O 2 4 O C P- S E« A X A F- R I M T X M G 



O 



o 



3 O 



MKMO 



PRINTING 



TT 



PRINTING 



O H I O H S P E E D G R A F* H I C S 



K> e r s a tile 



Versatile 



P* t- i. b~b Hb ± tr* ^"H 



P R I N X I N 



Ver^sii le Printing 
Versatile 

Versatile Pr i i\it" i inicb 

Versati le Printing 



Versatile Printing 

Uersatile Printing 

Versatile Printing 



EQSBQSO 



GENERAL 
VERBAL ABILITY 







90 



60 70 "^^i a 20 
/w 80 10 



ABILITY TO COMPREHEND 
SCIENTIFIC MATERIAL 



Figure 2. Print and graphics from Letterprinter 100. 

1 8 November 1 982 ° Creative Computing 



************************************************************* 



SUPER DISCOUNT PRICES 




® 



SOFTWARE FOR BUSINESS AND ENTERTAINMENT 



ADVENTURE INTERNATIONAL 

Apple Spice (D) $20.95 

Eliminator (D) $20.95 

Planetoids "Asteroids" (D) .... $17.95 

Pirate's Adventure (D) $20.95 

The Count (D) $20.95 

Pyramid of Doom (D) $20.95 

Ghost Town (D) $20.95 

Savage Island I (D) $20.95 

Adventures 1,2&3(D) $28.95 

Adventures 4, 5 & 6 (D) $28.95 

Adventures 7, 8 & 9 (D) $28.95 

Adventures 10, 11 & 12(D) $28.95 

ARTSCI 

Magic Window (D) $72.95 

Magic Mailer (D) $50.95 

Magic Words (D) $50.95 

AUTOMATED SIMULATIONS 

Temple of Apshai (D) $28.95 

Star Warrior (D) $28.95 

Rescue At Rigel (D) $20.95 

Datestones of Ryn (D) $14.95 

Crush Crumble & Ch. (D) $20.95 

Invasion Orion (D) $17.95 

Ricochet (D) $14.95 

AVALON HILL 

Guns of Fort Defiance (D) $17.95 

B-1 Nuclear Bomber (C) $11.95 

Lords of Karma (C) $14.95 

AVANT-GARDE 

Zero Gravity Pinball (D) _ $20.95 

HI RES Secrets (D) $90.95 

HI RES Computer Golf (D) $20.95 

BEAGLE BROS. 

Dos Boss(D) $16.95 

Alpha Plot (D) $28.95 

Utility City (D) $20.95 

Tip Disk #1 (D) $14.95 

BRODERBUND SOFTWARE 

Choplifter(D) $24.95 

Dueling Digits (D) $20.95 

Labyrinth (D) $20.95 

Star Blazer (D) $22.95 

Track Attack (D) $20.95 

Davids Midnight Magic (D) .... $24.95 

Space Quarks (D) $20.95 

Apple Panic (D) $20.95 

Alien Typhoon (D) $17.95 

Alien Rain "Galaxian" (D) $17.95 

CALIFORNIA PACIFIC 

Apple-Oids(D) $20.95 

Akalabeth(D) $24.95 

Ultima (D) $28.95 

CAVALIER COMPUTER 

Bug Attack (D) $20.95 

The Asteroid Field (D) $17.95 

Microwave (D) $24.95 

Star Thief (D) $20.95 

CONTINENTAL SOFTWARE 

CPA#1 -General Ledger (D) . $187.95 
CPA#2 - Accounts Rec. (D) ... $187.95 
CPA#3 - Accounts Pay. (D) ... $187.95 

CPA#4 - Payroll (D) $187.95 

CPA#5 - Property Mgt. (D) .... $369.95 

The Home Accountant (D) $52.95 

The Home Money Minder (D) . $24.95 
The Mailroom (D) $24.95 

DATAMOST 

Tax Beater(D) $95.95 

Real Estate Anal. Prog. (D) .... $95.95 

Snack Attack (D) $20.95 

County Fair(D) $20.95 

Swashbuckler (D) $24.95 

Thief (D) $20.95 

EDU WARE 

Compu-Math/Arith. Skill (D) ... $36.95 

Compu-Math Frac. (D) $28.95 

Compu-Math Dec. (D) $28.95 

Spelling Bee W/Read (D) $28.95 

Algebra I (D) $28.95 

The Prisoner (D) $20.95 

Rendevous(D) $28.95 

GEBELLI 

Russki Duck(D) $24.95 

Horizon V(D) $24.95 

Zenith (D) $24.95 

HAYDEN SOFTWARE 

Sargon II (D) $24.95 

Reversal (D) $24.95 



D = DISK C = CASSETTE 
R = ROM (CARTRIDGE) 

COSMIC 
COMPUTERS 



HIGHLANDS COMPUTER 

E-Z Ledger (D) $43.95 

Oldorf's Revenge (D) $14.95 

Creature Venture (D) $17.95 

Tarturian(D) $17.95 

HOWARD SOFTWARE 

Tax Preparer 1982(D) $114.95 

Creative Financing (D) $134.95 

Calif. State Tax Preparer (D) .. $55.95 
NY/NJ State Tax Preparer (D) $55.95 

INFOCOM 

Zork I (D) $28.95 

Zork II (D) $28.95 

INNOVATIVE DESIGN 

Pool 1.5(D) $24.95 

Trick Shot (D) $28.95 

Juggler(D) $20.95 

IUS 

Profes. Easy Writer (D) $133.95 

Profes. Easy Mailer (D) $1 14.95 

Datadex(D) $114.95 

MICRO LAB 

Data Factory 5.0 (D) $224.95 

The Tax Manager (D) $112.95 

Visifactory(D) $55.95 

Visiblend(D) $36.95 

The Merger (D) $36.95 

US Constitution Tutor (D) $20.95 

MUSE 

ABM (D) $17.95 

Robot War(D) $28.95 

Castle Wolfenstein(D) $20.95 

Super Text II (D) $107.95 

ONLINE 

HI RES Mission Asteroids (D) .. $14.95 

HI RES Mystery House (D) $17.95 

HI RES Wiz& Princess (D) $23.95 

HI RES Ulysess (D) $24.95 

HI RES Soccer (D) $20.95 

Crossfire (D) $20.95 

Mousekattack(D) $24.95 

Threshold (D) $28.95 

Pegasus II (D) $20.95 

Frogger(D) $24.95 

Screenwriter II (D) $97.95 

The General Manager (D) $1 14.95 

PICCADILLY 

Falcons (D) $20.95 

Star Blaster (D) $20.95 

Ribbit(D) $20.95 

Warp Destroyer (D) $20.95 

SIRIUS SOFTWARE 

Gorgon (D) $28.95 

Sneakers (D) $20.95 

Epoch (D) $24.95 

Beer Run (D) $20.95 

Snake Byte(D) $20.95 

Cyclod(D) $20.95 

Bandits (D) $24.95 

SIR-TECH 

Galactic Attack (D) $20.95 

Wizardry (D) $36.95 

SOF/SYS INC. 

Executive Secretary (D) $178.95 

Executive Speller (D) $55.95 

SOFTWARE PUBLISHING CORP. 

PFS: Report Sys. (D) $71.95 

PFS: Filing Sys. (D) $94.95 

PFS: Graph (D) $94.95 

STC 

Apartment Manager (D) $243.95 

STONEWARE PRODUCTS 

D.B. Master (D) $174.95 

D.B. Master Util. #1 (D) $74.95 

Micro Memo(D) $28.95 

STRATEGIC SIMULATIONS 

Computer Baseball (D) $28.95 

Computer Air Combat (D) $43.95 

Napoleons Campaign (D) $43.95 

Pursuit of Graft Spee (D) $43.95 

VISICORP 

Visicalc 3.3(D) $176.95 

Visifile(D) $176.95 

Visischedule(D) $213.95 

Visitrend/Plot(D) $213.95 

Visidex(D) $176.95 

Visiterm(D) $74.95 

Desktop Plan II (D) $176.95 



ATARI 




PERCOM 

D/D DISK DRV 

$589.00 



HARDWARE 

• 800 COMPUTER (16K) $629.00 

800 COMPUTER (48K) $718.00 

400 COMPUTER (16K) $265.00 

410 PROGRAM RECORDER ... $74.00 
810 DISK DRIVE $429.00 

* NEC 8023A-C PRINTER $475.00 



AXIOM GP-1 00 PTR $299.95 

ENTERTAINER $66.95 

EDUCATOR $114.95 

PROGRAMMER $52.00 

COMMUNICATOR $299.00 

♦ BOOKKEEPER (KIT) $169.95 



AXIOM IMP-4 PTR $489.95 

32K RAM (INTEC) $89.95 

32K RAM (MICROTEK) . $99.95 
32K RAM (MOSAIC) .... $118.95 

48K RAM (INTEC) $189.95 

128KRAMDISK . ... $425.00 




SOFTWARE FOR ENTERTAINMENT AND EDUCATION 



ADVENTURE INTERNATIONAL 

Adventures 1 , 2 & 3 (D) $28.95 

Adventures 4, 5 & 6 (D) $28.95 

Adventures 7, 8 & 9 (D) $28.95 

Adventures 10, 11 & 12(D) $28.95 

Star Trek 3.5(D) $17.95 

Rear Guard (D) $17.95 

Adventures 1-12 Each (C) $14.95 

Preppie(C/D) $20.95 

War(D) $18.95 

Commbat(D) $18.95 

APX 

Eastern Front 1941 (C/D) $22.95 

Extended Fig-Forth (C) $29.95 

Avalanche (C) $16.95 

Outlaw/Howitzer (C) $16.95 

ATARI INCORPORATED 

Microsoft Basic (D) $65.95 

Macro Assem. & Editor (D) $65.95 

Assembler Editor(R) $44.95 

Basic Cartridge (R) $44.95 

Pac Man(R) $32.95 

Centipede (R) $32.95 

Caverns of Mars (D) $28.95 

Missile Command (R) $26.95 

Star Raiders (R) $32.95 

Asteroids (R) $26.95 

Conversational Lang. Ea. (C) . $43.95 

Music Composer (R) $30.95 

Super Breakout (R) $26.95 

Computer Chess (R) $26.95 

My First Alphabet (D) $25.50 

AUTOMATED SIMULATIONS 

Invasion Orion (C/D) $17.95 

Rescue At Rigel (C/D) $20.95 

Crush Crumble &Ch. (C/D) ....$20.95 

Temple of Apshai (C/D) $28.95 

Ricochet (C/D) $14.95 

Star Warrior (C/D) $28.95 

Datestones of Ryn (C/D) $14.95 

Dragon's Eye(D) $20.95 

AVALON HILL 

Empire of Overmind (D) $24.95 

Dnieper River Line (D) $20.95 

Voyager(D) $17.95 

Galaxy (D) $17.95 

B-1 Nuclear Bomber (C) $11.95 

Lords of Karma (C) $14.95 

Guns of Fort Defiance (C) $14.95 

Computer Stocks & Bonds (D) $15.95 

BRODERBUND SOFTWARE 

Apple Panic (D) $20.95 

Star Blazer (D) $22.95 

Choplifter(D) $25.95 

Davids Midnight Magic (D) .... $24.95 

DATA SOFT 

Canyon Climber (D) $20.95 

Pacific Coast Hwy (D) $20.95 

Clowns & Balloons (D) $20.95 



EDU WARE 

Compu-Read (D) $20.95 

Compu-Math Frac. (D) $28.95 

Compu-Math Dec. (D) $28.95 

Compu-Read (C) $14.95 

INFOCOM 

Zork I (D) $28.95 

Zork II (D) $28.95 

Deadline(D) $35.95 

IN-HOME SOFTWARE 

Crypts of Terror (D) $24.95 

Alien Swarm (D) $24.95 

Intruder (D) $24.95 

LJK 

Letter Perfect (D) $108.95 

Mail Merge/Utility (D) $20.95 

Data Perfect (D) $78.95 

ONLINE 

HI RES Wiz& Princess (D) $23.95 

HI RES Mission Asteroids (D) .. $17.95 

Crossfire (C/D) $20.95 

Mousekattack(D) $24.95 

Jawbreaker (C/D) $20.95 

Frogger(C/D) $24.95 

Threshold (D) $28.95 

Ultima I (D) $28.95 

Ultima II (D) $43.95 

QUALITY SOFTWARE 

Ali Baba & 40 Thieves (D) $23.95 

QS Forth (D) $58.95 

Starbase Hyperion (D) $16.95 

Fastgammon(C) $14.95 

STRATEGIC SIMULATIONS 

The Shattered Alliance (D) $28.95 

Tigers In The Snow (C/D) $28.95 

Battle of Shiloh (C/D) $28.95 

SYNAPSE SOFTWARE 

Protector (C/D) $20.95 

Shamus(C/D) $21.95 

Nautilus (C/D) $20.95 

File Manager 800 (D) $72.95 

SYNCRO 

Alien Hell (D) $14.95 

Maze of Death (D) $14.95 

MarTesoro(D) $17.95 

USA 

3-D Supergraphics (C/D) $28.95 

Survival Adventure (C/D) $17.95 

Atari World (D) $43.95 

MISCELLANEOUS SOFTWARE 

Gorf (D) $29.95 

Master Type (D) $25.95 

K-razy Shootout (R) $35.95 

Pool 1.5(D) $24.95 

Pool 400 (R) $29.95 

Sneakers (D) $21.95 

Space Eggs (D) $21 .95 

Wizard of Wor (D) $29.95 

Word Race(D) $18.97 

Visicalc (D) $176.95 



UNLIMITED 



THE ABOVE PRICES ARE FOR PREPAID ORDERS 

WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG: INDICATE APPLE OR ATARI 

ORDER LINES OPEN 
M0N-SAT 8 am - 9 pm 

228 N. PROSPECTORS RD 
DIAMOND BAR, CA 91765 



(714)861-1265 

APPLE IS A TRADEMARK OF APPLE COMPUTER. INC 
ATARI IS A TRADEMARK OF ATARI. INC. 



Add $2.00 Shipping per software order. Hardware 
Shipping, call for cost. Calif, residents add 6 V2 % 
sales tax Cashiers Checks or Money Orders filled 
same day Personal checks require 2 weeks to 
clear Master Card and Visa OK for software only, 
add 3% surcharge. Include card no expiration 
date and signature 



*********** ************************ ************************** 



CIRCLE 156 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Rainbow 100 continued... 




Photo 4. Letterprinter 100. 

styles that can be printed under program 
control is shown in Figure 2. 

The LQP02 is a daisy wheel printer with 
a print speed of 32 characters per second. 
With a built-in 256 character buffer it has 
bidirectional printing capability and can 
operate at baud rates of up to 9600. 

To produce bold characters, the LQP02 
uses a technique called "shadow holding" 
in which characters are struck twice as in 
normal bold print. But unlike normal 
holding, the second strike is slightly offset 
from the first. This makes the bold print 
more visible. 

Characters per inch are software select- 
able (10 or 12) as are lines per inch (2, 3, 
4, 6 or 8). Margins, tabs and form length 
also can be software controlled. 

Maximum print width is 13.5" on 15" 
paper. With an optional forms tractor, 
the LQP02 can handle fanfold paper. 

CP/M 86/80 

According to the DEC Guide to Per- 
sonal Computing, "CP/M— Control Pro- 
gram for Microcomputers— is character- 
ized as a single-task, diskette-based oper- 
ating environment that is well-suited to 
low-cost personal computer hardware. 
CP/M was one of the first disk operating 
systems not designed for a particular com- 
puter." 

"CP/M provides basic computer ser- 
vices. It is perhaps best known for its 
simple and reliable file system used with 
diskettes. It has been improved and 
rewritten over the years as faster, more 
reliable disk drives were introduced." New 
versions have also been written to take 
advantage of new 16-bit microprocessors. 

The Guide continues, "The widespread 
acceptance of CP/M has resulted in 
numerous software vendors offering thou- 
sands of ready-to-run CP/M application 
programs." Very true. Every issue of 
Microsystems, a magazine devoted to 
CP/M, is filled with descriptions of new 
applications and utility software for the 
system. 

But bear in mind, at the moment this 
vast library of CP/M packages cannot 
simply be purchased from a local com- 



puter store, popped into a Rainbow 100, 
and run. A large portion of the CP/M 
software is available only on 8" disks. 
Much that is on 5 1/4" disks has had 
subtle modifications added so that it runs 
on a specific system, a NorthStar for 
instance. As soon as Rainbow 100 systems 
start to be shipped in volume, there no 
doubt will be scores of software vendors 
converting existing CP/M software pack- 
ages and writing new ones specifically for 
the Rainbow. 

DEC has started a software program 
which will evaluate, rate and, in some 
cases market software from third-party 
vendors. The lowest category is "Digital- 
Tested." This means that DEC has 
checked all the details of the package 
and found it will run as specified in the 
documentation. It has no known "bugs" 
and meets DECs criteria for installation, 
ease of use, and performance consis- 
tency. 

The second category is "Digital- 
Serviced." This is the same as "Digital- 
Tested" but also meets the serviceability 
criteria set by the DEC Software Service 
organization. Service contracts will be 
offered on software in this category. 

"Digital-Developed" is the seal applied 
to DECs own software products, although 
in some cases these products have been 
developed by outside organizations. The 
following packages are in this third cate- 
gory. 

Word Processing Program 

Before describing the word processing 
program, it is important to "set the stage." 
Andy Knowles and Barry Folsom, Rain- 
bow product manager, emphasized that 
the Rainbow WP package is aimed at 
managers and occasional users who need 
to prepare memos, letters, and reports. 
For heavier WP users, they strongly 
recommend the DECmate II system 
which runs DECs time-tested WPS Word 
Processing System. That said, let's look 
at the Select WP package for the Rainbow 
100. 




this review, we shall simply call it 
"Select." 

Select is a menu-driven system. After 
loading, the main menu appears on the 
screen (see Figure 3). Page 6 of the 
manual emphasizes, "The best way to 
learn Select is to put the manual down 
now! Type "T" for Teach and take the 
Select tutorial." 

That is exactly what I did. It took me 
about 90 minutes to work through the 
tutorial which combines a friendly tutorial 
style with plenty of hands-on practice. 
Each command is fully described and 
illustrated on the screen. An example is 
then presented. This is followed by a 
practice problem with prompting so it is 
nearly impossible to go wrong. Finally, a 
second practice problem is presented with 
no hints or prompting (except what would 
normally appear on the screen). At the 
end of each command, the program asks 
if you would like a review or if you wish 
to go on. 

Text is created by entering Edit mode. 
From this mode, 21 commands can be 
invoked (see Figure 4). To create text, 
you simply select Insert and start typing. 
In Insert mode, only the backwards cursor 
key is operational; it is used for erasing. 
If you make a mistake, you may erase 
back to it and continue typing from that 
point. On the other hand, if you notice an 
error three or four lines earlier, it is 
generally best to finish the current sen- 
tence or paragraph, press Escape (to store 
your text in memory), and enter one of 
the correction modes. 

Let's consider an example. In the para- 
graph above, I mistyped "correction" as 
"corecting." To correct this, I pressed 
ESC at the end of the paragraph. The 
message flashed on the screen: 

"Justification taking place, please wait." 

This process took about four seconds to 
justify the text and two seconds to rewrite 
the screen. I then positioned the cursor 
over the e, typed I (for insert), typed the 
missing letter r, and ESCAPE. Another 

Photo 5. System unit is in vertical cabinet 
the right Normally, it would be pushed 
back. 



Select Information Systems, Inc. of 
Kentfield, CA has been marketing a word 
processing system for CP/M, MP/M and 
CDOS systems for several years. It is a 
comprehensive system which requires at 
least two disk drives, an 80-character 
screen and 48K or more memory. For 



20 




November 19B2° Creative Computing 



























The Official 



Imd 



^m^m ^^^ 



T\ 



rv 






«*•:«* 



* 



FROGG6R runs on any 48K nPPl€ II with 
DOS 3.3 or RTflRI 400/800 with 32K 
ond o Diskdrive , 1 6K and cassette. 
Frogger is ovoiloble for $34.95 at yoi 

local computer store or order 
' directly from . . . 



Rll orders bu VISA, Mastercard, check, or COD. ftdd one dollar 
shipping. California residents please include 6% sales tax. 



tervux 



® and tm designate trademarks of 
Sega Enterprises, Inc. 

© 1981 Sega Enterprises r 



mUOGt RANCH FtOAD COARSEGOLD CA B3S14 
TLX 9103G25O25 2G%GS3 GSSS 

CIRCLE 238 ON R£ApE* S£RVICfe CARD_ 



V&M 



The Ultimate Experience in Alien Invasion . . . . 











^v 










t'- 



/ 






UDER 
available now 
directly from . . 



f'T^rr, n~r\ 



11/ II Plus with DOS 3.2 or 3.3 and is 
on disk from your local computer store or order 




N-LINE s Y sfems 



ARD 



36575 MUDGE RANCH ROAD • COARSEGOLD, CA 93614 • (209) 683-6858 




OUTSTAND 

ARCADE ENDEAVOR 

BY 

RORKE WEIGANDT 

AND 
ERIC HAMMOND 



Oct 






tt mlg ^irH MT* 






Add $1.00 for Shipping 

i, MasterCharge, Check, COD. 













4 





R5& 



T 




S3, 



was written 

> Willi *4 K 



Played by 
only. Price S34#5. 



id a 



oC,)«y 



t%C! 




N-LINEy 



36575 Mudge Ranch Road 

Go'arsegold, CA 93614 

209-683-6858 



/4c^ $1.00 for shipping 
m READER SERVICE CARD 



VISA, Mastercard, CO. 



Rainbow 100 continued... 

five-second delay to justify and rewrite 
the screen. I then moved the cursor over 
the n, typed X (for exchange), typed the 
correct letters (on), and ESCAPE. Since 
justification need not be done after an 
exchange operation, the software was 
immediately ready to proceed. 

This process is, of course, quite differ- 
ent from that used by the memory 
mapped word processing systems avail- 
able on most microcomputers. Select does 
not move letters, words and paragraphs 
around as changes are made. Rather, such 
movement is done only when the 
ESCAPE key is pressed. Personally, I 
found it awkward to get used to Select 
after years of using Electric Pencil and 
Scripsit. However, this article is testimony 
to my having learned it since it was 
written entirely in Select on a Rainbow 
100. 

Print formatting commands must be 
imbedded in the text. Note, I did not say 
"may be." On the other hand, most for- 
matting commands are set using a menu 
(see Figure 5), which automatically inserts 
them at the beginning of the text when 
ESCAPE is pressed. Other formatting 
commands such as a short dash to begin 
or end underline or a caret to designate 
boldface must be inserted in the text at 
the appropriate point. 

Select has all the expected features of 
a modern personal computer word pro- 
cessing package such as headers, footers, 
page numbering, merging blocks of text 
or entire documents, justification and the 
like. However, it has two important fea- 
tures rarely found in small systems: 
Teach and Spell. 

As I mentioned earlier, I learned to use 
Select in about 90 minutes using the 
Teach tutorial. While this is valuable in 
getting started, it is especially useful to 
the infrequent user of the system. Even 
after using Electric Pencil for 51/2 years, 
if I haven't written anything for a week or 
two, I frequently find myself leafing 
through the manual to find a particular 
format command. With Select, I could 
merely "turn to" Teach and review the 
operation of a little used command to 
refresh my memory as to its operation. 
An even shorter form of Teach is "Help" 
which contains a short description and 
example of each command and can be 
called while creating or editing a docu- 
ment without destroying anything. 

Spell is a part of the Select package 
which automatically proofreads a docu- 
ment against a dictionary of 9346 words 
on the Select disk along with any others 
you might wish to add. The system iden- 
tifies words which it thinks might be in 
error, displays each one, and asks if you 
wish to correct it or ignore it (say a 
deliberate misspelling or a trade name 
which is similar to a real word). I did not 



Create 


Edit 


Delete 


View 


List 


Naae 


Print 


Spell 


Teach 


Merge 


Help 


Quit 


Run 


Alter 



SELECT: Create Edit Delete View List Name Print Spell Teach Merg Help 



to CREATE a new document 

to EDIT or change a document 

to DELETE a document 

to get a scrolling VIEW of a document 

to LIST all the documents in your directory 

to assign a new NAME to a document 

to PRINT a document 
to check your SPELLING 

to TEACH you to use SELECT 

to MERGE a document with a mailing list 

to HELP explain the commands 

to QUIT your SELECT work session 

to RUN a program outside SELECT 

to place SELECT into program development mode 



Figure 3. Main menu of Select offers 14 choices. 



COMMAND LINE I: 



>SELECT: Insert Erase Pointer Goto Locate Replace Display Quit Next 



COMMAND LINE II: 



>SELECT: Spell Format Append Verify Xchng Tab Next Help 



COMMAND LINE III: 



>SELECT; Move Copy Zap Output Write Justify Next 



Figure 4. Twenty-one commands can be invoked from Edit mode. 



lp Qui t Run I 



use Spell extensively, so I do not feel that 
I should pass judgment on it either way. 
It seems useful. 

After my document got quite long (10 
plus pages), the system started to act a bit 
flaky. I have no way of knowing whether 
this was hardware or software. At the end 
of a line when a long word is being typed, 
the software moves the word to the 
beginning of the following line, for exam- 
ple the word "started" at the beginning of 
this paragraph was moved when I typed 



the letter "e." However, on the next line 
the letters were altered and it became 
"uvctvgf ." This did not happen every time, 
perhaps one line in every 20 or 30. I 
noted that it tended to occur more fre- 
quently when I was typing quickly. 

Multiplan Spreadsheet Package 

Multiplan is a spreadsheet calculation 
program similar to VisiCalc or SuperCalc. 
Rather than describing the entire pack- 
age, I will simply note some similarities 



FORMAT> Enter command, then value, then (RET); (ESC) to exit 



Top Margin 6 

Left Margin 10 

Indent Margin 



Paper Length 



66 



Characters per inch 
[10 or 12] 10 



Number Pages 



Bottom Margin 8 

Right Margin 75 
10 

Spacing of Lines 1 

Vertical lines per inch 

[6 or 8] 6 



Justify [Left or Center or Right or None] L 
End current page [Yes] N 



Automatic Return 
Mark Pointer 



Yes 
Yes 



Display Status Line Yes 
On-Screen Justification Yes 



Figure 5. Print formatting commands are selected from a menu. 



24 



November 1982 c Creative Computing 



ValFORTH or Atari* 400 800 VALPAR 1 

Professional Software for the Hobbyist | |VJ T ET Q |VJ AT I ^J |VJ J\ |_| 

FORTH has been used for years by ATARI* and others in programming their arcade games. FORTH is fast, 1 5- 20 
times faster than BASIC, and can make use of every capability for your computer. And it's no longer the province 
of the professional programmer! With valFORTH and the additional packages described below, you can 
create programs in an afternoon that would previously have taken weeks of hard work! V 

WHAT-? YOU DONT ALREADY KNOW FORTH? V 

Then take advantage of our special offer on Starting Forth by Leo Brodie. Widely acclaimed as the best \T 
book available on the subject, this entertaining treatment of Forth will make you comfortable with this ^ 
exciting language quickly and easily. When you order Starting Forth, you get a free copy of our "Notes 
for the valFORTH User." including references, by page, to Starting Forth. 





These are the utilities developed by Valpar Internationals software 
specialists and used to create our commercial software products. 




L) NEW 1 By Popular Demand! 

valDOS Now you can use your valFORTH system to read and write 
normal Atari DOS Files created with valDOS or other sources. Also in- 
cludes valDOS File Editor for creating and reading FORTH Source 
Code without "screens ." (Not a general file editor ) 

(Over 25 pages of documentation Requires valFORTH.) 



valFORTH 



Package contains: fig-FORTH kernel with mathematical and stack op- 
erations machine-coded for higher speed than normal fig-FORTH; line 
editor AND screen editor, debugger, sound and graphics commands, 
floating point, advanced 6502 assembler, diskcopiers, and much more! 
(Over 110 pages of documentation) 




GENERAL 
JTWTJES AND 
HIDED EDITOR 



Utilities: 4 array types, 4 case types, text on graphics 8, extensive string 
manipulation and keyboard input, STICK & PADDLE, randoms, bit 
manipulation, and much, much more. 

Editor: fasf, powerful, complete valFORTH screen editor 1 .1 . A profes- 
sional-quality tool that makes editing a pleasure. 

(Over 60 pages of documentation. Requires valFORTH.) 




■ruiuviirrfa 



& &GKM1 ZOSfO 



.ayer-Missile: Create, move, 



I >] fr VI;lK»:TlT> ■ I iTktfll rsKmVH K I ■ tlffl 



rgtlii lETiEElBaTl ■cJINV.ltgfirai 




player, multicolor players, etc. etc. All critical sections in machine code. 

Character Editor: Compose character sets with joystick. Simultaneous 
display of created characters. Make images for players and missiles. 

Sound Editor: Simple independent control of all four voices (one joystick 
per voice) and audio-control register. Create any single-setting sound 
with graphical and tabular readout. 

(Over 35 pages of documentation. Requires valFORTH.) 



VALPAR INTERNATIONAL 

3B01 E. 34™ STREET 
TUCSON, ARIZONA 85713 

Call Toil-Free 800-528-7070 In Arizona call (602) 790-71 41 



Principal Software Authors: Stephen Maguire and Evan Rosen 

Atari is a trademark ot Atari. Inc , a division of Warner Communications 

CIRCLE 306 ON 



Coming Attractions; 



* TARGET COMPILER 

* 3D WORLD 



For more information fast and a [4TH y IF HON K THEN] 
bumpersticker. send 25c and a self-addressed, stamped envelope 



DISPLAY FORMATTER 

Fast, simple creation of all types of display lists, with automatic 4K 
boundary jumping. Automatic or user controlled memory allocation, and 
formatting for horizontal and vertical scrolling, and display list interrupts. 

(Over 30 pages of documentation. Requires valFORTH.) 



tOUTIMiS 



All graphics modes supported — even GTIA and "7 + ". Draw and fill 
commands faster and smarter than Basic. Turn-toward" for "chasing" 
and vanishing point effects; point labeling, etc. Also SIN, COS, ATN, 
ATN2, etc. added to floating point. 

(Over 35 pages of documentation. Requires valFORTH.) 

Text Compression and Aoto Text Formatting 

A unique, two-part utility! 

Text Compression allows the packing of text into much less space 
than normally required. Useful for wordy Adventure games, "artificial 
intelligence," etc.! 

• Auto Text Formatting takes both normal and compressed text and 
routes it to the video screen "windows." 

(Over 20 pages of documentation. Requires valFORTH.) 



valFORTH alone requires 24K 
valFORTH plus one or more packages requires 32K minimum 
Memory requirements include 10-12K working space. 
All products are now on non-protected disks. 
Over 270 pages of detailed documentation! 
valFORTH t $45.00 

General Utilities and Video Editor 40.00 

Player Missile Graphics, Character Editor, and Sound Editor 40.00 
Display Formatter 35.00 

Turtle and valGraphics and Floating Point Routines 45.00 

Text Compression and Auto Text Formatting 35.00 

Heavy-Duty Professional Binder (provided free when ordering 
3 or more packages at one time) 13.0C 

♦ Save $50.00* 

With an order of all six packages above, you pay only $203.00. 

Starting Forth (published at $1 5.95) 1 4.00 

valDOS and valDOS File Editor $40.00 

When ValForth and one or more additional packages are purchased and proof 
of purchase of APX Forth is furnished, a $1 5.00 credit will be given. 

Plus Shipping and Handling 

VISA and MASTERCARD accepted 
READER SERVICE CARD 



Rainbow 100 continued... 

and differences between Multiplan and 
VisiCalc. 

Multiplan is produced by Microsoft 
Corp., Bellevue, WA and, on the Rainbow 
100, offers a worksheet 255 rows long and 
63 columns wide for words, numbers and 
formulas. The biggest difference between 
Multiplan and VisiCalc is the ability of 
one Multiplan worksheet to reference 
another. In other words, say one work- 
sheet contains salary calculations consist- 
ing of employee names, regular and over- 
time hours, hourly rates and salaries, 
deductions, taxes, etc. A second work- 
sheet may be a summary of department 
expenses. In this case, the second work- 
sheet can reference just the final depart- 
ment summary salary expenses from the 
first without having to create an inter- 
mediate file or re-enter the data. 

Another difference between Multiplan 
and VisiCalc is that Multiplan allows the 
creation of up to eight windows within 
the display area compared with two for 
VisiCalc. While this may sound four times 
as good, in three years of fairly heavy 
usage of VisiCalc, I have rarely used the 
two-window capability and can't imagine 
needing three or four windows, much less 
eight. 

A nice feature of Multiplan is the 
message line at the bottom of the screen 
which displays comments on the progress 
of any command, and the percentage of 
remaining storage. 

A not-so-nice difference is the conven- 
tion in Multiplan of numbering both rows 
and columns. Thus in VisiCalc, a refer- 
ence to Row 3 Column 2 is B3 whereas in 
Multiplan it becomes R3C2. Even worse 
is the handling of "relative" references. 
This is done automatically in VisiCalc as 
rows and columns are shifted. Multiplan 
requires the user to define a relative 
reference in advance. For example, to 
add Row 1, Column 1 to Row 1, Column 
2 and put the result in Row 1, Column 3 
so that it may later be shifted to make 
room for another row requires the fol- 
lowing commands: 

VisiCalc @SUM(A1+A2) 
Multiplan V SUM(R[-2]C + R[-1|C) 

VisiCalc: 11 keystrokes. Multiplan: 19 
keystrokes. And the winner is . . . 

I was also not impressed with the 
method of assigning labels in Multiplan. 
Typing any alphabetic character in Visi- 
Calc automatically indicates a label 
whereas Multiplan requires that A (for 
alphabetic) be typed preceding a label. 

Other differences are relatively minor. 
In most regards Multiplan behaves "as 
expected" and like VisiCalc, is an excel- 
lent tool for asking the all-important 
"what if?" questions of business planning 
and financial modeling. 




Photo 6. Author puts Rainbow 100 to the test. 



Microsoft includes two fat 192-page 
instruction manuals with Multiplan. 
Unfortunately, I can only describe the 
styles as "written by programmers for 
programmers." These will soon be avail- 
able in "DEC colors," presumably written 
in a more user-friendly style. In addition, 
Bob Montemerlo mentioned the possibil- 
ity of adding a tutorial Teach mode 
similar to that of Select. Nothing definite 
yet. 

Basic, C, et al 

Standard Microsoft Basic (Version 
5.26) is being offered with the Rainbow 
100. It is the 8086 version and runs under 
CP/M 86. It is loaded from disk and 
occupies 29K of RAM. Assuming suffi- 
cient memory is available, Basic can use 
up to 64K. However, even if the optional 
256K option is installed, Basic can still 
use just 64K. 

The Basic is excellent with password- 
protected files, dynamic string space 
allocation and up to 40-character variable 
names. Structured statements include: 
WHILE/END 
IF/THEN/ELSE 
nested IF/THEN/ELSE 
Machine language calls, CHAIN and 
COMMON (Fortran, here I come!) as well 
as Trace and error trapping are also 
included. Table 1 shows selected char- 
acteristics. 

However, given the excellent graphics 
of the Rainbow 100 hardware, I found it 
curious that DEC did not contract with 
Microsoft to include any graphics func- 
tions. I also wonder why the following 
features, all implemented in Microsoft 
Basic on the IBM PC, were not imple- 
mented on the Rainbow 100: 



26 



Graphics and music commands 

Function keys 

Device Independent I/O 

TIMES and DATES 

Screen editor 

A spokesman from Microsoft told me 
that an extended Basic with these features 
might be offered by Microsoft at some 
future date to run under MS-DOS. The 
Rainbow 100 is available with MS-DOS 
(Microsoft Disk Operating System) as an 
alternative to CP/M 86/80. At this point 
the main advantage to MS-DOS is that 
under it, industry standard disks can be 
read. Also, a few software packages are 
available for MS-DOS that are not avail- 
able under CP/M. 

Incidentally, at NCC people from DEC 
were bragging that their Basic didn't have 
that nasty divide by 0.10 bug in IBM PC 
Basic. Sorry, guys, yes it did. But it doesn't 



Characteristic 



Implementation 



Name length 
Integer arithmetic 
Multi-statement functions 
Function recursion 
Statement numbers 
Floating point precision 

Exponent 

Nested IF 

Link to machine language 

Maximum array dimension 

CHAIN and COMMON 

Error trapping 

Trace features 



40 characters 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

to 65535 

7 single 

16 double 

±38 

Yes 

Yes 

255 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 



Table 1. Selected features of Rainbow 
100 Basic (Microsoft version 5.26). 

November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



Few disks stand the test of time. 
Because few are built to the 
precision standards or certified to 
the critical levels of Omni's 
complete line. 

Each Omni disk is rated for 1 2 
million passes without disk- 
related errors or significant wear. 
Each is certified error-free at a 
minimum of twice the error- 



threshold of your system. And 
built to exceed all industry 
specifications including those of 
ANSI, ECMA, ISO and virtually 
every drive manufacturer. So you 
can count on them for the long 
haul. We guarantee it. 

Call toll-free (800 343-7620) for 
your nearest dealer. In Mass., call 
617 799-0197. 

Omni Resources, 4 Oak Pond Ave. , 
Millbury, Mass. 01527 



Dealers. Software houses. 

Check our prices, services and 
specifications. We offer 
duplicating, formatting, private 
labeling, small minimums, fast 
delivery and copy protection 
schemes on disks for virtually 
any system. 



%?//m\>5S 



►«* Rib 




THE DISK GOOD ENOUGH 
TO BE WARRANTED 5 YEARS 

CIRCLE 237 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The Software: 



PROGRAMS 



MICROPRO 

WordStar® 

The number one selling microcomputer 
word processing package in the world. 

8" CP/M® 

LIST PRICE: 495 00 
MH PRICE: 289.00 

5 V*" APPLE® 

LIST PRICE: 3 75.00 
MH PRICE: 234.00 



MICROPRO 



JM 



MailMerge 

A multi-purpose text-data merging program. 
One of its most popular uses is producing 
personalized form letters. Requires 
WORDSTAR' 

8" CP/M® 

LIST PRICE: 150.00 
MH PRICE: 99.00 

5V*" APPLE- 



LIST PRICE 
MH PRICE: 



125 00 
83.00 



MAILMERGE, DATASTAR, SPELLSTAR, CALCSTAR, 

and SUPERSORT are trademarks of MicroPro 

International, San Rafael, California USA 

QUICKCODE, QUICKSCREEN, anddUTILare 

trademarks of Fox & Geller Associates 

VISITREND/VISIPLOT, VISIFILE. VISISCHEDULE. 

VISIDEX, VISITERM, and DESKTOP PLAN are 

trademarks of VisiCorp 

dBASE II is a trademark of AshtonTate. 

MATHSTAR is a trademark of Force Two. LTD. 

SUPERCALC is a trademark of Sorcim. 

SPELLGUARD is a trademark of Innovative Software 

Applications 

TIM is a trademark of Innovative Software, Inc. 

CROSSTALK is a trademark of MicroStuf 

EASY WRITER and EASY SPELLER are trademarks 

of Information Unlimited Software 

PERFECT WRITER and PERFECT SPELLER are 

trademarks of Perfect Software, Inc 

WORDSTAR is a registered trademark of MicroPro 

International, San Rafael, California USA 

VISICALC is a registered trademark of VisiCorp. 

CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research. 

APPLE is a registered trademark of Apple Computers 

IBM is a registered trademark of International Business 

Machines 



MICROPRO 

DataStar™ 

The office-oriented system for data entry, 
retrieval, and updating. DATASTAR 
allows you to create a form, be it a price 
list, catalog, or order form. You can edit, 
update, or save this information in a file 
or simply print it out. DATASTAR 
interfaces with MAILMERGE and 
SUPERSORT. 

8" CP/M 

LIST PRICE: 350.00 
MH PRICE: 235.00 

SVi" APPLE® 



LIST PRICE: 
MH PRICE: 



MICROPRO 



295.00 
199.00 



TM 



CalcStar 

Financial planning and business decision- 
making made simpler, faster, and more 
accurate. CALCSTAR calculates solutions 
to complex numerical problems in 
business and finance. CALCSTAR turns 
your microcomputer's video screen into 
a 'window' on a gigantic electronic ledger 
sheet with up to 600 entries arranged 
the way you want. 

8" CP/M 

LIST PRICE: 295.00 
MH PRICE: 199.00 

5V4" APPLE® 



LIST PRICE: 
MH PRICE: 



795.00 
149.00 



FORCE TWO, LTD 

MathStar™ 

MATHSTAR is a combination adding 
machine/calculator program, designed 
specifically for use with MicroPro's 
WORDSTAR® . Provides basic math 
functions, formatted results, and 
accounting notation. 

8" CP/M® 

LIST PRICE: 125.00 
MH PRICE: 99.00 

5%" APPLE® 

Same as 8" CP/M' 



ASHTONTATE 

dBASE II™ 

THE database management system for 
the microcomputer. 

8" CP/M* 

LIST PRICE: 700.00 
MH PRICE: 489.00 

5 , /4" APPLE® 

Same as 8" CP/M' 



FOX & GELLER 



TM 



QuickCode 

QUICKCODE allows dBASE II users to 
create the following programs, in a matter 
of seconds, without programming. 
G Data entry programs 

□ Data retrieval programs 

□ Date edit/validation programs 

□ Menus 

□ dBASE II files 
PLUS: 4 New Data Types: 

Date 
D Dollars 

□ Telephone 

□ Social Security number 

QUICKCODE includes a powerful new 
version of QUICKSCREEN, the dBASE II 
screen builder. 

8 "CP/M® 

LIST PRICE: 295.00 
MH PRICE: 249.00 

5 V*" APPLE® 

Same as 8" CP/M' 



FOX & GELLER 

dUTIL™ 

dUTIL is the BASE II utility program which 

saves valuable computer time and work 

by: 

D Increasing command file running time 

□ Creating standard text files to use 
within your word processor 

□ Automatically debugging dBASE II 
command files 

dUTIL does not require QUICKCODE or 
QUICKSCREEN. 

8" CP/M® 

LIST PRICE: 99.00 
MH PRICE: 75.00 

5 %" APPLE® 

Same as 8" CP/M' 



Call Toll-Free: 1-800-523-9511 In Pennsylvania-. 1-215-868-8219 



The Software: 



MH-1 
MH-2 

MH-3 
MH-4 
MH-5 
MH-6 

MH-7 



WORDSTAR® /MAILMERGE 
WORDSTAR® /MAILMERGE/DATASTAR 
WORDSTAR® /CALCSTAR 
WORDSTAR® /MATHSTAR 
dBASE ll/WORDSTAR® /MAILMERGE 
dBASE ll/QUICKCODE/ 
WORDSTAR® /MAILMERGE 

dBASE ll/QUICKCODE/dUTIL 



PACKAGES 



CP/M® 



COMBINED 
LIST PRICE 

645.00 
995.00 
790.00 
620.00 
1345.00 

1640.00 
1070.00 



MICROHOUSE 
PRICE 

319.00 

519.00 

419.00 

369.00 

819.00 

999.00 
749.00 



APPLE* 



COMBINED 
LIST PRICE 

500.00 
795.00 
570.00 
500.00 
1200.00 

1495.00 
1070.00 



MICROHOUSE 
PRICE 

259.00 
399.00 
299.00 
319.00 
719.00 

899.00 
749.00 




Microhouse 1 444 Linden Street / P.O. Box 498 Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 1 801 6 



Prices and specifications subject to change without notice 



All items subject to availability 




TM 



The Microcomputer People. 



IM 



CIRCLE 212 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Rainbow 100 continued... 

anymore. The bug was in all Microsoft 
Basic implementations, and when they 
fixed one they fixed them all. 

C, a structured language generally 
available under the Unix operating sys- 
tem, is also available on the Rainbow 100. 
I did not have an opportunity to use C, 
however, those familiar with the language 
will appreciate the full implementation 
(not Tiny C) on Rainbow. 

Service 

The personal computer market has 
grown up much more closely allied with 
the consumer electronics industry (hi-fi, 
video games, auto sound, TV, video, etc.) 
than with the traditional computer indus- 
try. After all, consider how many personal 
computers are sold in retail stores like hi- 
fi systems versus those sold by a salesman 
calling on a customer with field service 
and software support contracts as part of 
the deal. 

DEC, is attempting to bridge this gap 
by offering a choice of five levels of ser- 
vice. 

A friendly "Do Me First" Computer- 
Based Instruction course is available with 
all the personal computers and is standard 
on the two Professional models. This 
interactive course is designed to help 
users learn, use, and quickly become 
productive on a system. 

For users with critical requirements, 
DEC offers an On-Site System Support 
Agreement— a total service package. This 
covers both hardware and the operating 
system. Part of this service is a toll-free 
"help line" that provides response to 
questions concerning installation, war- 
ranty, hardware, software, accessories 
and supplies. 

A slightly lower level of service is Carry- 
In offered on both a contract (second 
level) and per-call basis (third level). All 
systems have a set of diagnostics built in 
which helps the user locate the source of 
any problems with diagnostic messages 
on the screen or, in the event of screen 
failure, with LEDs on the system board. 
Carry-In service offers quick repairs of 
user-diagnosed problems as well as a toll- 
free help line, engineering modifications, 
and updates. 

A fourth level of service is Mail-In 
designed for those capable of doing their 
own system maintenance. Using the built- 
in diagnostics, you isolate the faulty part 
and mail (or bring) it in. After testing by 
the service center, a new or repaired 
replacement part is sent to you. 

Finally, self -maintenance is available 
for those who wish to keep their own 
inventory of spare part kits. 

In the past, DEC maintenance has had 
a reputation for being reasonably good as 
long as you signed the contract or paid 
the price (not cheap!). However, Andy 




Knowles emphasized that service on the 
personal computers is an area in which 
DEC is determined to be competitive with 
everyone in price, quality, and flexibility. 



Pricing and Delivery 

When I initially priced out the 
shown in the pricing chart, my i 



systems 
my reaction 



System Configurations and Pricing 



1. Basic Programming System 



PC 100 
PC1K1-AA 
VR291A 
QV012-A3 

QA066-C3 



System unit, 64K RAM, dual disk drive 

Keyboard unit-USA 

Monitor 12", B&W 

CP/M 86/80 operating system 

MBasic 



TOTAL 



2. Spreadsheet/Word Processing System 



PC 100 

PC1K1-AA 

VR201A 

QV012-A3 

QA061-C3 

QA063-C3 

PCXXF-BA 

LA50-RA 



System unit, 64K RAM, dual disk drive 
Keyboard unit-USA 
Monitor 12" B&W 
CP/M 86/80 operating system 
Select word processing package 
Multiplan spreadsheet package 
Floor stand 
100 cps printer 



TOTAL 



3. Advanced Programming and Graphics System 



PC 100 
PC1K1-AA 
VR241-A 
QV012-A3 

PC 1XX-AA 
PC 1XX-BA 
QA066-C3 
LA 100 



System unit, 64K RAM, dual disk drive 

Keyboard unit-USA 

Color monitor 

CP/M 86/80 operating system 

64K RAM memory expansion 

Graphics display option 

MBasic 

Letterprinter 100 



TOTAL 



4. Problem Solving, Spreadsheet, Communications System 



PC 100 

PC1K1-AA 

PC1XX-AB 

PC1XX-BB 

RCD50-BA 

PCXXF-BA 

QV012-A3 

QA063-C3 
QA068-C3 

QV015-A3 

LA 100 



$2675 
245 
325 
250 
250 

$3745 



$2675 
245 
325 
250 
595 
275 
99 
950 

$5414 



$2675 
245 

1325 
250 
495 
845 
250 

3000 

$9085 



TOTAL 



System unit, 64K RAM, dual disk drive $2675 

Keyboard unit-USA 245 

192K RAM memory expansion 1095 

External capabilties option 500 

Winchester 5M subsystem 3700 

Floor stand 99 

CP/M 86/80 operating system 250 

Multiplan spreadsheet package 275 

C language 500 

CX/DX/VT102 communications package 200 

Lineprinter 100 3000 

$12539 



30 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



was "GULP!" They seemed much more 
expensive than the competition. 

But let's consider three system config- 
urations for spreadsheet calculations. All 
three include CPU, 128K memory, key- 
board, B&W display, one disk drive (two 
on Rainbow 100), DOS and spreadsheet 
software. 



System Printer Total 

DEC Rainbow 100 4265 $950 $5215 
Apple III 4690 525 5215 

IBM PC 3735 810 4745 



Viewed in this light, the DEC Rainbow 
100 is right on target. Considering the 
included dual processors and dual floppy 
drive, it may even be a bargain. 

I think the reason for my initial "gulp" 
is mainly because the lowest entry price 
system ($2745) is $1000 to $2000 above 
other entry systems. Also, the software 
packages are rather pricey — $250 for 
DOS, $250 for Basic, $275 for a spread- 
sheet, $595 for word processing and $395 
each for payroll, accounts receivable, 
accounts payable, inventory, and general 
ledger. 

On the other hand, the Rainbow 100, 
while hardly pushing the state of the art, 



has those dual processors, dual disk 
drives, excellent keyboard and, perhaps 
best of all, the Digital name. 

Some years ago, the IBM name was 
thought to be worth 20 to 25% of the 
price of a computer. In other words a 
competitor would have to be more than 
20-25% lower than IBM to be in the 
running. In the miniworld, the same is 
true with DEC today although the differ- 
ential is probably more like 15%. How- 
ever, as a result of the enormous mini 
customer base and excellent reputation 
of DEC, it is likely that the DEC personal 
computers will find a ready market. 

Will the DEC entries harm Apple, IBM 
or Tandy? I doubt it. If anything, the 
biggest effect will be to further legitima- 
tize the personal computer itself as 
another blue chip name is added to the 
field. 

Delivery on most units of the Rainbow 
100 system is being quoted as Q4 '82. I 
wish I could say this meant October but if 
the experience of other manufacturers is 
any guide, December 31, 1982 is probably 
more like it. 

Conclusion 

Perhaps the most significant feature of 
the Rainbow 100 is the incorporation of 
both an 8-bit Z80 and 16-bit 8088 pro- 
cessor along with a "soft-sense" operating 
system, CP/M 86/80, to automatically run 
applications software on the correct pro- 



cessor. 

Selecting CP/M as an operating system 
instead of the more Unix-like Oasis or a 
proprietary DEC system is also significant 
since it immediately makes available a 
large number of practically off-the-shelf 
applications software packages. Having a 
16-bit processor built in insures that this 
will continue to be true. 

Hardware-wise, the keyboard is out- 
standing. I also like the idea of two double 
density floppy disks on one drive spindle. 
The immediately available optional 5 
megabyte Winchester disk means that 
storage should be ample for virtually any 
application. 

I find the Select Word Processing 
package and Multiplan spreadsheet pack- 
age curious choices. However, given the 
comparatively high prices of these pack- 
ages, I would guess it will not be long 
before other software vendors jump in 
and widen the range of choices in these 
two most important areas. 

Bottom line: the Rainbow 100 should 
have a long successful life. □ 

CIRCLE 351 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





v O 






V. 









V 



K 



5! Count 'em, 5 casino 
games in one great package. 

Blackjack. Keno. Roulette. Poker. 

Baccarat. All favorites of Monte Carlo, 

Vegas and Atlantic City. 

Pick your game. Take your $1000 stake 

and try your luck. Every bet is a thrill, 

and a chance to beat the house. 

Fun for everyone because there's an 
exciting game for everyone. CASINO. 

You can bet on it! 

5 game disk, $39.95 for Apple II 
At computer stores, or: 

DATAMOST 

9748 Cozycroft Ave. 

Chatsworth. Ca 91311 

(213) 366-7160 

/IASTERCHARGE accepted. $1 .00 shipping/ 
charge. (Calif, residents add 6% tax.) 

s a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 



CIRCLE 163 ON READER SERVICE CARD 







rr* 



I 



DODGING TREES, ROCKS, CHICKENS, AND COPS 



AT OVER 80 MPH MAY NOT BE LEGAL 

BUT IT SURE IS FUN! 



Grab the wheel in 
Hazard Run, our high-speed 
cross-country chase . . . and 
watch the feathers fly! It's just 
one example of the high- 
involvement exciting game 
software created by Artworx. 
At Artworx, we're directly 
involved with the software 
we sell. We know our game 
software is fun to play 
because our own people 
can't keep their hands off it. 
We created Beta Fighter 
to simulate a moonscape 
battle that will literally take 
you out of this world! Our 



Drawpic software lets peo- 
ple of all ages get hooked 
with the limitless possibili- 
ties of graphic creation. 
Golden Gloves gives you all 
the thrills and slam-bang 
action of a super slugfest, 
right down to the noise of 
the crowd! 

At Artworx, we have a 
full range of software ... for 
people who like to play and 
people who want to turn 
work into play. We have text 
editing, mail list, and analyti 
cal programs, to name but a 
few. How good are they? We 



use them in our own busi- 
ness . . . and we welcome 
your comments and sugges- 
tions. We pride ourselves 
on a line that's complete, 
unique, diverse, and offers 
you a great value for a very 
reasonable price. 

At Artworx, we're as 
accessible as your local 
computer store or your tele- 
phone. Write or call us toll- 
free at 800-828-6573. We'll 
send you our free catalog . . 
it's good reading and a great 
introduction to a whole new 
world of fun. 




So you can play. 



Artworx Software Company, Inc., 150 North Main St., Fairport NY 14450 (716) 425-2833 



We look at a new computing tool kit for pro- 
fessionals in engineering, architecture, finance, 
education— for anyone who uses mathematical 
formulas. 




TK! Solver from Software Arts 



David H. Ahl 



When Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston, 
creators of VisiCalc, decided to go it 
alone, it created quite a stir in the business 
press. Business Week, Fortune and other 
magazines all did stories describing and 
speculating about their fledgling com- 
pany, Software Arts. 

Buoyed by the phenomenal success of 
VisiCalc, Software Arts is off to a flying 
start. During a visit to their cramped 
offices on the 12th floor of one of the few 
high rise buildings in Cambridge, MA, 
one of the first things that Dan showed 
me were the architectural plans for a 
20,000 sq. ft. facility in Newton, MA. Bob 
Frankston was quick to point out that 
their "new" 60-year old building had a 
dock along the Charles and could be 
reached by canoe from Cambridge in 
about 40 minutes. 

I remarked that when Creative moved 
into its 25,000 sq. ft. facility about 18 
months ago, I had thought I might sub- 
lease about 10,000 sq. ft. However, within 
three months of moving in, it became 
apparent that if we had 1,000 sq. ft. to 
sublease it would be a lot. Dan mentioned 
that when Software Arts first contracted 
to renovate the space they had planned 
to lease out the first floor (about 10,000 
sq. ft.) but now, three months later, they 
are wondering if the building has enough 
space for their own rapidly-expanding 
operation. 

An impressive operation it is! A Prime 
computer with a zillion megabytes of 
storage serves as the main software devel- 
opment machine. Scores of microcom- 
puters are wired into this system. While 
the communication links are direct today 
the new facility will be totally wired for 
Ethernet to allow micro-to-micro com- 
munication as well as micro-to- 
mainframe. 



I have rarely seen so many microcom- 
puters both in quantity and variety in one 
location as I saw at Software Arts. Major 
projects include development of an 
advanced version of VisiCalc (to be 
marketed through VisiCorp), conversion 
of VisiCalc to every imaginable computer 
and, of course, the TKISolver develop- 
ment work. 

What is TKISolver? 

TKISolver (TK for Tool Kit) was 
designed to provide professionals in engi- 
neering, business and other fields a per- 
sonal computing tool with which to solve 
problems involving mathematical calcu- 
lations and analysis. As with VisiCalc, it 
is not necessary to know a programming 



language to use TKISolver. The user 
simply types in one or more equations 
and the known variables. TKISolver then 
solves for the missing variables using 
either a direct solve technique or, if 
necessary, an iterative technique. 

I journeyed to Cambridge to beat on 
TKISolver mercilessly for nine non-stop 
hours. I asked the folks there to leave me 
alone with the software and documenta- 
tion; after all, I wanted to approach it as 
a typical user. Diane Curtis, product 
manager for TKISolver, kindly lent me 
her IBM Personal Computer and a corner 
of her cramped office for the day while 
she spent time with some customers and 
consultants. 

My occasional questions were quickly 





Dan Bricklin shows me a fine point of iterative problem solving with TKI Solver. 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



33 



Slaying 
Monsters 

Should Be 

Mostly 
Fun and 
Games 






^ ^*P 



xP 



XV 





Be one of more than 16 million 
alter-egos that your computer can 
generate. Walk into a labyrinth 
filled with traps, treasures and 
monsters. There you'll test your 
strength, constitution, dexterity, 
intelligence . . . against thou- 
sands of monsters in over 200 
caverns and chambers — growing 
in wealth, power and experience as you progress 
through the four levels of the dungeon. 

Your character will do whatever you want him to do. 
Do battle — in real time — with the likes of giant ants, 
ghouls, zombies. . . Explore the various levels of the 
maze and discover the great treasures within. 

The Game Manufacturer's Association named The 
Temple of Apshai the computer game of the year. 
The Temple is the very first computer game — ever to 
win the Hobby Industry award for excellence. There 
can be only one reason for that: it's a great game. 

So what will you think of The Temple of Apshai now? 
Now that it's even better than ever. With better 
graphics — animated movement — and completely 
new sound effects that make your computer come 
alive and make The Temple even more fun* 

The Temple has a superbly illustrated 

56-page Book of Lore, and your 

local dealer has it for the ATARI,* * 

TRS-80,** APPLE,** and IBM** 

computers. 

If you already have The Temple of Apshai, you 

can enjoy these great improvements. Just 

send us your original cassette or disk 

together with your check for $5.00 and 

we'll send you the brand new version — 

with better-than-ever graphics and sound. 

** ATARI, TRS-80, APPLE and IBM 
are trademarks of Atari, Inc., Tandy 
Corp., Apple Computer, Inc., and IBM, 
respectively. 

©1981, AUTOMATED SIMULATIONS, 
INC., P.O. Box 4247, Mountain View, 
Ca., 94040. 




CIRCLE 116 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



TK! Solver continued... 




Call any 
sheet 



Push to 
subsheet 




Pop from 
subsheet 







Go to any 
field 



Switch 



Solve or 
Execute 



Cancel 
operation 

























Entry mode: 


? 




AE 




/ 


Command 


+ 


Up, down, left, right 
Edit mode: 


Help 
Syste 


m 




Edit 
Mode 








> 


^row 
Keys 


Begin, end field 






































B 




C 




D 






1 




Q 




! 


Blank 






Copy 




Delete 






Insert 




Quit 




Resolve 
Model 
























* 


















E 




M 




S 




W 




P 




R 




L 



Edit 



Move 



Storage 


Window 


Save 


(Any one 


Load 


or two 


DIF Save 


sheets) 


DIF Load 




Delete 




Unit 




Variable 




Function 


Figure I A. T 



Print 



answered by the genial folks at Software 
Arts but, for the most part, the account 
that follows represents the independent 
exploration of TKfSolver by a more-or- 
less typical user. 

Getting Started 

Upon loading the system, a two-line 
Message Area appears at the top of the 
screen. The first line, the Status Line, 
displays information about the status of 
the program. The second line, the 
Prompt/Error Line, displays messages. 

The position indicator at the far left of 
the Status Line tells you the position of 
the cursor with a row number and letter 
(representing the label of the column). 
To the right of it is the contents of that 
field (data, label, etc.). This may seem 
redundant, but it is very useful because it 
shows the entire contents even though it 
may be more than can be displayed in the 
field, e.g., the status area may show a 20- 
character label or an 1 1 -digit number even 
though the field may display only six or 
eight characters. 

On the far right of the Status Line is a 
Memory Indicator which shows the 
amount of remaining memory in your 
work area. A handy feature is the message 
"Low" which is displayed when memory 
capacity drops below 1000 bytes. Essen- 
tially this cries out, "Save your file on 
disk before you lose it!" 

The last character on the Status Line is 
a Solution Indicator. When you enter 
equations, an exclamation point appears 
here indicating that they are unsolved. It 
disappears upon solving a model but 



Reset 


List Solver 


Variables 


Save 


Sheet 


Load 


All 


Solve 




Block 



Figure I A. TK! Solver has 22 commands of one or two keystrokes each. 



reappears if any changes are made. 

The Prompt/Error line is used for 
prompts which require a response, for 
messages telling the status of the program, 
and for error messages. 

Help, Help! 

The Help Facility is always available. It 
reminds you of features and commands 
you have learned but may not remember. 
However, as the instruction booklet points 
out, "It is not intended as a substitute for 
the Instruction and Reference Manuals." 

When the first TKfSolver sheets are 
displayed, the Prompt/Error line displays 
the message: 

For Help, type ? 



This prompt disappears when you type 
any key. If you type "?", the Prompt/Error 
line displays the message: 

Help: ? or topic: 
The cue remains on the Prompt/Error 
line so that you can type and enter either 
a question mark or a topic you want to be 
explained. 

A Menu of Commands 

TKfSolver has a menu of 22 commands 
(see Figure 1A). These commands are 
used to enter formulae and data, manipu- 
late data and units, solve equations, and 
move among the sheets, windows and 
operations. Sound complicated? It's really 
not. (The 11 sheets are shown in Figure 
IB— more about them later.) 





G 

Global 




V 
Variable 




L 
List 




F 
Function 


i 


i 
i 




i 


1 




i 


i 


Variable 
Subsheet 






Function 
Subsheet 


i 


i 




i 


' 




* 


1 






lict 
















Figu 


re IB. 


TKf Si 




= for sheet 
movement 

><to push 
or pop from 
subsheet 



3 "subsheets. ' 



November 1982° Creative Computing 



35 



w 

Ok 

% 

o 

00 

I 



^ \- TRS-80 APP LE- ATARI 




DISCOUNT 

DATA 

PRODUCTS 



THINK ABOUT 
CHRISTMAS NOW! 

THE PERFECT PRESENT 

A GIFT CERTIFICATE 

FROM 

DISCOUNT DATA PRODUCTS 

GIVE US A CALL! 



COMPUTER STORE SERVICE AT MAIL 




LIST 


OUR 


PRICE PRICE 


L 

2495 


1995 


2995 


2395 


2995 


2395 


2495 


19 95 


2995 


2395 



* ACCENT SOFTWARE 

ADVENTURE INTERNATIONAL 

Commbat D 

Rear Guard D 

Tunnel Terror D 

War d 

SAGA #1-12 each D 

* APPLIED SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY 

* ARTSCI * ASHTONTATE 

* ASTAR INTERNATIONAL CO. 

AUTOMATED SIMULATIONS 

Fore 1 D 

Temple of apshai D 

Crush. Crumble & Chomp . . D 
Upper Reaches of Apshai . . . D 

* AVALON HILL GAME COMPANY 

AVANT-GARDE CREATIONS 

HI-RES Secrets D 

HI-RES Computer Golf D 

BEAGLE BROS. 

DOS Boss D 

Utility City D 

Alpha Plot D 

Tip Disk #1 D 

Apple Mechanic D 

* BEZ 

BRODERBUND SOFTWARE 

Apple Panic D 

David's Midnight Magic D 

The Arcade Machine D 

Star Blazer D 

Chophfter D 

Serpentine D 

HI-RES ADv #1 - Dead Sec D 

BUDGECO 

Raster Blaster D 

CALIFORNIA PACIFIC 

Bill Budge's 3D Graphics . . . D 

Ultima D 

CAVALIER COMPUTER 

Bug Attack D 

Microwave D 



29 95 
3995 
2995 
1995 



125 00 
2995 

24 00 
2950 
3950 
2000 
29 50 



29 95 
3495 
44 95 
31 95 
34 95 
34 95 
34 95 



2395 
31 95 
2395 
1595 



9995 
2095* 

1920 
23 50 
31.95 
1595 
20.95* 



2395 
27 95 
35 95 
2550 
24.45$ 
27 95 
27 85 



2995 2395 



3995 
3995 



31 95 
31 95 



2995 
34 95 



2395 
27 95 



CONTINENTAL SOFTWARE 

The Home Accountant D 

1st Class Mail D 

CPA Modules #1-4 (each) . . . D 
CPA Module #5 D 

* CPU SOFTWARE 
DAKIN 5 LEVEL 10 

Alkemstone D 

Programming Aids D 

Worm Hole D 

DATAMOST 

Snack Attack D 

Thief D 

County Fair D 

Swashbuckler D 

Casino D 

Baseball D 

DATASOFT 

Tumble Bugs (Dung Beetles) D 



7495 

7495 

25000 

49500 



3995 
90 00 
2995 

29 95 
2995 
2995 
34 95 
3995 
2995 



5995 

5995 

199 95 

39595 



31 95 
71 95 
2395 

2395 
2395 
2395 
27 95 
31 95 
2395 



2995 2395 



LIST OUR 
PRICE PRICE 

* DENVER SOFTWARE 

* DON'T ASK SOFTWARE 

* DOUBLE GOLD SOFTWARE 

EDU-WARE 

Statistics D 29.95 23 95 

Spelling Bee w/Read Primer D 39 95 3195 

Algebra 1 D 39.95 31 95 

Algebra 2 D 39 95 3195 

Empire I World Builders D 32 95 26.95 

Empire II Interstellar Sharks. D 32.95 26 35 

Empire III Armageddon D 32 95 26 35 

Rendevous D 39.95 31 95 

GEBELLI SOFTWARE 

Zenith D 34 95 24.45* 

Phaser Fire D 29.95 23 95 

* HAYDEN SOFTWARE 

* HAYES MICROCOMPUTER PRODUCTS 

* HIGHLANDS COMPUTER SERVICES 

* HOWARD SOFTWARE 
INFOCOM 

Zork I D 39 95 31 95 

Zork II D 39 95 31 95 

Deadline D 49 95 34.95$ 

* INNOVATIVE DESIGN SOFTWARE 
INSOFT 

GraForth II D 75.00 60 75 

Electric Duet D 29 95 23.95 

* ISM * IUS * LAZER SYSTEMS 

* KENSINGTON MICROWARE LTD. 
LIGHTNING SOFTWARE 

Master Type D 39 95 27.95$ 

MICRO LAB 

Peeping Tom D 34 95 27 95 

Data Factory 5 D 30000 239 95 

Wall Streeter D 300 00 239 95 

MICROSOFT 

Olympic Decathlon D 29.95 20.95$ 

Typing Tutor II D 24.95 19 95 

TASC Compiler D 175 00 139 95 

FORTRAN-80 D 195 00 154 95 

AIDS D 125.00 99 95 

BSAIC Compiler D 395 00 319.95 

COBOL-80 D 750 00 599 95 

SoftCard A 395 00 299.95$ 

MICROTEK 

BAM 16K Memory Board A 1 19 50 95 95 

MUSE 

The Voice D 39 95 31 95 

Three Mile Island D 39 95 3195 

Robot War D 39.95 27.95$ 

Castle Wolfenstein D 29 95 23 95 

Supertext 40/56/80 D 175 00 139 80 

ON-LINE SYSTEMS 

HI-RES Adv #2 - Wiz & Prin D 32 95 26.35 

HI-RES Adv #3 - Cranston MD 34 95 24.65$ 

HI-RES Adv #4 - Ulysess . . . D 34 95 27 95 

HI-RES Adv #5 - Time Zone D 99 95 79 96 

Mouskattack D 34 95 27 95 

Ultima II D 59 95 47 95 

Threshold D 39.95 27.95$ 

The Dictionary D 99 95 79 95 

Screenwriter II D 129 95 98 95 



LIST 
PRICE 

The Artist D 99 

Frogger D 34 

E.P.F. IV D 79 

Cannonball Blitz D 34 

Expediter II ♦ D 135 

Laffpak D 34 

Screenwriter Pro System . . . D 199 

PENGUIN SOFTWARE 

Complete Graphics Sys D 69 96 

Special Effects D 39 95 

Graphics Magician D 59 95 

PICCADILLY 

Falcons D 29 95 

Star Blaster D 29 95 

Ribbit D 29 95 



95 
95 
95 
95 
95 
95 
95 



PHOENIX SOFTWARE 

The Birth of the Phoenix . . . . D 22 00 

Zoom Grafix D 39 95 

QUALITY SOFTWARE 

Bag of Tricks D 39 95 

Beneath Apple DOS B 19 95 



SENSIBLE SOFTWARE 

Super Disk Copy III D 30 00 

Multi Disk Catalog III D 25 00 

Disk Recovery D 30 00 

Applesoft Program Opti D 20 00 

Disk Organizer II D 30 00 

DOS Plus D 25 00 

Quickloader D 25 00 

Image Printer - Epson D 40 00 

Sensible Speller D 125 00 

SENTIENT SOFTWARE 

Cyborg d 32 95 

Congo D 34 95 

Goldrush d 34.95 

SIRIUS SOFTWARE 

Space Eggs D 29 95 

Gorgon D 39 95 

Sneakers D 29 95 

Hadron D 34 95 

Kabul Spy D 34 95 

Minotaur D 34 95 

Bandits D 34 95 

Escape From Rungistan D 29 95 

The Joyport A 74 95 

Freefall D 29 95 

SIR-TECH SOFTWARE 

Wizardry D 49 95 

Knight of Diamonds (sc #2) D 34 95 

SOFTWARE PUBLISHING CORP. 

PFS Report (New Improved) D 95 00 

PFS (New Improved) D 125 00 

PFS Graph D 125 00 

* SOUTHEASTERN SOFTWARE 

SOUTHWESTRN DATA SYSTEMS 

Ascii Pro D 1 29 95 

Correspondent D 59 95 

Merlin D 64 95 

The Routine Machine D 64 95 

Z-Term "The Pro" D 150.00 

P-Term D 129 95 

Munch-A-Bug D 49 95 



OUR 
PRICE 

7995 
27 95 
6395 
27 95 

108 75 
27 95 

15995 

5596 
31 95 
47 95 

23 95 
2395 
2395 

1750 
27.95$ 

27.95$ 

1595 

2395 
1995 
2395 
1595 
2095 
1995 
1995 
31 95 
99 95 

26 50 

27 95 
27 95 

2395 

31 95 

2395 

27.95 

27 95 

27 95 

27.95 

20.95$ 

5995 

2395 

3995 
24.45$ 



7695 
9995 
99 95 



10395 
4795 
51 95 
51 95 
119 95 
10395 
34.95$ 



o ^T-TRS-80-APPLE-ATAP!MBM-XEROX-PET-VIC-NEC-CP/M 



1 Kd'OU jnJrMrlsM* £%tJt%Kl IDvfl "AXiKvA 



STONEWARE PRODUCTS 

D.B Master D 229 00 

D B Master Utility Pak #1 . . . D 99 00 

D.B. Master/Hard Disk D 499 00 

DB Master Utility Pak #2 ... D 9900 

D B Master Stat Pac D 99.00 

Graphics Processing Sys . . . D 99 95 

* STRATEGIC SIMULATIONS 

SUBLOGIC 

Flight Simulator (A2-FS1) . . . D 33.50 

Pinball (A2PB1) D 29.95 

Graphics Combo Pkg D 119 85 

SYNERGISTIC SOFTWARE 

Atlantis D 40 00 



160.95} 
7995 

37995 
7995 
7895 
7995 



2680 
23.95 
95 96 

31 95 



Higher Text II D 40 00 

Higher Graphics II D 35. 00 

Nightmare Gallery D 34 95 

Global Program Line Editor . D 64 95 

* SYSTEMS PLUS 

TG PRODUCTS 

Game Paddles A 39 95 

Joystick A 59 95 

Select-A-Port (5 Way) A 59 95 

* TURNKEY SOFTWARE 

* UNITED SOFTWARE OF AMERICA 

* VERSA COMPUTING 



PET-VIC-NEC-CP/M-^a 



31 95 
27 95 
27 95 
51 95 



31 95 

4795 
4795 



VIDEX INC. 

Videoterms (60 hz) A 345 00 

Enhancer II (Rev 7 & up) .... A 149.00 
Function Strip A 79 00 

VISICORP 

VisiPlot D 200 00 

VisiTrend/Plot D 300 00 

VisiDex D 250 00 

VisiTerm D 100 00 

VisiCalc 3.3 D 250 00 

VisiFile D 250.00 

VisiPak D 700 00 

VisiSchedule D 300 00 

* ZEITGEIST 



28995 
119 95 
63 20 

159 95 
239 95 
19995 
79.95 
199 95 
19995 
567 95 
23995 




LIST OUR 

PRICE PRICE 

ADVENTURE INTERNATIONAL 

Adventures #1-3 32K D 39 95 3195 

Commbat D 24 95 19.95 

Rear Guard 24K D 24 95 19 95 

Preppie D 29.95 23 95 

War D 24 95 19 95 

Diskey D 49 95 39 95 

ARCADE PLUS 

Ghost Hunter 16K D 34 95 24.45$ 

ARcade Pro Football. .. 24K D 34.95 27 95 

*ARTSCI 

ATARI INCORPORATED 

Work Processor 48K D 149 95 1 19 95 

Personal Finance Mngmt32K D 74 95 59 95 

Caverns of Mars 16K D 39 95 3195 

Dow Jones Invest Eval. . 48K D 129.95 103.95 

Microsoft Basic 32K D 89 95 7195 

Macro Assem & Text Ed 32K D 89 95 71 95 

Mailing List 24K CT 24.95 19.95 

The Programmer Kit . . . 8K CT 79.85 63 95 

The Entertainer Kit 8K CT 89 95 7195 

Asteroids 8K CT 34 95 27 95 

Assembler Editor 8K CT 59 95 47 95 

Missile Command 8K CT 34 95 27 95 

Centipede 8K CT 44 95 35 95 

Pac Man 8K CT 44 95 35.95 

PILOT (Home Package) 8K CT 79 95 63 95 

Technical User Notes B 29 95 23 95 

Joysticks (Pair) A 2195 17 56 

Paddles (Pair) A 2195 17.56 

16K RAM Memory Module .. A 99 95 79 95 

AUTOMATED SIMULATIONS 

Temple of Apshai 32K D 39 95 3195 

Crush, Crumble. Chomp 32K D 29.95 20.95* 

* AVALON HILL GAME COMPANY 
BRODERBUND SOFTWARE 

Apple Panic 48K D 29 95 20.95$ 

David's Midnight Magic D 34 95 27 95 

Track Attack D 29 95 23 95 

Star Blazer D 31 95 25 55 

HI-RES Adv #1 Dead Sec . . . D 34 95 27 95 

Choplifter D 34 95 24.45$ 



LIST OUR 

PRICE PRICE 

DATASOFT 

Text Wizard 32K D 99 95 7995 

Datasm65 2 48K D 89.97 71.95 

Micropainter 48K D 34 95 27.95 

Color Print 40K D 39 95 3195 

Tumble Bugs 24K D 29 95 23 95 

Graphics Master 40K D 39 95 3195 

Graphic Generator D 24 95 19 95 

The Basic Compiler D 99.95 79.95 

Canyon Climber 16K D 29 95 23 95 

Shooting Arcade D 29.95 23 95 

Pacific Coast Highway D 29 95 23. 95 

Clowns & Balloons D 2995 23.95 

Le Stick A 39 95 31 .95 

Color Print Refill A 15 95 12.75 

DON'T ASK SOFTWARE 

Wordrace 32K D 

* EDU-WARE 
GEBELLI 

Andromeda 24K D 34 95 

Pathfinder D 34 95 

Dr Goodcodes Cavern . 48K D 29 95 



2495 1995 



49 95 
3995 
3995 

34 95 
34 95 



39 95 



BUDGECO 

Raster Blaster 



32K D 29 95 23 95 



CAVALIER 

Bug Attack 16K D 29 95 2395 

Bug Attack 16K C 29.95 23 95 



INFORCOM 

Deadline 32K D 

Zork I 32K D 

Zork II 32K D 

IN-HOME SOFTWARE 

Alien Swarm 16K D 

Intruder 16K D 

INNOVATIVE DESIGN SOFTWARE 

Pool 1.5 48K D 34.95 

Pool 400 C 

JV SOFTWARE 

Action Quest 16K D 

* K-BYTE * LJK 
MEGASOFT INC. 

Megalegs 16K C 

ON-LINE SYSTEMS 

HI-RES Adv. #0 40K D 

HI-RES ADv #2 40K D 

Crossfire 32K D 

Mousekattack 32K D 

Ultima II D 

Jawbreaker 16K D 

Threshold 40K D 

Softporn Advenure 40K D 

The Next Step 32K D 

Frogger D 



27 95 
27.95 
2395 

34.95$ 

31 95 
31 95 

27 95 
27 95 

27 95 
31 95 



29.95 2395 



3495 2795 



LIST OUR 

PRICE PRICE 

Ultima I D 39.95 31.95 

Frogger C 34 95 27 95 

* OPTIMIZED SYSTEMS SOFTWARE INC. 

PRISM COMPUTERS 

Galactic Chase 16K D 29 95 23 95 

QUALITY SOFTWARE 

Ah Baba and 40 Thieves 32K D 32.95 25.35$ 

Assembler 16K C 24 95 19.95$ 

ROKLAN CORP 

Deluxe Invaders 16K D 34.95 27 95 

Gorf 16K D 39 95 27.95$ 

Wizard of Wor 16K D 39 95 27 97 

Telecom D 69 95 55 95 

Gorf CT 49.95 39 95 

Wizard of Wor CT 49 95 39 95 

SIRIUS SOFTWARE 

Cyclod D 29 95 23 95 

Snake Byte D 29 95 23 95 

STRATEGIC SIMULATIONS 

The Shattered Alliance. . 48K D 39 95 3195 

Battle of Shiloh 48K D 39 95 3195 

Tigers in the Snow 48K D 39 95 3195 

SUBLOGIC 

Aventure on a Boat 32K D 24 95 1995 

Black Forest 48K D 24 95 19 95 

SYNAPSE SOFTWARE 

File Manager 800 40K D 99 95 79 95 

Disk Manager 32K D 29 95 23 95 

Dodge Racer 32K D 29 95 23 95 

Protector 32K D 29 95 23 95 

Chicken 16K D 29 95 23 95 

Nautilus 32K D 2995 23 95 

Slime 16K D 29 95 20.95$ 

Protector 32K C 29 95 23 95 

Nautilus 32K C 29 95 23 95 

* SYNCRO * SYNERGISTIC SOFTWARE 
UNITED SOFTWARE OF AMERICA 



2495 


1995 


3295 


2635 


2995 


2395 


34 95 


27 95 


5995 


47 95 


2995 


2395 


3995 


31 95 


29.95 


2395 


3995 


31 95 


34 95 


27 95 



Atari World D 



59.95 
3995 
2495 



4795 
31 95 
19 95 



3-D Supergraphics 40K D 

Survival/Adventure 32K D 

VISICORP 

Visicalc 32K D 250 00 199 95 

VERSA COMPUTING 

Graphics Composer 32K D 39 95 3195 

Globe Master D 29 95 23 95 

Graphics Composer 32K C 39 95 23 95 

VersaWnter Graphics Tablet A 299 00 239 95 



TO ORDER 800-854-2914 • INSIDE CALIFORNIA 8c ALL OTHER INQUIRIES 1-714-287-0190 

SEND FOR OUR FREE CATALOG LISTING ADDITIONAL SOFTWARE FOR ALL MAJOR COMPUTERS. 

ALL SOFTWARE OFFERED HAS BEEN EVALUATED FOR PERFORMANCE. 

PLEASE CHECK FOR SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS BEFORE ORDERING. 

INCLUDE PUBLISHER AND PRODUCT NAME. 

PURCHASE ORDERS ACCEPTED • FOREIGN INQUIRIES INVITED — ADD 10% SHIPPING 

All Orders Prepaid by Personal Check, Money Order, Cashier Check. 

For Faster Delivery Service — Master Charge — Visa 

Mastercharge — Visa, include expiration date on card. 

Please Add $2.50 for Shipping. Specials Valid Through This Month's Issue. 

California Residents Add 6% Sales Tax. Prices Subject to Change Without Notice. 

DISCOUNT DATA PRODUCTS 

P.O. BOX 19674-CJ . SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA 92119 

CIRCLE 165 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






TK! Solver continued... 




Diane Curtis, TK! Solver Product 
Manager at Software Arts, Inc. 

I brought with me some data on munic- 
ipal »onds. Basically, I was interested in 
using the system to compare bonds and 
do some portfolio calculations. Initially, I 
called up the "Rule Sheet" and entered 
two formulae: 

A = C*F 

Y = A/P 

in which: 

A = Annual Income 

Y = Current Yield 
C = Coupon 

F = Face Value 
P = Purchase Price 

I then entered information about a 
Camden, NJ bond: 

P = 13103 (dollars) 

C = 5.3 (interest rate) 

F = 25000 (purchase price) 

Upon pressing ! to solve for the unknown 
variables, I got the following: 

A = 132500 (Annual income) 

Y = 10.112188 (Current yield) 

Obviously I was not going to get 
$132500 annual income for the next 13 
years on a bond that cost $13103. The 
problem, of course, was that I expressed 
percent as 5.3 rather than .053. Well, I 
want to express percent as 5.3 or 10.1 and 
not the decimal equalivalent so I turned 
to the unit portion of TKfSolver. When 
the menu showed From and To, I entered 
the following for C and Y: 

From Pet 

To Dpct 

Multiply by .01 



I recalculated but got the same result. 
Since this didn't help, I was tempted to 
change the formulas. However the Vari- 
able Status Sheet contained the clue to 
the dilemma. I simply wanted to display a 
different unit than my calculation unit. 
So I entered the following: 

Display Unit pet 

Calculation Unit dpct 

Now, when I pressed ! to recalculate the 
table, I found that: 

A (annual income) = $1325 

Y (current yield) = $10.112188 

Much more reasonable! But frankly I 
didn't like the 10.112188; good grief, who 
needs that many significant digits? How- 
ever, TKfSolver, unlike VisiCalc, does 
not have a formatting capability. The 
solution was to enter another rule (for- 
mula) that stated: 

yld = (int (10000 * y))/10000 

Of course, I had to enter the unit table 
and define display (pet) and calculation 
(dpct) units for "yield" as I had for C and 
Y. 

At this point the screen appeared as 
shown in Figure 2. As I entered the rules, 
the program automatically entered the 
variables in the same order as they 
appeared in the equations. 

This wasn't too tidy, so using the Move 
command (/M), I moved the rows around. 
Also, using Delete (/D), I deleted Y since 
Yld showed the same thing. When I say 
deleted that does not mean it is gone — 
after all, it is a vital variable in the 
equations— but it is no longer displayed 



<5i > Input: 1510 



St Input 



25000 

13103 



Name 

a 
c 

t 
y 
P 

y ] d 



VARIABLE BULL I 
Output. Unit 

1325 

pet. 

10. 1 12188 pet 

10. 11 pet 
RULE SHEE I ■»» 



VARIABLE : 
Status: 
First Guess.: 
Associated List: 
Input Value: 
Output Value: 
Di spl ay I In i t : 
Calculation Uml : 
Comment : 



l 0. 1 1 

... * 
dpi 



188048! 



Figure 3. Variable subsheet for y. 



in the variable table. To reassure myself 
that it still existed, I called up the variable 
sheet for Y and found it intact (see Figure 
3). 

I also added comments and filled out 
the unit field (with dollar signs). When all 
this was done, the screen appeared as in 
Figure 4. 



creative coittpatiRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: TK! Solver 

Type: Model building and solving 
tool 

System: Many computers 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine language 

Summary: Easy to learn and use; wide 
variety of applications 

Price: $299 for TK! Solver; $50 to 
$100 for applications packs 

Manufacturer: 

Software Arts, Inc. 
675 Massachusetts Ave. 
Cambridge, MA 02139 



&>4 / 



Comment 



S Rule 



y=a/p 

y 1 d = < i n t (1 OOOO * y > ) / 1 OOOO 



Figure 2. Variable and Rule sheets after 
entering municipal bond formulae and data. 



( I i ) Input: 11.2 



t>4 



St Input 

li.2 
1 OOOO 
10375 



Name 

c 
t 
P 

yld 

a 



VARIABLE SHEE I 

Output Unit 
pet 



10. 79 

1120 



pet 
* 



Comment 

Coupon Yield 

Face value of bond 

in ferinq price 

Current vi el c| 
Annual interest 






S Riil e-> 



a=c: *f 
y-a/p 
yld=(int (1 OOOO* y ) > / 1 OOOO 

38 



Figure 4. Same as Figure 2 with variables 
reordered and comments added. 

November 1982 ° Creative Computing 







Bri 






* » 









: % »> 



^ 



s *f 









(AU*V 







nfafITKT7 




rible, and the Devil himself look like candystripfers ( halleru>es VOL 1 to sur\ ive! I hink it's easy? Coosidei 



You sit, fingering the A,/// button, in your small 
spaceship at the bottom of the s< reen 
Suddenly Ming dire< ts Deathships straight at 
your fragile i raft 

Next the daymen, at a signal from Ming, hurtli 
bombs at \ ou 

You < an neutralize Ming's Deathships by 
shooting them and pla< ing them in suspended 

animation 



• Cycllops drop bombs on you ^nd tVeeze the 
Deathships, making them disappear mto 

In perspac e (making you lose points) 

• If vqu do not place Deathships into suspended 
animlation then will vanish into the Black Hole 
and you will lost 1 points 

• Qreafei perils ,\nd varying challenges await you 
i\nd only the truly l()P game players will 
survive MING'S (MAI I I NCI 



Xs a P |a Yet you enjo\ the option of altering the eferameters endlessly .< hanging speed of the game number ol ene 
mies width and depth of the Black Mole Also ,t you are the first to survive MING SCHAI I I NCI you will re< eivi 
either the next 10 games produ< ed by MICR( )FUN, tree o( charge, or ,m\ single business produ< t presently avail ibf< 

trom MIC KOI AH # C* 

I his Program vv.is Written bv Mike I ivcs.n /* IL#I AJ Ull"7 Miwr\ tuai i i.m< t . . .. 



1 his Program w.is Written f>\ Mike l ivesay 
Available mm «it your local dealei 

CIRCLE 215 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



u wwwj VtiNG S CHAI I I Ned plays on 



entertainment division Apple II, 48k 

ofmicrolab MM'I I is .i registered trademark ol \pple < omputei ln< 



YOUR PROGRAM HERE 






The best software for 
the IBM Personal Computer. 
Could it be yours? 



Attention, all programmers. Here's a 
chance to reach the top. 

If you've written software that's completed 
and runs on the IBM Personal Computer, we 
could be interested in publishing it. 

(We also could be interested if it runs 
on another computer. If we select your software, 
we'll ask you to adapt it to our system.) 

But be advised. 

Our expectations are great. 

Because the software we publish must be 
good enough to complement IBM Personal 
Computer hardware. In fact, the more you take 
advantage of all our hardware capabilities (see 
the box at right), the more interested in your 
software we become. 

Think about incorporating color graphics 
into your program, for example. 

Use sound. Consider the power of our 
keyboard and remember to utilize the ten 
programmable function keys. 

In all cases, we're interested in "friendly" 
software — with emphasis on quality and wide 
appeal. Programs with the greatest chance 
of being published must be easy to use, offer 
a better way to accomplish a task and provide 
something special to the user. 

What kinds of programs? All kinds. 

Education. Entertainment. Personal yt> 

finance. Data management. Self improvement . % 1J^ 
Games. Communications. And yes, business. I 



We select programs that will make the 
IBM Personal Computer an even more useful tool 
for modern times. 



IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER SPECIFICATIONS 

User Memory Display Screen Permanent Memory 

16K-5 12 K bytes * High resolution * (ROM) 40K bytes * 

Microprocessor 80 characters x 25 lines Color/Graphics 

16-bit, 8088* Upper and lower case Text mode. 

Auxiliary Memory Green phosphor screen * 16 colors * 



2 optional internal Operating Systems 
diskette drives, 5'/ 4 ", pes, UCSD-p System, 
160K bytes or 320K CP/M . 86 t F 
bytes per diskette 

Keyboard 

83 keys, 6 ft. cord 
attaches to 



256 characters and 

symbols in ROM* 
Grapfncs mode: 
4-color resolution: 
Languages 320hx200v* 

BASIC, Pascal, FORTRAN, B , ack & whke reso i ution . 



MACRO Assembler, 
COBOL 



Printer 

Bidirectional * 

80 characters/second 



640h x 200v* 
Simultaneous graphics & 

text capability 
Communications 
RS-232-C interface 



system unit 
10 function keys* 
10-key numeric pad 
Tactile feedback* 

Diagnostics 12 character styles, up to Asynchronous (start/stop) 

l\ >\\er-( >n self testing * 132 characters/line * pn xiki )1 

Parity checking * 9x9 character matrix * Up to 9600 bits per sea >nd 

♦ADVANCED FEATURES FOR PERSONAL COMPUTERS 



So, if you think your software is the best, 
consider submitting it. If it's accepted, we'll take 
care of the publishing, the marketing and the 
distribution. All you have to do is reap the 
benefits of our new royalty terms. And you're free 
to market your program elsewhere at any time 
even if you license it to us. 

We're offering the ladder. Think about 
taking the first step. 

For information on how to submit your 
program, write: IBM Personal Computer, 

External Submissions, 
Dept. 765 PC, Armonk, 
New York 10504. ===== =• 







The IBM Personal Computer 
A tool for modern times 



For an authorized IBM Personal Computer dealer near you (or information from IBM about quantity purchases) call 800-447-4700. In Illinois, 800-322-4400. In Alaska or Hawaii, 800-447-0890. 
tUCSD p-System is a trademark of the Regents of the University of California. CP/M-86 is a trademark of Digital Research, Inc. 

CIRCLE 186 ON READER SERVICE CARD 













m ML M ■ Over 40,000 

^m^Mpk f\{\ BPIaccount- 

▼ V^5 \J\## ing systems 
have been put to use by almost every con- 
ceivable type of business. Why? Our soft- 
ware is simple to understand and easy to 
use, yet powerful enough to meet the 
needs of almost every business. 

Our accounting software systems have 
been proved again and again by people in 
all walks of life. And most of them had no 
previous computer experience. 

With some accounting software, if you 
have questions, getting answers can be 
difficult or even impossible. 

BPI Systems has a service department 
as close as your telephone. Questions 
about any of our products will be an- 
swered promptly and accurately. With- 
out a service charge to you. 



BPI Accounting Software is compatible 
with most microcomputers available 
today. In fact, our accounting systems are 
approved, distributed, and sold by almost 
all of the top computer manufacturers. 

Our General Accounting System may 
be all the accounting software you will 
ever need. If you have more specialized 
needs, you can choose any of our totally 
integrated systems including Ac- 
counts Receivable, Payroll, 
Inventory Control, Job 
Cost, Accounts Pay- 
able, and Profes- 
sional Time Accounting. Alone or in 
combination, they are the easiest to use 
business accounting systems available 
today. 

BPI Systems offers proven reliability 
backed by a customer service commit- 



ment second to none in the account- 
ing software industry. 

Ask for a demonstration 
your computer dealer or 
write us for more 
information. ^ 

You'll see that our software 

is simple to understand 
and easy to use. 




SIMPIXTTHE MOST POWERFUL 
SOFTWARE IN BUSINESS 

3423 GUADALUPE/AUSTIN. TX 78705/3 1 2-454-280 1 
CIRCLE 125 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



TK! Solver continued... 

Now J could use the model to compare 
some municipal bonds, at least in a simple 
sense. I decided to look for maximum 
current income from a list of bonds 
offered by a municipal bond dealer. Here 
is the data from the first four bonds. The 
last two columns are calculated with my 
TK! Solver model. 




Bond 
Mt. Kisco 7/98 
Erie County 3/99 
Mass Housing 10/87 2.00 
Waterford, CT 6/90 1 1.20 



Coupon Face Price 



10.875 
5.00 



10000 9500 

10000 5250 

10000 6275 

10000 10375 



Yield 

11.45 

9.52 

3.18 

10.79 



Annual 
Income 

$1088 

500 

200 

1120 



Naturally, there is more to comparing 
bonds than that since capital gains must 
be considered for the last three bonds. In 
fact, the total yield to maturity includes 
the capital gain plus the annual yield from 
the coupon, but at least I had a good start 
with TKfSolver giving me the yield and 
annual income from each. 

Lists of Data 

Instead of immediately going into the 
more complicated yield-to-maturity calcu- 
lation, I decided to consider a portfolio 
summary. In this case, the list was longer, 
representing a portfolio of bonds accumu- 
lated over several years. I simulated this 
with data for 16 bonds taken from 
Lebenthal offering lists. Instead of enter- 
ing data individually, I wanted to enter a 
list of data, have all the calculations 
performed en masse, and see a list of 
output values. 

To do this, I entered the status area on 
the Variable Sheet and entered L (for 
List). To enter a list, you move the cursor 
over the list name on the Variable Sheet, 
press the right caret and the blank List 
appears. (Alternatively, a List can be 
entered from the List Sheet.) Typing 
values in order automatically fills in the 
list. 

I then wanted the program to automat- 
ically solve my equations for all 16 sets of 
data I had entered in the lists. This was 
done by simply entering the list solver 
(/L) and pressing solve (!). You must have 
some dummy data in the input variables 
at this point or TKfSolver will just sit 
there not knowing which are input and 
which are output variables. 

During the solving process, you can 
display each set of variables in turn on 
the screen or, for maximum speed, you 
can turn off the display from the Global 
Sheet (=G). 

When the solving process was done, I 
called the List Sheet (=L) and, lo and 
behold, my output variables were now 
filled with values (see Figure 5). 

1 now had a fictitious half million dollar 
municipal bond portfolio in the computer. 
First I wanted some summary information 
about it. Here I had a choice: I could 

November 1982 c Creative Computing 



enter more rules or use TKfSolver as a 
calculator. I chose the latter approach. 

To do this, you go to any value (or 
numeric) field on any sheet and simply 
type in the calculation you wish to per- 
form including variables, functions, lists, 
etc. First, I wanted the sum of the bond 
face values so I went to an empty field 
and typed: 

SUM (T) 
The apostrophe indicates that all values 
of the list are to be summarized. In a split 
second 550,000 appeared. Ah ha, the face 
value of the portfolio was $550,000 not 
one-half million. The sum of the purchase 
price was, $459,899. 

(7c) Comment: Yield to maturity 



Okay, that was simple. Now for a tough 
one. I wanted the weighted coupon yield 
based on the face value and the weighted 
current yield based on the purchase price. 
To get this, I would have to multiply each 
yield by each price, take the sum of these 
products and divide by the sum of the 
price. But TKfSolver has a solution in the 
form of a function called DOT. DOT 
returns the dot product of two specified 
lists. Each element in the first list is 
multiplied by the corresponding element 
in the second list and the products are 
summed. Hence, my calculation for 
weighted coupon yield was simply: 
DOT ('C, T) / SUM (T) 
I found the weighted coupon yield to 
be 8.69% and the weighted current yield 
10.3%. Gee, I wish I had this portfolio. 

Plots and Graphs 

I next hypothesized that there might be 
some sort of relationship between current 
yield, yield to maturity and coupon yield. 
What better way to look at these than 
with a plot or graph? So I called the Plot 
Sheet (=P) and filled in M C (coupon 
yield) for the X variable and "Y" (current 
yield) and "YTM" (yield to maturity) for 
Y variables. I also specified plot charac- 
ters Y and M (for yield to maturity). The 
resulting plot is shown in Figure 6. Munic- 
ipal bond investors will not be surprised 



£><.» 



Name 

y 

c 

f 
p 

y 1 d 

a 
y t m 



S Ru 1 e 



Elements Unit 



16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 



p c t 

* 
pet 

pet 



SHEET ■-■■■ 
Comment 



Coupon y i eld 
F a c e v a 1 u e o + bo n d 
Offering price 
Current yield 
unnual In t e r e <s t 
rield to maturity 






a~c*f 
y»a p 
\'l d=» < ] nt ( 1 0< " »0<y) ) 



100< "-' 



Figure 5. List sheet shows variables and 
elements (values) in each list. 



m 



m 



m 



1 1 



m 



m 



m 

y 



m 



9.8 



V 

m 

y m 
m v 



m 



- 



m 



m 



8. 1 



6. 4 






— ■+• 



4. 7 



6. 1 



a . ' r 



I". . 



11.7 



1 -'. 1 



Figure 6. Plot of current yield (y) and yield to maturity (m) against coupon yield. 
TKf Solver offers many plot options. 



43 



TK! Solver continued... 



<v> Variable Insert UN: ves 



60 / ! 



Variable Insert UN: 



GLOBAL 



SHEET 
Yes 



Intermediate Redisplay UN: 
Automatic Iteration UN: 
Comparison Tolerance: 
Problem Scale: 
Maximum Iteration Count: 

Paqe Breaks UN: 

Page Numbers ON: 

Form Lenqth: 

Printed Paqe Length: 

Printed Page Width: 

Indentation: 

Printer Device or Filename: 

Printer Setup String: 

Line End (CR/'LF or CR) : 



Yes 
Yes 
. OOOOOOOl 

. 099999999999 
10 



Yes 

Yes 

16 

16 

30 



PRN 
CR/LF 



Figure 7. The Global Sheet shows para- 
meters that apply to the entire model, 
printer and plotter settings, etc. 



to see that current yield is directly related 
to coupon yield, and yield to maturity is 
inversely related. 

From the Global Sheet it is possible to 
set the output page size. By reducing it, 
you can automatically scale a graph down 
if you want to jam it into a smaller space. 
The Global Sheet is also the place from 
which printer names and conventions are 
specified. (See Figure 7.) 

Plotting is not limited to the scatter 
charts produced by TKfSolver. Data, 
variables, units, etc. may be saved on a 
disk using the DIF (Data Interchange 
Format) and used in other programs such 
as VisiCalc and VisiPlot. Conversely, data 
from VisiCalc may be read into 
TKfSolver from a DIF disk. 

Iterative Problem Solving 

Not all problems can be solved directly 
by simply substituting values in formulae. 
Let's consider a simple problem of a retail 
business. Say a video game cartridge has 
a manufacturer suggested list price of 
$29.95 and the cost is $21.00. We enter 
the formulae for margin and markup: 

ma = (s-c)/s 

mu = (s-c)/c 
in which: 

ma = margin (%) 

mu = markup (%) 

s = selling price 

c = cost 

Entering the data above and solving 
indicates a 29.9% margin and a 42.6% 
markup (see Figure 8). 

But you know from experience that 
any margin less than 35% is cutting things 
too close. To make a 35% margin, what 
should the selling price be? I put 35 in 
margin as an input and blanked out (/B) 
the $29.95 selling price. I pressed ! to 
solve and nothing happened. No longer 
was output defined by a direct equation. 

To solve, I entered a guess (it could be 
anything, but I put in 30) and, after five 
iterations, TKfSolver indicated that 
32.307692 was the selling price required 
to make a 35% markup (see Figure 9). 
Now you know why most retailers price 
video game cartridges at $31.95. 



Present Values 

The present value of future cash flows 
are extremely important to all kinds of 
businesses. Let's say that you can auto- 
mate a portion of your assembly line for 
$10,000. Your volume is growing, so you 
expect this automation to be increasingly 
important for the next three years, but to 
drop in Year 4 as product obsolescence is 
reached. Hence, you expect your cash 
flow to be as follows: 



cfO -10000 



cfl 2000 



cf2 
cf3 
cf4 



3000 
5000 
2000 



(Cash flow in Year 
or cost now = $10,000) 
(Cash generated in 
Year 1 = $2,000) 



You put in the following rule (or 
formula): 

pv=npv(rate, cf0,cfl,cf2,cf3,cf4) 

If the cash flow values were entered in a 
list as described above, the rule could 
also be expressed as: 

pv= npv(rate, 'cf) 

in which: 

pv = present value 

npv = a TKfSolver function for 

calculating net present value 
cfn = cash flow in year N 

Upon entering this formula, the data 
above, and for present value, I tried to 
solve for the rate of return. No go. So 1 
simply put in 1 as my guess for a rate and 
watched TKfSolver iterate to a solution 
of 7.4%. Pretty poor! I could do better in 
the money market. 

So I put in 20% as my desired rate and 
blanked out the cash flow in Year 4. 
TKfSolver said I needed $6960 cash flow 
to make it. Impossible. 

I put back the original cash flows and 
blanked out the initial investment (cfO) 
and solved. In this case, it told me I 
couldn't invest more than $7610 to get a 
20% return. 

Using this, I could try any number of 
different scenarios, perhaps entering my 
data in lists and plotting the various 
results. 



(3i> Input 



St 



68 / 



======= 


========== 


VARIABLE SHEET = 


=========== 


Input 


Name 


Output Unit 


Comment 





— - • 








29.95 


s 




Sel 1 i nq 


21 


c 




Cost 




ma 


29.883139 pet 


Marqi n 




mu 


42.619048 pet 


Markup 



Price 



S Rule 



ma= (s 
mu= (s 



-c) /• 

-c) /c 



Figure 8. Variable and Rule Sheets for a markup and margins 
model. Model here solved for margin and markup given 
selling price and cost. 



( Is) 



St 



Stat 


us: 










= = = = = 


= = = : 


====== 


: = = 


VARIABLE SHEE1 


================== 


nput 




Name 




Output Unit 


Comment 















_. 






s 




32. 307692 


Sel 1 l nq Pr i ce 


1 




c 






Cost 


5 




ma 




p c t 


Marqi n 






mu 




53.846154 pet 


Markup 



68 / 



RULE SHEET 



S Rule 

ma= (»-C > /s 

mu = <s- c) /c 



44 



Figure 9. Same model as Figure 8 except it was used to solve 
for selling price (iteratively) given cost and desired margin. 

November 1982 ° Creative Computing 




Standard & Poor's STOCKPAK system 
can turn any investor into a whiz 

Whether you're an active investor, or just considering the 
best ways to invest, STOCKPAK can turn you into a Wall 
Street Wizard. 



In fact, you can draw from over 200 specific information 
items to compose a single screen. And, you can establish 
your own targets and cut-off points in each of these 200 areas. 
STOCKPAK will oblige by searching through the entire 
database to find only those companies that satisfy your criteria. 



Sophisticated software thaf s easy to use More f eats of ^^ardry with STOCKPAK 



STOCKPAK is a sophisticated software system that 
offers you an easy and economical way to obtain and 
evaluate important investment information to help you make 
better investment decisions. In fact, in virtually no time at all, 
you can put STOCKPAK to work for you performing a wide 
range of investment functions. 

Screening power is at your command 

Our Screen and Select system lets you apply your own 
investment criteria to a 900-company database. For example, 

you can tell STOCKPAK to find 
only large companies, or only 
small ones . . .only those with 
high earnings growth, or low 
P/E's, or high dividends. . . 
only those in certain indus- 
tries, or on specific ex- 
changes . . .only those above 
or below a certain price . . . 
or only those with high 
sales, or low debt, and so on. 




Standard & Poor's time-tested software also lets you 
evaluate and manage actual or hypothetical portfolios of up 
to 100 stocks each. And, you can create your own customized 
reports— displayed the way you want them. 

Whether you use STOCKPAK to help improve your 
investment decisions, or just for the fun of it, it's good to 
know the source of this wizardry: Standard & Poor's, one of 
the world's leading financial publishers with a 120-year 
reputation of service to the investment community. 

Visit your local Radio Shack 
Computer Store today 

STOCKPAK is designed exclusively for use on the 
TRS-80 Models III and I computers with 32K business sys- 
tems and two disk drives. The basic software and sample 
database plus complete documentation is available from your 
Radio Shack computer store for only $49.95. The STOCK- 
PAK monthly updating service can be ordered directly from 
Standard & Poor's for only $200 annually Visit your local 
Radio Shack today for additional information and a 
demonstration. 



Stan dard & Poors Corporation 



25 BROADWAY MEW YORK.1M.Y. 10004 



© STANDARD & POOR'S 1982 



CIRCLE 290 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



TK! Solver continued... 



(bo) Output: 1176.4378389 



b8 / 



Other Functions 

A total of 34 functions are built into 
TKfSolver. They range from the expected 
trig, log and square root functions to 
advanced math and business functions. 
For example, inverse hyperbolic tangent 
and log base 10 functions are included. 
As mentioned earlier, dot product, list 
sum, and net present value are available, 
as are functions to return the minimum 
or maximum value in a list, count the 
elements in a list, or even apply a user 
function to a domain of values. 

Other Applications 

Software Arts will be introducing a 
series of applications packages consisting 
of a disk with rules, variables and units 
tables along with a detailed manual for 
each. Similar to the HP41C packages, 
these will give instructions for running 
the package as is but also will show the 
user how to change it to meet his own 
requirements. 

I tried an early version of the mortgage 
package and found that a $95,000 house 
with a 20% down payment and 30-year 
18.5% mortgage would cost me $1 176 per 
month. However, if I could scrape 
together $1400 per month I could reduce 
the term of the mortgage to 10 years(!) or 
purchase a $115,000 house (see Figure 
10). 

Other packages are being prepared for 
education (a neat population model, 
among others), civil engineering, mechan- 
ical engineering, HVAC, convertible 



::::::::::::::::::: VARIABLE SHEET :::::::::::::::::::::: 

St Input Nase Output Unit I 



95888 H 


dollars 


House price 


19888 a 


dollars 


Down payment 


P 


76888 dollars 


Mortgage 




pin 


Tern 


18.588888 i 


interest 


Interest rate 


A 


|H76. 43781 


Monthly payment 


T 


423517.62 dollars 


Total of payments 



:::::::"::: RULE SHEET :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 

S Rule 



Simple Homo Mortgage Model 



H=p*d 

A P«(i/(l-(l*i) A -n)) 

T A«n 



"Monthly payment foreula 



l 1 i ) Input : 



St Input 



67 / 



Name 



VARIABLE 

Output 



SHEET -« 
Unit. 



i i xnment 



H 

25000 d 

p 

n 
1 &. 5OOOO0 3 
1400 A 

I 



1115442.52 dollars 
dol 1 ars 
""442.518 dollars 
v e a r 

i nt erest 
dol 1 ars 
•4OO0 dollars 

»«».. rule SHEE f ■■■-■-■ 



House pr i ce 
Down pay met i ' 
Mortgage 

I er m 

Interest r at e 

Month 1 y pa\ inert t 
T o t a 1 o t p a y m e n t s 



Rtl] G 



Simple Home Mortgage Model 

" Mon t h 1 v p a y ment * or mu 1 a 



H«p+d 

n i <*<].' i (l+i* n > » 



Figure 10. Screen photo shows mortage model used to calculate number and 
amount of monthly payments. Below the same model calculates that a SI 400 
monthly payment would allow buying a house costing $115,442. 




^U 






H t™ 



f> n 



bonds, institutional portfolio management 
and many more. 

The Ultimate Solution? 

Ever since I attended Software Arts' 
initial press conference introducing 
TKfSolver, people have asked me, "Is it 
another VisiCalcT 

Frankly, I don't know. It seems that 
many of the users at which TKfSolver is 
being aimed are already computer literate 
and are probably using timesharing (with 
packaged software) or a microcomputer 
(with self-written programs in Basic). 
However, both of these groups probably 
would be more than enthusiastic about a 
user-friendly tool like TKfSolver. It may 
not sell as many computers as VisiCalc 
has, but it certainly will win as many 
friends. □ 




46 



November 1982° Creative Computing 



Explore the Frontiers of Intelligence 




< Variations of blind-fold play— camouflaged or invisible pieces 

< Invert board to play black on bottom 

< Change pieces on board during game, or set up position 

< Change between 15 levels of play, plus postal and mate-finder modes 

< Show move that Chess is thinking about 
<4 List played moves for each side 

<4 Lines of force in: attacks and defenses on a square 

< Lines of force out: squares attacked and defended 

< Chess suggests a move 

< Show moves Chess thinks you will make, and its responses 

< Evaluation of a position 

< Return to board or switch to command menu 
A Take back a move (repeatable) 

< Play move suggested by look-ahead search 

< Chess plays neither side 

< Switch sides 

< Chess plays against itself— one level against another 

< Replay through most advanced position 
<4 Skip to most advanced position 

< Start new game 

< Leave program 

< Save, get, and delete games to and from disk 

All features self-documented; all choices cursor-controlled 
Screen shows "outward" and "look" features being used 



THE PEOPLE BEHIND THE PROGRAMS: 



Larry Atkin & David Slate: Authors of the 
Northwestern University Chess 4.7 program- 
World Computer Chess Champion, 1977-1 980 



Peter Frey: Northwestern University professor 
Editor: Chess Skill in Man and Machine 
One of U.S. Othello Assoc.'s top-ranked players 




A - AOUICE 

B - SETUP A POSITION 

C - SET COLOR TO MOUE NEXT 

D - DEMO PROGRAM 

E - EUALUATION OF CAME 

G - NEW GAME (OR START POSITION) 

H - HELP (LIST OF FEATUPES) 

1 - GIUE-AUAY - SWITCH TO OR FROM 
K - SET ALTERNATE LEUEL FOR WHITE 
L - CHANGE SKILL LEUEL 

M - PROGRAM MAKES NEXT MOUE 

N - HUMAN PLAYS BOTH SIDES 

- MUSIC OFF, OR BACK ON 

P - PARAMETER CHANGES 

" - OUIT PROGRAM AND BOOT DISK 

v - RESET PROGRAM 

S - STOP SEARCH. MOUIE, DEMO, OR "H* 

T - TAKE BACK A MOUE 

U - INUERT BOARD DISPLAY 

U - SET RANDOM NUMBER 

W - PROGRAM PLAYS AGAINST ITSELF 

X - REPLAY ONE MOUE 

Y - CHECKERS MOUIE 

2 - MOUE BEEP OFF, OR BACK ON 











3 

o 
■ 


■HHH 

□□□□ 

■nan 








on 

□a 
nn 


■ 

■ 


□■ 








■Q 




n 


■ 










■ 


■a 




■ 








■lack if mnite i tmm 

CWL r u l E „.„ „SfSD««- c.™ hM 



Checkers' features 



Black to move and win 

(From Checkers documentation) 



"Scores" feature in Odin 



A clue to the secret of Odin: 
Black is destined to lose. 




930 Pitner 
Evanston, IL 60202 
(U.SA) 



Chess: $69.95 
Checkers: $49.95 
Odin: $49.95 



See your local software dealer, or order 

(Mastercard or Visa): 

800-323-5423 

(in Illinois, call 312-328-7101) 



CIRCLE 233 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



For Apple II, Apple II Plus 48K disk 
systems, and Atari 48K disk systems. 
Odin is also available for TRS-80 Model 
1 & 3 32K disk systems. 

©1982 ODESTA 






*>m<m,m 






Pw ih*»i MM 
downward hi donivt 

■ 






xss£cj& 


^ ■ 




r^ocom 


2 


1 


L - 






A LOCKED DOOR A DEAD MAN 

AamHouBtonhethenudet 





At the rate we're going, 
we'll have these pages 
filled by 2083. And by 
2084, people will be 
clamoring for the next 
Infocom creation. 

We hate to disappoint our 
public. So we keep you waiting. 
Because while the software facto- 
ries are cranking out arcade game 
after arcade game, pulpy adven- 
ture after trite fantasy, we're 
writing and rewriting, honing and 
perfecting. Before a single person 
enters one of Infocom's worlds, 
it must be crafted into a living, 
riveting, definitive experience. 




Judging from the public's reac- 
tion, it's worth the wait. For 
instance, Creative Computing 
welcomed DEADLINE™ as 
"thoroughly engrossing and real- 
istic," while a Softalk readers' 
poll recently voted ZORK™ I and 
ZORK II the most popular adven- 
tures of 1981. 

And now, for the moment, your 
wait is over. ZORK III, your final 



step in the underground 
trilogy, and STARCROSS,™ 
an exploration of a new 
dimension in science fiction, 
are ready for you. 

Look at them up there, 
the little worlds of Infocom. As 
our universe expands, compan- 
ions will come to help fill that vast 
expanse of white space. Till 
then, they'll continue to stand 
alone as the best of all possible 
worlds. 

inFocom 

55 Wheeler Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 



Infocom's worlds are available for Apple? Atari? IBM, TRS-80? Commodore, NEC, Osborne, CP/M? and DEC." 

Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. Atari is a registered trademark of Atari, Inc. TRS-80 is a registered trademark of Tandy Corporation. 

CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research, Inc. DEC is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corporation. 



MatheMagic 




Computation Made Easy 



International Software Marketing may 
be onto something big in MatheMagic, a 
program which turns your computer into 
a powerful calculator with many possible 
applications in technical, scientific and 
academic settings. 

The Apple II version we saw, written 
in Applesoft Basic by Joe Luciano, loads 
from one disk drive, although the user 
manual points out that a data disk is 
required and that the program is more 
easily run when two drives are available. 

MatheMagic is not a VisiCalc style 
spreadsheet program but a tool for turn- 
ing the Apple into a programmable calcu- 
lator. When you think about it, micro- 
computers are called upon to do many 
chores, such as compiling information, 
storing and retrieving data, sorting files, 
and executing commands to a variety of 
peripheral devices, but they are seldom 
used to compute — to do mathematical 
chores. With MatheMagic, a new era 
begins. 

In simple terms, what MatheMagic does 
is to create files of formulas which the 
user can store on separate data disks for 
retrieval as needed. MatheMagic then 
solves mathematical problems using these 
retrieved formulas. It sounds simple 
enough, but there is a world of possible 
applications for MatheMagic. 

Let's take a closer look at the program. 
As the documentation says, you are better 
off with two disk drives because you work 
with a program disk and one or more 
data disks which are used for storing the 
formulas you create and save. The data 
disks are initialized in the usual way. 

Once you have your disk initialized, 
relax; the program manual and the pro- 
gram itself give you appropriate cues 
when it is time to switch disks in your 

Brian J. Murphy. 133 Post Road, Fairfield, CT 
06430. 



Brian J. Murphy 

single drive. Users with two drives will 
find that the switching is automatic. 

All command options are displayed on 
screen menus. The first menu offers the 
housekeeping options. You can decide 
which slots are to be used for the drives, 
how many drives are to be used, which 
user will operate the program, whether to 
have a floating decimal, and whether to 
print hard copy. 

The next task is to create formulas. 
Before we discuss that, however, let's 
digress and discuss applications. After all, 
the formulas you write depend on your 
own personal or business needs. Stop 
here. If, by now, you can't think of any 
computations you would like MatheMagic 
to do for you, or if the ones you think of 
are as easily done on a $12 calculator, 
you probably don't need MatheMagic. 

If on the other hand, you do the same 
calculations over and over again, or if 
you frequently solve complex equations, 
MatheMagic can be a godsend. Certainly 
architectural engineers, electronics 
experts, statisticians, and other profes- 
sionals in technical fields will find the 
program of great potential value. Theo- 
retical scientists will also find abundant 
applications for MatheMagic, although 
the program is not equipped to do cal- 
culus. 

Educators and parents may also find 
MatheMagic quite useful. Teachers will 
find that it is a painless way to get students 
to think mathematically as they create 
formulas, test them, and store them in 
their own files. Parents may also find the 
program useful in turning the Apple II 
into a learning tool that can re-ignite the 
interest of a child who has been "turned 
off" to math in school. 



Now we must ask, how difficult is it to 
create and save files of formulas with 
MatheMagic? The answer is that it is not 
too difficult, but to use the program 
effectively takes a little practice. The 
major functions of MatheMagic are run 
from a "Formula Menu" from which the 
user creates the formulas, edits them, 
saves or loads them through the disk 
system, and performs the calculations. 

There is a small glossary of symbols 
and abbreviated commands which stand 
for MatheMagic functions. These include 
the standard Apple II symbols for the 
basic operations, such as / for division, 
and * for multiplication. 

For more complex functions there are 
three-letter codes which seem fairly log- 



GPeattve GomputinQ 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: MatheMagic 

Type: Calculation program 

System: 48K Apple II with 

Applesoft, NEC PC-8000, 
IBM PC, CP/M based 
systems, and at least one 
disk drive 

Format: Disk 

Language: Applesoft or Microsoft 
Basic 

Summary: Calculator for scientific, 
academic, and 
technical applications. 

Price: $89.99 

Manufacturer: 

International Software 

Marketing 
Suite 421, University Building 
120 E.Washington St. 
Syracuse, NY 13202 



50 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



ically derived. A few of them are LOG 
for common Jog, TAN for tangent, SQR 
for square root, and DEC for the decimal 
value of a hex number. Variables can be 
signified in your formulas by any combin- 
ation of letters up to 30 characters long. 
For example, in a suggested mileage 
calculation formula, MatheMagic recom- 
mends that you subtract a variable called 
MILESTHEN from a variable called 
MILESNOW and divide the result by 
GAS for gallons. The formula you type in 
looks like this: 

(MILESNOW-MILESTHEN) / GAL 
The result, once you give the CALCU- 
LATE command is your miles per gallon. 
If it occurs to you that you don't have 
to express the formula more algebraically 
(X = (a - b)c) you have grasped one of 
the major advantages of using Mathe- 
Magic. When you call up your MPG 
formula it might take a little time to figure 
out which of the expressions in X = (a - 
b)c is supposed to be gallons, which old 
miles and so forth. Using the MatheMagic 
system there is no such confusion. 

MatheMagic can also handle arrays of 
formulas and functions. For example, if 
you have a formula for the Pythagorean 
Theorem under the name @PYTH, and 
you want to find a number that is five 
times the result of the formula, you input 
5*@PYTH and the computer calls up the 




formula, asks for the values of the vari- 
ables, and instantly gives you a result 
multiplied by five. 

Similarly, you can combine formulas 
for more sophisticated calculations. This 
is one of the more appealing facets of 
MatheMagic. It works like this: suppose, 
for example, you have a formula which 
determines the number of units you can 
manufacture in a given span of time. You 
can create this formula with MatheMagic 
and save it under the name UNIT. 

Suppose now you want to write a 
program which calculates unit costs. You 
can do so, saving it under the title COST. 
Now, if you want to figure out how many 
units you can make and the total cost 
involved, you do so by commanding 
©UNIT * ©COST. 



If you have another formula to calcu- 
late shipping costs, you can command 
©UNIT * ©COST + ©SHIP. If you want 
to consider three production runs, you 
command 3 * (©UNIT • ©COST + 
SHIP). If you plan to use these formulas 
frequently, you save them under one title, 
such as ©PROD. Every time you call up 
©PROD, you get ©UNIT • ©COST + 
©SHIP. 

The potential for combining and 
recombining your most frequently used 
formulas is almost unlimited. You can 
create formula libraries swiftly, and han- 
dle the variables easily, thanks to the 
logical system of naming them with words. 
When you are through you can get a full- 
size sheet of hard copy from your serial 
or parallel printer, instead of cramped 
figures from a calculator tape which must 
be copied onto a larger format. 

Improvements to MatheMagic are cur- 
rently in the works. The most important 
of these are adaptations so that the 
program will work even more efficiently 
with hard disk retrieval systems. The 
version we evaluated was designed for a 
48K Apple II. MatheMagic is also avail- 
able for the IBM Personal Computer and 
CP/M systems. Versions for Radio Shack 
and Atari computers are said to be in the 
works. □ 

CIRCLE 346 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



"Simply the best word processor... anywhere" 



For the Apple™ 

No hardware additions 
needed — What you 
see is what you get. 
All functions are 
displayed on the 
screen exactly as they 
appear in print 
including: 



• Underlining 

• Bold 

• Superscript 

• Even normal 
justification 

• Lower and | 
upper case 

Block 
movement 

• Global replace 

• Plus many more 
features 





\\ 









Word Handler is simply 
the best word processing 
software I could find 
anywhere Dy far. 

William R. Moroney 

President 
Electronic Funds 
Transfer Association 



^°Ust Handler o 

w orK with *e Ca , c n. 

(interlace 8 **" es 



Once you buy a Word Handler we 
don't forget you; our customer service 
department is available daily. We 
support our products 



When upgrades are introduced you are 
supplied with a replacement disk FREE* 
Contact your local Applet dealer for a 
demonstration. You'll be glad you did. 



Silicon Valley Systems, Inc. 1625 Ei Camino Real *4 Belmont, CA 94002 (415) 593-4344 

Silicon Valley Systems 

CIRCLE 2 73 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



AN ATARI 



ii 



JNI 



HOME COMPUTER 



AND A FATHER'S LOVE COMBINED 
TO HELP CHILDREN EVERYWHERE. 



Fernando Herrera became the first 
grand prize winner of the ATARI 
Software Acquisition Program 
(ASAP) competition because he 
oelieved in computers, his son 
and himself. 

The story of Herrera s success 
began with his son s sight problems. 
Young Steve Herrera had been 
born with severe cataracts in both 
eyes and, naturally, his father 
was concerned. Herrera reasoned 
that the boy s learning abilities 
could be seriously affected by grow- 
ing up in a world he could not see. 

Having just purchased an 
ATARI 800 Home Computer, it 
occured to Herrera that this could 
be the perfect tool for testing 
Steves vision. So he wrote a pro- 
gram simply displaying the letter 
"E" in various sizes. 

Success! It turned out that 
2 -year-old Steve could see even 
the smaller U E s" without special 
lenses. Herrera was first relieved, 
nd then intrigued when he dis- 
covered that not only could his son 
see the u EsT but he would happily 
play with the computer-generated 
letters for hours. So Herrera added 
a picture of an elephant to go with 
the "E|' and then more letters and 
pictures. Thus, "My First Alphabet" 
was born, a unique teaching program for chil- 
dren two-years and older consisting of 36 high 
resolution pictures of letters and numbers. 

Herrera submitted the program to the 
ATARI Program Exchange, where it became 
an instant best-seller. ATARI was so im- 
pressed with the outstanding design, suit- 
ability and graphic appeal or My First 
Alphabet',' that the program is being incorpo- 
rated into the ATARI line of software. 




In addition to his grand prize winnings 
of $25,000 in cash and an ATARI STAR 
trophy, Herrera also automatically receives 
royalties from sales of his program through 
the ATARI Program Exchange. 

But Fernando Herrera wasn't the only soft- 
ware "star" that ATARI discovered. Three 
other ATARI STARS were awarded at the 
ASAP awards ceremony for software sub- 
mitted to the ATARI Program Exchange and 



RECORD LENGTH = 83 „_„..__ 

PRE55 AMY KEY TO COMTIMUEB 



•••WSX*' C>**» - . • •JL23 
eABCDEFGHIJKLMMOPQRS 

«dbtdefghi jklhnopqrs 



udged by ATARI to be particu- 
arly unique and outstanding. 

Ron and Lynn Marcuse or 
Freehold, New Jersey, teamed 
up to write three winning 
entries in the Business and Pro- 
fessional category for home 
computers: "Data Management 
System 1 / "The Diskette Librae 
ian" and "The Weekly Planner' 

Sheldon Leeman of Oak Park, 
Michigan, captured an ATARI 
STAR for his exceptionally 
well-engineered "INSTEDIT" 
character set editor. 

Greg Christensen of 
Anaheim, California, became 
our youngest ATARI STAR 
winner at the age of 17. 
Christensen designed the 
clever "Caverns of Mars' game 
program, which also will be 
incorporated into the ATARI 
product line. Greg designed 
the program in V/i months 
after owning his ATARI Home 
Computer for less than a year. 

Every three months, ATARI 
awards ATARI STARS to the 
writers of software programs 
submitted to the ATARI Software 
Acquisition Program and judged first, 
second and third place in the following 
categories: Consumer (including entertain- 
ment, personal interest and development); 
Education; Business and Professional pro- 
grams for the home (personal finance and 
record keeping); and System Software. 

Quarterly prizes consist of selected ATARI 
products worth up to $3,000, as well as an 
ATARI STAR, plus royalties from program 
sales through the ATARI Program Exchange. 
The annual grand prize is the coveted ATARI 
STAR trophy and $25,000 in cash. 

To be eligible, your software idea must be 
accepted by the ATARI Software Acquisition 
Program. Your program can have a broad 
application or serve a very specific purpose. 





DATA DICTIONARY 


RECORD 


FILE MAMC ~ PA «.--- 
APPLICATION - PHOME/ADDRE** 


ELEM 


IS HEADING 


LENGTH 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 


MANE L,F 
STREET 
CITY, 5TATE 
ZIP CODE 
AREA CODE 
PHONE NO. 
BIRTHDAY 




20 
20 
20 

5 
3 
8 
6 



EDIT 



NUMERIC 

NUMERIC 

DATE 




4S6789: ; <=>? 
TUVKKVZI\1 A _ 



TTT 





After submittal, consultation 
from ATARI is available if you 
need personal assistance with 
sound, graphics, or other tech- 
nical aspects of your program. 

To make your job easier, 
ATARI provides some 20 
software development tools 
through the ATARI Program 
Exchange. A list and descrip- 
tion of the various system 
software is published quarterly 
in the ATARI Program Ex- 
change Catalog. These tools 
enable you to utilize all the 
ATARI resources and software, 
including the six ATARI 
programming languages. 

Fernando Herrera had a 
great idea that made him a star. 
ATARI would like to give you 
the same opportunity. 




ATARI 



AWarnef Communications Comotny 



Enter the ATARI ASAP competition and you 
could win $25,000 in cash, royalties, some great 
prizes and an ATARI STAR. 

SUBMIT TO: ATARI® Software Acquisition Program 

Dept. C3R , PO. Box 427 
155MoffettParkDr.,B-l 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 

OR CALL: 800-538-1862; in California, 800-672-1850. 

I'm reaching for the stars. Please send me 

an entry form today. 

Name 



Address. 
City 



State/Zip. 



ATARI HOME COMPUTERS 

We've Brought The Computer Age Home. 



©1982 ATARI. Inc 



CIRCLE 115 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





Solutions Without Programming 
...the friendly, menu-driven software that 
provides solutions without programming. From 
simple calculations to sophisticated 
mathematics, MatheMagic is infinitely useful 
in business, classrooms, laboratories or the 
home. Effectively eliminates the programming 
gap between user and computer. 

Easy to learn...easy to use.. .in normal math 
notation. Priced under $100. 



m ■! h II hi l' : - : - 

■ • ■■■ ••• • «•••• • ■■ 

^^sw ■ l ■•••■ •••••• •••••• 

■ ^^^^^^r ^^H •••••••••••• ••• ••• • •■ 

^v ^M ^L^H ■ •••••••••••• ••■ ••• • •• 

^^. ^M ^W ■ ■ ■•••••■•■■■• •■■■ ■•■* ■•■ 

^r^H ^^ ^r^Hi ••■••■•••••■ •••• •••■ •■■ 

I ^| ^B I I ••■•••••■■■ • ■•••••••• • •• 

■ M ■•••••••••••• ••••••••■ ••• 

^ W\ II ■■ I :::•:: 



TM 



Draw Your Own Conclusions 
...once you've reached the solutions without 
programming, GRAPHMAGIC lets you draw 
your own conclusions. Mastered in minutes, it 
creates representational charts and graphs 
from mathematical data. Ideal for classroom or 
business presentations. Allows ample text 
anywhere on graphs. 

Operates fully stand-alone and is also 
compatible with MatheMagic™, VisiCalc™ or 
any DIF* file product... stores and recallsdata 
from disks... utilizes full color capability... 
overlays graphs... supports the most popular 
printers.. .and is universally affordable at 
under SI 00. 




illustrated in full color and animated graphics, 
with vivid sound effects, it has irresistable 
appeal for all age groups. PRISM involves the 
search for three very real, solid gold keys valued 
at thousands of dollars hidden within the 
continental United States that maybe retrieved 
by solving the puzzles and riddles in the story. 
Finders keepers! 

A puzzle for all ages.. .contains simple to 
complex clues.. .utilizes the powers of the 
computer to entertain as well as challenge... 
priced between SI 9.95 and S24.95 (depending 
upon computer model). 

MatheMagic is available on: Apple //. IBM PC, 
CP/M and NEC PC 8000. Coming soon on 
TRS-80 Models I and III. GRAPHMAGIC is 
available on: Apple II and II+. Coming soon 
on IBM PC and NEC PC 8000. PRISM is 
available on: Apple II, Atari 400/800 Disk and 
Atari 400/800 Tape. 

VisiCalc is a registered trademark of VisiCorp. 

DIF is a trademark of Software Arts. Inc. 

Apple II and //+ are registered trademarks of Apple Computers. Inc. 

IBM /'C is a registered trademark of International Business 

Machines Corp. 

CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research. Inc. 

NEC PC 8000 is a registered trademark of Nippon Electronics Co. 

Atari is a trademark of Atari. Inc. a Division of Warner 

Communications. 

See MatheMagic, GRAPHMAGIC and PRISM 
at yourfavorite software dealers or computer 
store. If they are not available, ask your 
dealer to contact us. You may also write or 
call us directly for complete information on 
all ISM products at: 



f- 



nl 



A Fantasy To Treasure 

...this Storydisk™ from ISM brings literature to 
the microcomputer. PRISM, the first in the 
Storydisk series, is a fascinating story of 
heroes, villains and treasure! Lavishly 

CIRCLE 192 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



International Software Marketing 
Suite 421, University Building 
120 E. Washington Street 
Syracuse, New York 1 3202 
(315)474-3400 



683 Armadale Road 

Feltham, Middlesex TW14-OLW 

England 

01-751-5791 



PFS: Graph 



COItt 



Charts and Graphs from 
an Apple Computer 




David H. Ahl 



PFS .Graph is a software package for 
making line, bar and pie charts with an 
Apple II computer. The minimum system 
configuration is a 48K Apple II, one disk 
drive (two are preferable) and, according 
to the manual, an optional printer or 
plotter. For reasons discussed below, I 
felt the printer (or plotter) should not be 
listed as optional but rather as manda- 
tory. 

A functional block diagram of the 
PFS.Graph system is shown in Figure 1. 

Six Basic Functions 

In the Enter/Edit data section, you can 
either enter data directly from the key- 
board or retrieve data from a VisiCalc 
DIF file or PFS file. X axis data may be in 
one of three formats: numeric, identifier 
(labels), or date (month, day, year, 
quarter, etc.). Y axis data is always 
numeric. 

Function 2 displays a chart or graph. 

Function 3, Define Chart, changes the 
way PFS.Graph displays your chart and 
lets you add explanatory information to 



® ENTER/EDIT 
DATA 



creative coittpatiRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: PFS: Graph 

Type: Charting and graphing package 

Authors: Sebessi Chin and Stephen Hill 

System: 48K Apple, disk drive, printer 

Format: Disk 

Summary: Bar, line and pie charts for 
up to four variables 

Price: $125 

Manufacturer: 

Software Publishing Corp. 
1901 Landings Dr. 
Mountain View, CA 94043 




DISPLAY CHART 







i\Ci' N 




1 




1 \ 


1 \ 


C 
























. . 


■ 


■ 


• 



] 1 1 \\ 1 1 



PRINT PLOT 



(5)get/remove chart 



Figure 1. Block diagram of PFS: Graph. 




November 1982° Creative Computing 



it. You can display your graph as a bar, 
line or pie graph. You can stack individual 
graphs on top of one another or show 
them comparatively, side by side. 

Functions 4 and 5 are used to save 
charts on to disk and to retrieve them 
again. 

Finally, using Function 6, Print/Plot, 
you can print your chart with a printer or 
plotter. 

PFS.Graph is a menu-driven system. It 
always comes up with the main graph 
menu displayed. From this menu, any one 
of the six functions illustrated in Figure 1 
may be selected. To give you some experi- 
ence playing with the system before 
making your own graphs, a disk, which 
contains a wide variety of graphs and 
charts, is included. The introductory 

55 



section of the tutorial manual is devoted 
to getting operational with the system 
and familiarizing yourself with the func- 
tions using the sample charts. 

The balance of the manual is divided 
into six chapters, each of which describes 
in detail one of the six functions. The 
manual also includes four appendices 
which list and explain the error messages, 
provide a quick reference summary of 
the whole system, and provide informa- 
tion on using various printers and 
plotters. 

Entering and Editing Data 

Upon selecting Get/Edit Data on the 
main menu, a second menu is displayed 
which asks whether you wish to enter or 



PFS: Graph continued... 

edit data from the keyboard, get a Visi- 
Calc file, or get a PFS file. If data are to 
be entered from the keyboard, the screen 
is divided into two columns, one labeled 
"X data" and the other labeled "Y data." 
The first thing you must do is tell PFS: 
Graph what kind of X data are going to 
be entered: identifier, numeric, or date. 

An identifier is simply a collection of 
characters that identifies something, such 
as a department name, product name, or 
product number. These names may be up 
to fifteen characters long. 

Numeric data may be integer or deci- 
mal numbers ranging from 10°° or 10 30 . 
They may be entered as "standard" num- 
bers or in scientific notation, for example, 
lE6or 1E-5. 

Dates can consist of up to three groups 
of digits that are separated by non- 
numeric characters. Some examples of 
acceptable dates are: 



12/10/81 


3 10 80 


2:9:82 


12/81 


3 80 


2:82 


12 


1980 


82 



Date format may specify days, months, 
quarters, years or any legitimate combin- 
ation of more than one variable such as 
YM for months of more than one year. 
The first graph I put in charted data from 
April 1981 to March 1982. I used the 
month format and entered the data in the 
order that I expected it to be plotted. 
However, because I had not specified 
different years, PFS .Graph assumed I was 
entering data out of order, and obligingly 
reordered it for me, which, unfortunately, 
was not at all what I wanted. This was 
easily corrected by changing to the com- 
bined YM(year month) format. 

You can enter up to 36 pairs of X and 
Y values (only 16 if X is an identifier). If 
you make a mistake while you are enter- 
ing data, the cursor control keys may be 
used to move the cursor to the incorrect 
value, which may be typed over to make 
the correction. Thus, the system is some- 
what similar to a memory mapped word 
processing system. This is in contrast to 
VisiCalc or VisiPlot which allow you to 
jump from one value to another using the 
arrow keys. In PFS.Graph only the for- 
ward arrow key jumps to the next value. 
If you wish to jump back, you must use 
cursor control keys which move only one 
space at a time. 

When all the data for a graph have 
been entered, you press CONTROL-C to 
continue. Indeed, PFS.Graph uses 
CONTROL-C in place of RETURN 
throughout to indicate that data are being 
entered to the computer. We understand 
the reason for this: it is all too easy to 
press RETURN to enter data and then 
suddenly realize that you weren't really 
ready to do so. CONTROL-C requires 
much more deliberation. On the other 
hand, after a while, having the two key- 



* 



LL. 

O 

<.'■• 



i- 



CftCATIUE COMPUTING MASZZNE 

2T0 ; THOUSfiHDS> 




PRINT RUN 



! 82 
E3 PRODUCTION 



Figure 2. A maximum of 36 bars can be 
displayed or plotted. This figure shows 
24. 

strokes required to enter practically any- 
thing became rather annoying. 

As soon as you have entered your data, 
you may go back to the main menu and 
ask to see it displayed. You need specify 
no display parameters, formats, or labels. 
PFS.Graph takes care of everything auto- 
matically, at least in a rough way. You 
may want to make your graph prettier 
before printing it out, but at least you can 
see what it looks like as you go along. We 
found this a big advantage compared to 
VisiPlot which requires several minutes 
between the data entry function and the 
graphing function. 

If you have much data in VisiCalc files 
you probably want to use the direct entry 
capability rather than retyping these data. 
The VisiCalc file must be stored in the 
DIF format. Also, I found it worthwhile 
to select just that portion of the VisiCalc 
file that I wanted to graph and make a 
new file containing that data. This avoids 
the problem of selecting data from a much 
larger VisiCalc file which, in PFS.Graph, 
is a somewhat cumbersome operation. 

Let me emphasize that you must know 
the format of the VisiCalc files before 
trying to read them into PFS.Graph. The 
PFS.Graph program will not read a file 
and then let you examine it for those 
elements that you wish to plot. Rather, 
you must specify at the time of reading 



the data the number of the row (or 
column) that will provide the X data and 
the same for the Y data. You must also 
know the format of the X data. If your 
VisiCalc files are anything like mine in 
which labels are occasionally mixed in 
with numeric data, be warned that PFS.- 
Graph will balk at these inconsistencies 
and will not give you what you want. 

PFS.Graph also has the ability to read 
data from a PFS file without any special 
preparation. Depending on the situation, 
you can read data from all forms in the 
file or from selected forms. Again, you 
must be able to specify completely what 
is coming in, as you will not be able to 
examine it during the data transfer oper- 
ation. 

One rather nasty problem I had was 
trying to get rid of data for an existing 
graph when I started to enter data for a 
new one. On page 1-5 of the manual it 
states that "if you want to change the X 
data format, you must clear the chart and 
start again." Unfortunately, not until page 
3-13, does the manual tell how to clear 
out the old data. Once I learned I had to 
enter a CONTROL-R from the Define 
Chart Menu, I was okay. However, I felt 
this should have been mentioned much 
earlier in the manual to save unnecessary 
gnashing of teeth and leafing through 
pages. 

The Way You Want It 

The Define Chart function is used to 
change the way PFS.Graph displays your 
chart, and to add explanatory information 
to it. Using Define Chart, you can display 
most data in any of three formats (bar, 
line, or pie chart). You can "stack" the 
individual graphs on top of each other, 
adjust the Y axis to a different scale, and 
specify that the data in one or more of 
the graphs be displayed cumulatively. 
You can provide legends to identify data 
from each graph and titles for the chart 



« 
Z 
<L 

CO 

LU 

l-H 
0L 

o 
o 

CO 

z: 

<E 

CO 
ZD 
O 
X 
h- 



CREATIUE COMPUTING MAGZINE 
(THOUSANDS) 




A M J J 
PRINT RUN 



A 
81 



S 







M D J F M 

82 

PRODUCTION COST 



Figure 3. Same as Figure 2, but printed in expanded format (originally 8-1/2 x 11). 

56 November 1 982 ° Creative Computing 



At last count, more than a 
couple of million Americans 
owned personal computers. And 
that number is expected to triple 

by 1985. 

That's a fertile environ- 
ment for software sales. But a 
lot of personal computer soft- 
ware organizations are discover- 
ing it's not as easy as they might 
have thought. 

The problems boil down 
to these: 

Lack of awareness on the 
part of personal computer buy- 
ers. Lack of understanding 
on the part of personal 
computer salespeople. 
Lack of unlimited dollars to 
advertise in the myriad 
magazines that reach this 
small segment or that 
small segment of the 
total market. 

If any of this sounds 
like a familiar frustration 
to you, weVe got good 
news. LIST is here. And 
its advent heralds a new 
era in cost-effective soft- 
ware marketing. 

LIST isn't another 
guide. It's not another 
directory. It's an informa- 



tive new publication that puts 
software first. And puts you in 
touch— directly, inexpensively 
— with the fastest growing seg- 
ments of the personal computer 
market. 

With LIST, you'll be able to 
reach business and professional 
people at a critical point in the 
purchase cycle — before they've 
bought their hardware. 

At the same time, you'll be 
able to impact another significant 
market segment — those people 
who already own personal com- 



puters, and are eager to learn 
how they can do more with 
them. 

To find out how LIST can 
expand the awareness of your 
software for less than $200, 
send us this coupon. (Hurry! We 
go to press December 15. ) 

Or don't. And go on being 
less well known than you 
deserve to be. 

LIST is published by Redgate 
Publishing Co. , an affiliate of 
E. F. Hutton and Co. 

1 800 327-1300 



WANT TO MAKE MORE PEOPLE AWARE OF MY SOFTWARE 



NAME 




M 



1 



□ Please send me literature that explains how LIST can help. 

□ I don't want to wait on the mails. Call me right away. 

Send to LIST, Redgate Publishing Co. , 3407 Ocean Drive, 
Vero Beach, FL 32960. Or phone 1 800 327-1300. 



TITLE 



COMPANY 



TELEPHONE 



ADDRESS 



STATE 



ZIP 



LIST 

The Software Resource Book 
R)r Ffersonal Computer Users 



I 



CIRCLE 264 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PFS: Graph continued... 

and axes. Finally, you can control the 
horizontal grid line and display the chart 
in color (if you have a color monitor). 

While this sounds quite comprehensive, 
it is at this point that various limitations 
rear their ugly heads. The chart, X axis, 
and Y axis titles can be up to 26 char- 
acters long. Thus, in the charts labeled 
"Creative Computing Magazine," maga- 
zine must be spelled "magzine." Why not 
40 characters as in VisiPlot? 

In bar charts, up to four sets of data 
may be displayed side by side. However, 
because of screen and printer resolution 
limitations, if four sets of data are dis- 
played, only nine X axis data points may 
be used. In other words, a maximum of 
36 bars may be displayed in the X direc- 
tion. Even so, it is a bit cramped. See 
Figures 2 and 3 which display 24 bars side 
by side. 

Up to four data points may be "stacked" 
in a bar (Figure 4 shows three stacked 
values). 



CREHTIUE computing press 



4#Q0 



CO 

UJ 



y 336G 



-J 

c 

3 



.viae ■ 



S 1899 








M ft 

° KATIE & COMPUTP. ♦ COMPUTERS MATH 
< MORE BftSIC GrtME 

Figure 5. Line chart shows monthly sales 
of three books. 



is the ability to graph cumulative data. 
When this feature is selected, each point 
on the graph represents the total, or 
cumulative, Y value up to that point. 
Figures 5 and 6 illustrate this capability. 

Pie charts usually show quantitative 
data in percents or absolute numbers that 
are part of a whole, and can dramatize 
comparisons between parts in relation to 
the whole. PFS.Graph permits plotting 
up to eight segments. The X axis labels 



CREATIVE COMPUTING MAGZINE 



209 



(THOUSANDS) 



ct: 



o 

Ll 
O 

0") 

z: 

<E 
CO 

Z> 

o 



188 
160 
140 
120 

190 

30 
60 
40 
20 



minnnHmi mm ii i i i miii i i^, 







Eca 



IttSttl 



ftL. 






IKtM 



•V.J 

r.-v 



pxrq 



•• w 



&'-iti 






A N J J 



o> 



//y 



*77. 7 • 
'* •• •*'. /'A 
Ldii A. . I, j^liltl. 

A S 



"T 7 



•■".4 



1 



y> 



t 

D 



cm 






lOErn 






81 

E23 PRINTING COST 

E3 PREPARATION 



J F 
I 82 

□ PAPER COST 



M 



Figure 4. Bars can consist of up to four data points identified by color or shading. 



Bar and line graphs may be combined 
in a single chart. However, if bars are 
stacked in the bar graph portion, the line 
graph is stacked on top of the bars. Thus, 
while I would have liked to show a line 
graph of the total print run on top of the 
stacked bar graphs showing printing costs 
(Figure 4), this was not possible. While 
VisiPlot is more cumbersome in speci- 
fying the /ayout of graphs, it would have 
allowed me to combine these items. Also, 
VisiPlot allows a line graph to overlap a 
bar graph, whereas with PFS.Graph, the 
line chart must always be above and 
separate from the bar chart portion. 

VisiPlot permits a "floating" label to be 
placed anywhere on the chart. PFS.Graph 
does not have this feature. 

An outstanding feature of PFS.Graph 



determine the number of segments and Y 
axis values determine the size of each 
segment. Whether you want it to or not, 
PFS.Graph always converts the absolute 
numbers to percentages in the pie chart 
labels (see Figure 7). Unfortunately, if 
you want to use the same data for both a 
bar and pie chart it probably will have to 
be entered twice because the X labels for 
a bar chart are likely to be different from 
those on a pie chart. 

For a more pleasing appearance, it may 
be desirable to rescale a graph. I had one 
uncomfortable moment trying to rescale 
the bar graph showing Creative Com- 
puting Magazine print runs from the 
300,000 maximum provided automatically 
by PFS.Graph to a more visually pleasing 
250,000 (see Figure 8). I specified a Y axis 

58 



CREATIUE C0HPUTIN8 PPESS 

2Qj ■I'^yfrAiiyy.' 



(A 

K 



c 




° KATIE I COMPUTP ♦ COMPUTERS MATH 
rvjRfc BASIC BflHE 

Figure 6. Using the same data as Figure 5 
but plotted cumulatively. 

range of 0-250 and got the graph shown in 
Figure 9. This is clearly not what I desired, 
and it took me several minutes to realize 
that the rescale value must be in terms of 
the total units (250,000) and not in terms 
of the value shown on the scale (250). 
Using the correct value produced the 
desired result (see Figure 10). 

Printing and Saving Graphs 

The Print/Plot routine allows any graph 
to be printed on a Silentype, Epson, or 
any other printer connected with a 
Grappler interface card. It may also be 
plotted on an HP7470A Plotter. The 
graphs may be printed in both "normal 
size" (approximately 3" x 4") or in 
expanded size to fill an 8 1/2" x 11" page. 
Figures 3 and 4 are printed in the 
expanded format. Note the much better 
resolution. All the illustrations for this 
article, by the way, were printed on a 
Silentype printer. 

A much better copy on paper or trans- 
parency may be produced with the 
HP7470A plotter. The program has an 
option to halt for a pen change after 
plotting a given portion of the informa- 
tion. This permits multicolored charts to 
be drawn. The quality of these charts is 
outstanding. 

The Get/Remove Chart function is 
used to "save, retrieve or delete" a chart 
stored on a diskette. I had anticipated 
that saving a chart in this way would 
permit it to be retrieved by one of the 
slide show systems such as the Lotus 
Executive Briefing System, Screen Direc- 
tor System, or C & H Slide Show. But 
alas, this does not seem to be possible. 
The PFS.Graph system stores slides in a 
peculiarly-formatted disk system which 

PRODOC r 




<<lT.. 

Jill! 

41 1 
1 1 1 1 1 1 

iimtin 



— .' 



iO'-: 
MEN CM. 

E3 13* 
EDUCATION 
S 20% 

hTWFP 

QJJ 23* 

ENGINEERING 



•r.rtMLL BUSINESS 



Figure 7. Pie chart values are always 
converted to percentages. 

November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



y 

lu 



i 



:reatiue c ohpu t r nq m*gz i he 



CREATIUE COMPUTING WhGZINE 




i 00 ■ 



PRINT PUN 



Figure 8. Creative Computing print run, 
4/81-3/82. Scaling is chosen automatical- 
ly by PFS: Graph. 



•— t 

a. 
o 



O 
M 

5 

t 

b 

X 



250 
225 
208 
175 
198 
125 
188 
75 
88 


























H 






r\ 






T 


M 


c 




1 1 











PRINT RUN 



91 



Figure 9. Result of re-scaling Figure 8 
using to 250 (the value printed on the 
axis). 






•jt 



CREmTIUE COMPUTING MmGZINE 




h n J J * 
81 

PRINT RUN 



N D J F H 
i *2 



Figure 10. Correct re-scaling using to 
250,000 and 25,000 Y-axis dividing lines. 



can be read only from the PFS.Graph 
software system (or perhaps from Pascal). 
Indeed, it is not even possible with Apple 
DOS to list a catalog from a PFS.Graph 
data disk; nor is it possible to store a 
graph in the hi-res page and BSAVE it to 
another disk because the normal DOS is 
not operative with the PFS.Graph system. 
This is a real pity because, in general, it is 
easier to make a chart using PFS.Graph 
than with VisiPlot. However, the manual 
gives no clue how to use these graphs 
with any other system if, indeed, it is 
possible at all. Thus, as I stated at the 
beginning, it is necessary to have a printer 
or plotter if you wish to disseminate the 
information from PFS.Graph. 



CREHTXVE COMPUTING NftGSINE 
MARCH 1982 ISSUE 




W/w/M 



□ 3.6** 
PREPARATION 

23 26.65% 
PRINTING COST 

E3 68.66% 

PrtPCT COST 



. ff.+ fffSA 



r.- .• ' .* j" .' .• .* .' .* ,'•" 



Figure 11. Pie chart percentages are 
automatically rounded to two decimal 
places. 



The Bottom Line 

In summary, PFS.Graph is an easy-to- 
use, versatile system for producing bar, 
line and pie charts on a Apple computer. 
The finished graphs can be produced 
more quickly than with VisiPlot and the 
expanded printer option is a decided plus. 
The menus are clear and self-explanatory. 
The ability to graph cumulative data is 
excellent. On the other hand, PFS.Graph 
is not as versatile as VisiPlot in labelling, 
data manipulation, or combining several 
graphs on the same chart. Furthermore 
the manual gives no instructions for 
retrieving the graphs with any other 
software system. □ 

CIRCLE 350 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Computer-Ed. 

Of 

Carmel, NY & Los Angeles, CA 

99/4(A) Programs 

• K-6 Reading 

• K-6 Language Arts 

• K-6 Math 

• Follow-up Games 
and Worksheets 

• Classroom Tested 

• Also Available for 
TRS-80 Level II 

For 

FREE Catalogue 

Write To: 

Computer-Ed. 

1 Everett Rd. 
Carmel, NY 10512 



CIRCLE 144 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ALF COPY SERVICE 

FAST • RELIABLE • LOW COST 



If you need your software duplicated quickly and conve- 
niently, ALF's disk copying service is the answer. Most 
orders are shipped in less than a week. Every disk we copy 
is verified bit by bit and guaranteed 100% flawless. Stan- 
dard formats include Atari, Apple (including nibble-copy- 
proof and double-boot formats), and TRS-80 model 1. 

Our "no frills" pricing means you don't have to buy extras 
you don't need. Of course, we have the frills too — includ- 
ing custom printing and packaging. Call us today for 
complete details. ^^^^^^S 



C 



BLANK 3M 
DISK $1 .65 

BOX OF 100 




COPIED 3M 
DISK $1.95 

MULTIPLES OF 50 



i^i 



n 



ALF (303)234-0871 1448ESTES DEN VER, CO 8021 5 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



59 



ZX8I 



fUJ} EH EH3 Q3 S3 EB Q9 K3 



9 



PI CM 



UNI J ' • 



HUN 



' 



■tjKN II 






rw bh hs rs is c@ eh 



i 



i 









'. r (r 



Ml 



BB BB Glj Qjlj CTj 



j 



K 






.( )C / 



/ 1 



SH/FT 









fz |x |c 



? 



p/ 




b In Im 






• 



lo^H 






PPIN ' 


V 


lO 


1 


P 1 




I 






+ 


11 




1 

ENTER 




1 


• 


t 


5T™ 

SPACE ' 







Introducing the 
Sinclair ZX81. 

If you 're ever 
going to buy a personal 
computer, now is the time 
to do it. 

The Sinclair ZX81 
is the most powerful, yet 
easy-to-use computer 
ever offered for any- 
where near the price: 
only $99.95* completely assembled. 

Don't let the price fool you. The ZX81 has 
just about everything you could ask for in a per- 
sonal computer. 

A breakthrough in personal computers. 

The ZX81 is a major advance over the origi- 
nal Sinclair ZX80-the first personal computer to 
break the price barrier at $200. 

In fact, the ZX81 's 8K extended BASIC offers 
features found only on computers costing two or 
three times as much. 

Just look at what you get: 
■ Continuous display, including moving graphics 

Sinclair technology is also available in Timex/Sinclair computers 
under a license from Sinclair Research Ltd. 



THE $99.95 




■ Multi-dimensional 
string and numerical arrays 

■ Mathematical and scien- 
tific functions accurate to 
8 decimal places 
■ Unique one-touch entry 
of key words like PRINT, 
RUN and LIST 

■ Automatic syntax error 
detection and easy editing 

■ Randomize function 
useful for both games and serious applications 

■ 1 K of memory expandable to 16K 

■ A comprehensive programming guide and 
operating manual 

The ZX81 is also very convenient to use. It 
hooks up to any television set to produce a clear 
32-column by 24-line display. It comes with a 
comprehensive programming guide and oper- 
ating manual designed for both beginners and 
experienced computer users. And you can use 
a regular cassette recorder to store and 
recall programs by name. 






Order at no risk.** 

We'll give you 10 days to try out the ZX81 . If 
you're not completely satisfied, just return it to 
Sinclair Research and we'll give you a full refund. 

And if you have a problem with your ZX81, 
send it to Sinclair Research within 90 days and 
we'll repair or replace it at no charge. 

Introducing the ZX81 kit. 

If you really want to save money, and you 
enjoy building electronic kits, you can order the 
ZX81 in kit form for the incredible price of just 
$79.95.* It's the same, full-featured computer, 
only you put it together yourself. We'll send com- 
plete, easy-to-follow instructions on how you can 
assemble your ZX81 in just a few hours. All you 
have to supply is the soldering iron. 

A leader in microelectronics. 

The ZX81 represents the latest technology in 
microelectronics. More than 10,000 are sold 
every week. In fact, the ZX81 is the fastest selling 
personal computer in the world. 

We urge you to place your order for the 
ZX81 today. 

To order. 

To order, simply call toll 
free. Or use the coupon below. 
Remember, you can try it for 
10 days at no risk.** The sooner 
you order, the sooner you can 
start enjoying your own 
computer. 

Call toll free 800-543-3000. 

Ask for operator #509. 
In Ohio call: 800-582-1 364; 
in Canada call: 513-729-4300. 
Ask for operator #509. Phones 
open 24 hours a day, 7 days 
a week. Have your MasterCard 
or VISA ready. 



These numbers are for orders only. If you just 
want information, please write: Sinclair Research 
Ltd., 2 Sinclair Plaza, Nashua, NH 03061. 

* Plus shipping and handling. Price includes connectors for TV and cassette, AC adaptor, and 

FREE manual. 

** Does not apply to ZX81 kits. 





NEW SOFTWARE: Sinclair has 
published pre-recorded pro- 
grams on cassettes for your 
ZX81. We're constantly coming 
out with new programs, so we'll 
send you our latest software 
catalog with your computer. 



16K MEMORY MODULE: Like 
any powerful, full fledged com- 
puter, the ZX81 is expandable. 
Sinclair's 16K memory module 
plugs right onto the back of 
your ZX81 . Cost is $49.95, plus 
shipping and handling. 




To order call toll free: 800-543-3000 







Price* 








Ad Code A1CC 


Qty. Amount 




ZX81 


$99.95 








ZX81 Kit 


79.95 








16K Memory Module 


49.95 








Shipping and Handling 


4.95 




$4.95 




MAIL TO: Sinclair Research Ltd., 
One Sinclair Plaza, Nashua, NH 03061 . 

Nam* 1 




TOTAL 








Address 









BEHIND EVERY 
GOOD SINCLAIR 
IS A MEMOPAK 



If you own a Timex-Sinclair 1000 or 
ZX81 computer, you should have a 
Memopak behind it. From increased 
memory to high resolution graphics, 
Memotech has a Memopak to boost your 
system's capabilities. Every Memopak 
peripheral comes in a black anodised 
aluminum case and is designed to fit 
together in "piggy back" fashion to enable 
you to continue to add on and still keep an 
integrated system look. 




Printer Interface-^ Memopak RAM 

High Resolution Graphics 

Order at no risk 

All Memotech products carry our 10 
day money back guarantee. If you're not 
completely satisfied, return it in ten days 
and we will give you a full refund. 
And every Memotech product comes with a 
six month warranty. Should anything be 
defective with your Memopak, return it to 
us and we will repair or replace it free of 
charge. Dealer inquiries welcome. To order 
any Memotech product call our toll-free 
number 800/662-0949 or use the order 
coupon. 




Uviiy 



CORPORATION 

7550 West Yale Avenue 

Denver, Colorado 80227 

(303) 986-1516 

TWX 910-320-2917 



i Mail to: Memotech Corporation, 
1 Code: CC-11 


7550 West Yale Ave., Denver, CO 80227 I 

*Price Qty. Total 


1 64KRAM 


$17995 




32KRAM 


10995 




| 16KRAM 


5995 




Centronics Parallel Printer Interface 


104.95 




1 RS232 Printer Interface 


13995 




High Resolution Graphics 


144.95 




I Shipping and handling 


4.95 


$4.95 


* All prices quoted in U.S. dollars 




Tax** 


* Colorado residents please add sales tax 
□ Check D MasterCard □ Visa 


Total 


' Account No 


Exn. 




I Name 


. Address 






[city 




State Zip 1 



Memopak 64K RAM The 64K RAM extends the 
memory of your Sinclair by 56K to a full 64K. It 
is directly addressable, user transparent, is 
neither switched nor paged and accepts such 
basic command as 10 DIM A (9000). The 
Memopak 64K turns your Sinclair into a 
powerful computer suitable for business, 
recreational and educational use. No additional 
power supply is required. 

Memopak 32K RAM The 32K RAM Memopak 
offers your Sinclair a full 32K of directly 
addressable RAM. Like the 64K Memopak, it is 
neither switched nor paged and enables you to 
execute sophisticated programs and store large 
data bases. It is also fully compatible with 
Sinclair's or Memotech 's 16K RAM to give you a 
full 48K of RAM. 

Memopak 16K RAM The Memopak 16K RAM 
provides an economical way to increase the 
capabilities of your Sinclair. And at the same 
time, it enables you to continue to add on other 
features with its "piggy back'' connectors. It is 
compatible with the Sinclair 16K or a second 
Memopak 16K or Memopak 32K to give 32K or 
48K of RAM respectively. 

Memopak High Resolution Graphics The 

Memopak HRG contains a 2K EPROM monitor 
and is fully programmable for high resolution 
graphics. The HRG provides for up to 192 by 248 
pixel resolution. 

Memopak Printer Interface The memotech 
Centronics parallel or RS232 printer interface 
paks enable your Sinclair to use a wide range of 
compatible printers (major manufacturers' 
printers available through Memotech at 
significant savings). The resident software in the 
units gives the ASCII set of characters. Both 
Memopak printer interfaces provide lower case 
character capabilities. The RS232 Interface is 
also compatible with modems. 

New products coming soon Memotech will 
soon be introducing four new Sinclair 
compatible products: a high quality, direct 
connection keyboard, a digitizing tablet, a 16K 
EPROM and a disk drive. Watch for our future 
advertisements. 



Make Your Apple Into a Slide Projector 



David H. Ahl 



From the spate of new product releases, 
one might conclude that personal com- 
puter software vendors are taking aim at 
Kodak and the slide show market. Within 
three months, four software packages 
designed to create electronic slide shows 
have been released for the Apple alone. 
Two packages also offer the ability to 
make up text images (slides), while one 
additionally offers the capability of 
making graphic images. 

We took a close look at all four systems 
and their capabilities. In addition, I asked 
Kerry Shetline of our Software Develop- 
ment Group to write a "Poor Man's Slide 
Show System." It lacks the elegance and 
speed of the other systems, but if you 
don't mind a bit of typing and a seven- to 
ten-second slide load time, the price is 
right (free). 




ELECTRONIC SLIDE SHOW SYSTEMS FOR APPLE II 






Executive 


Screen 


The Slide 


Apple 


"Poor 




Briefing System 


Director 


Show 


Flasher 


Mans" 


Capability to create or 
modify text slides 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


No 


No 


Capability to create or 
modify graphics slides 


Yes 


No 


No 


No 


No 


User Interface 


Menu 


English-like 
commands 


Menu 


Menu 


Program 
command 


Images (Slides) per disk 


32 


17 


16 


16 


16 


Slide Transitions: 












Timed automatic (seconds) 


2 or more 


5 or more 


8-999 


2-240 


8 or more 


Keyboard/game button 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Forward and reverse 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Select any slide 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


No 


Transitional effects 


5 


2 


20 


1 


1 


Print Slides 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


No 


No 


Pages in manual 


157 


122 


52 


6 


n/a 


Price 


$199.00 


$150.00 


$39.95 


$34.50 


free 



November 1982 • Creative Computing 



63 



Lotus Executive 
Briefing System 




The Executive Briefing System is a 
graphics package designed to present a 
series of text or graphics "slides" on a 
monitor or TV set controlled by an Apple 
computer. The "slides" may be created 
with the Executive Briefing System or 
with other hi-resolution graphics pack- 
ages, such as VisiPlot or Apple Business 
Graphics Package. 

The program allows the user to create 
a slide show on disk which can run 
automatically or manually using paddle 
controllers or the keyboard to advance, 
backup, or view individual slides. 

The Executive Briefing System package 
comes complete with a demonstration 
diskette (the Conoco Takeover), exten- 
sive manual including a 95-page tutorial 
section and 53-page reference section 
and, of course, the program diskette. 

The system requires a 48K Apple, one 
or more disk drives (two preferred), 
Applesoft Basic in ROM (or a language 
card), monitor or TV set (color pre- 
ferred). Graphics printer and paddle 
controller are optional. 

The system is easy to learn and use. It 
took me only about an hour before I was 
comfortable with most of the features 
and able to produce slides of my own. 
Quick progress is aided by the excellent 
tutorial manual which contains screen 
photos on virtually every other page. 

Tutorial Lesson 1 uses the demonstra- 
tion disk, "The Conoco Auction," to 
demonstrate how to present a slide show 
with the EBS run-time program. A slide 
show can be run automatically with the 
user specifying the amount of time (in 
seconds) that each slide is to remain on 
the screen. If you want to allow more 
time to read a particular slide or point 
something out to an audience, the show 
can be interrupted by simply pressing the 
space bar. The show is then resumed by 
pressing any key. 

It is also possible to use the right and 
left arrow keys to advance to the next 
slide or go back to the previous one. With 
the show set up for automatic advance, 
the left arrow key reverses the direction 
of the show. The Conoco demonstration 
diskette is set up to display each new 
slide with a rising curtain effect. However, 
other effects are possible, including a 
falling curtain, dissolve, spiral (out from 



David H. Ahl 



the center), or simple cut. For variation, 
it is possible to specify "random" which 
as its name implies, produces a random 
dissolve to the next slide. All of these 
parameters may be changed either when 
the show is being made up or at run time. 

One last option at run time is the ability 
to view a slide out of sequence. By 
bringing the main menu to the screen 
during the slide presentation and selecting 
VIEW, the current slide is replaced by a 
double-column list of all the slides on the 
disk. Using the cursor and right or left 
arrow keys you simply select the slide 
you wish to view, press Return and it is 
immediately shown. 

Lesson 2 is devoted to creating a slide 
show diskette with the EBS edit program. 



This lesson also encourages the user to 
step through all of the menus and become 
familiar with the creation aspects of the 
package. 

The entire package is menu driven. 
There are two main menus, one for 
creation and modification of slides and 
the other for running a slide show. The 
Run Time menu has two submenus while 
the Creation menu has fifteen submenus. 
While this may sound complicated, in fact 
it is not. When the cursor is placed over 
any menu item (all of which are full 
words), an explanation of that item 
appears in the top line on the screen. 
Items needing additional explanation use 
larger areas of the center of the screen. 
In the tutorial portion of the manual, the 
menu is frequently illustrated along with 
a diagram snowing one or two diskettes 
that indicate what is being transferred 
between them. 



rra*H 



ORDER 



AUTO MAN 



STATUS OF OPTIONS 

* SLIDE SHOW hDUANCE 

- MANUAL 

* SPECIAL EFFECTS 

- CUT 

t MULT I -DISK SHOW OFT ION 

- CLEhRED 




SOURCE 



DEST 



Executive 

Briefing System 

Program 

Diskette 




r^ 



W 



SETUP Menu 

Run-Time Program 

SLIDES Menu 

Slides 
("Conoco Auction, Parts 4-5") 

OPTIONS Menu 

Options 
(Effects, etc.) 



Backup 2 

(Your Scratch 

Diskette) 



] 




Figure 1. Illustration from manual shows computer screen and diagram of data 
transfers on disks. 



64 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 




Fernando Herrera Strikes Again! 

In ASTRO CHASE , his first program since winning the ATARI® STAR AWARD, Fernando delivers: Fast, 
Super, ARCADE GRAPHICS • 100% MACHINE LANGUAGE • SMOOTH SCROLLING UNIVERSE (different 
for each new game) • AWESOME SOUND EFFECTS • NON-STOP ACTION • MULTI-DIRECTIONAL 
FIRING • INTELLIGENT ENEMY ATTACK SHIPS • SINGLE THRUST PROPULSION™ • INVISIBLE 
FORCE FIELDS * MULTIPLE SKILL LEVELS • Many more INNOVATIVE and UNIQUE features. 



"THERE IS HO ESCAPE!" 



Ask for FIRST STAR SOFTWARE at your local dealer. 
Retail and Distribution inquiries invited. 



' When being first counts... we 're number one 



// 









*!*& 



PS 



vctf 



$x& 



&& 



0* 



To Order: 
Call TOLL FREE 800-223-1545 
nationwide except in New York 
phone 212-889-1073 




When using your MASTER CARD or 

VISA please have ready: 

your card number & expiration date. 

Send your check or money order 

for $29.95* plus $2.00 

shipping and handling to: 

First Star Software, Inc. 

22 East 41st Street 

New York, NY 10017 

When ordering, please specify 

DISK or TAPE 
'New york residents please add 



7% sales tax. 



>•_ 



FIRST 




ATARI® is a registered trademark of Atari, Inc. 

Single Thrust Propulsion «• is a registered trademark of First Star Software, Inc. 

ASTRO CHASE, "there is no escape!" 1 " is a registered trademark of First Star Software, Inc. 
©, 1982 First Star Software, Inc. 



OP TUJ FIRE inc 

CIRCLE 172 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



NEW! 



I 




I 



■ 





floppydisk 



goodbye! 



Amdek has revolutionized data storage for personal 
computers with the new AMDISK-3 Micro-Floppydisk 
drive system. The system consists of 2 drives and a 
power supply, fully compatible with 5 1 / 4 " floppy disk 
drives. The 3" disk is encased in hard plastic, pro- 
tected from dust and fingerprints, and it's easy to mail. 

Just write, or call to receive our data sheet on the new 
AMDISK-3 Micro-Floppydisk Cartridge system. 



1 Megabyte (unformatted) storage capacity. 

Track-to-track compatible with 5 1 / 4 " floppy- 
disk drives. 

3 " shirt-pocket sized disk cartridge. 
Drive has built-in power supply. 



2201 Lively Blvd. • Elk Grove Village, IL 60007 

(312)364-1180 TLX: 25-4786 A 

Amdek. . . your guide to innovative computing! 

CIRCLE 108 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Executive Briefing, continued... 

Lesson 3 comprising the next 30 pages 
of the manual is a tutorial on typing and 
drawing slides. For the most part, the 
cursor behaves the same as it does on a 
regular Apple except that there is no wrap 
around at the end of a line or bottom of 
the screen. 

Three type fonts are available' Mono- 
space (upper and lower case, looks like 
the regular Apple font), Compressed 



b>*l«> ol Computers 
coshM flu, 000 



In this 1 

•i amp' 1 €r I 1 9x' 



HOME 



ha i been 1^88 1||| SCHOOL 
used to liocclimi 



horizontal 

bar chart 

This i= one 

o t m my 

pf" 1C 1 1 C 3 1 

u f e s o t 
the DRAM 

feature 



While it is possible with all the type 
faces to go wild in creating "spectacular" 
slides, I found that by sticking to one or 
two type fonts and styles I produced a far 
more readable finished slide. I also found 
that lower case Compressed was barely 
readable in color, even on a high quality 
color monitor. Hence, I avoided this style 
except where I had to squeeze a caption 
into a very small space. 

In addition to text, EBS provides the 
ability for doing both high and low reso- 
lution drawing. Although the manual 



PIXSAVE, a command which is rarely 
used if you are using VisiPlot by itself. 
Executive Briefing System gives instruct- 
ions for transferring files from one disk to 
another, however I found it just as easy to 
save the VisiPlot pictures directly on my 
EBS data disk. EBS will save slides in 
either a packed or normal format. 

One minor annoyance: once a name 
has been assigned to a slide, it is extremely 
difficult to change it without several disk 
transfers. A word to the wise: think out 
the name for each slide and make it as 




EBS CAN BE USED 
AS A DESIGN AID 



1988 
I* 



1986 |g OFFICE 

i •; " 



1988 



IENTIFIC 



Mroom 



>MhLL business 





b<ck porch 


bedroom 


Nmihj kftdtl 

room 


S f 


\ — i i 


/ 1 


. 1 , _ 


X IJMMIMJI •••■HI 



bedroom 




o 
o 



FIF'Sl FL00F 



Architects work at home and send finished 
product to office 



(upper and lower case, about 1/3 smaller 
than Monospace) and Large Caps (upper 
case only, about 1/3 larger than Mono- 
space). In addition, all type faces are 
available in regular or boldface style 
(upper case letters only) and in reverse 
(black on white instead of white on 
black). 

If these fonts aren't enough, Lotus has 
72 additional fonts (Lotus Alphabets) 
available on three disks of 24 each ($25 
per disk). Some are quite astounding and 
substitute small graphics characters 
(hearts, diamonds, etc.) for punctuation 
marks. 



creative coiRpattng 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Lotus Executive Briefing 
System 

Type: Business graphics package 

Author: Mitchell Kapor 

System: 48K Apple, Disk Drives 

Format: Disk 

Language: Applesoft Basic with 

machine language routines 

Price: $199.00 

Manufacturer: 

Professional Software 

Technology Inc. 
\W Franklin St. 
Cambridge, MA 02139 

(617) 497-2077 



Figure 2. Detailed slides can be produced 
using the "Draw" feature. 



states, "the possibilities are limitless," we 
found that drawing with a one-pixel wide 
cursor using the keyboard was extremely 
tedious. On the other hand, we won't 
deny that folks with the patience of Job 
will be able to produce some outstanding 
graphics. Witness those on the Conoco 
demonstration disk and in the manual. 

In both the text and drawing modes, six 
different colors are available: green, 
purple, orange, blue, white and black. 
Black, of course, is most useful for erasing 
mistakes made in the other colors. 

In the drawing mode, there are two 
different cursor sizes: regular (the same 
as the standard Apple cursor) and micro 
cursor (1/6 the size of the regular cursor 
or one-pixel in width). There are also two 
other cursors provided, one is six pixels 
high and the other six pixels wide. 
Although interesting, I never found any 
real use for either of them. 

The fourth tutorial lesson addresses 
creating and backing up a single or multi- 
disk show. It emphasizes the importance 
of back-up disks, and explains the use of 
the "help" menu. It also explains how to 
print slides with the Silentype, Epson and 
IDS printers. 

Although I created some slides using 
the draw features of the Executive 
Briefing System, I found it far easier to 
create graphs and charts using VisiPlot 
and load them into the Executive Briefing 
System. Incidentally, you must save the 
pictures created in VisiPlot using 



short as possible so that it will fit on the 
screen when you view the directory menu. 
Remember, only 16 characters will be 
visible. 

When editing slides created by VisiPlot, 
you'll find that the text lines are not in the 
same place. Hence, it will not be possible 
simply to overwrite a title line. In fact, to 
erase certain areas of the VisiPlot screen 
such as the nasty numbers which are 
always printed on the X axis and which I 
rarely want, it is necessary to use the full- 
size cursor to erase most of them and the 
micro cursor (drawing in black) to erase 
the top three pixels. On the other hand, 




"My subscription to Creative Computing just 
expired!" 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



67 



Executive Briefing, continued. 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 

1400 



- STEADY GROWTH 



CREATIUE COMPUTING 

1400 



- 8TEADY GROWTH 





#1 IN SOFTWARE 
HMD APPLICATIONS 




1979 19£© 1981 
QUARTERLY REUENUE 



400-- 

20© 

1979 

T3?< wnnuAL 
FOuriDinG :m 



1999 



19S1 



GROWTH ©iriCE 
HOME TIBER :i.'ii« i ;, «l 



Figure 3. Graph produced by VisiPlot can be modified to include labels, colored type and borders. 



the effort was well worthwhile as I was 
able to get a far more attractive final slide 
using the combination of VisiPlot and the 
Executive Briefing System than using 
VisiPlot alone. 



In summary, the Executive Briefing 
System is easy to learn, easy to use, and 
produces professional results in a mini- 
mum amount of time. Applause goes to 
the author, Mitch Kapor, for following 



his successful VisiTrend/ VisiPlot package 
with the Lotus Executive Briefing System. 

D 

CIRCLE 342 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



AVERAGE 8Y8TEH COST 



r: 




;:i E Ml P IHI E R A IL OHMERBHXP 

I TOTflL OWNING 



A 


COMPUTER 


$2290 


B 


PERIPHERALS 


1600 


C 


SOFTWARE 


600 


D 


MEDIA 


400 


E 


OTHER 


400 




TOTAL 


$4200 



p 

E 
R 
C 

E 
N 

T 



BOUGHT IN 
LAST 12 H0$ 





H 



12 3 4 5 6 

1 LINE PRINTER 4 ADD-ON hErlORY 

2 LETTER PRINTER 5 FLOPPY DISK DRIME 

3 MONITOR 6 MODEM 



AVERAGE AMOUNT SPENT IN LAST 12 MONTHS = $2000 
Figure 4. Line printer output is not as good as the screen since colors are not clearly differentiated. 



PROTECT YOUR HARDWARE 
FROM THE UNEXPECTED. 

Not to mention the unavoidable pollutants in the air. 
Performance robbing dust, grime, spills and static electricity 

Cover Craft Dust Covers help extend the useful life of 
your computer equipment at a fraction of the cost. 
Perhaps that's why more people throughout the world 
rely on Cover Craft Dust Covers than ai 

Visit your local dealer or contact i 



t Covers for most terminals, disks, printers, modems, etc. >^ 

$8.95-$15.95 * 

Shipping extra. 



COVER CRAFT 



J&&* 



*.J^M 



>■■ 



%l 






CORP 
PO Box 555, Amherst NH 03031 • (603) 889-6811 

CIRCLE 158 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

68 






November 1982 ° Creative Computing 




512KB WITH RS232-C PORT 

IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER 

MEMORY! 







■^>»# &» »_WJW W kWM* > *^^ 



■ 



r i v i v i i* v if ti 

| | f f | I t ^ I I I I 

§ # i :# j 3 j * * * i 




••«*' ■ 



< rim i m'to* i 



— 



SINGLE BOARD 512KB WITH RS232-C 
IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER MEMORY 

Designed Specifically for IBM's PERSONAL COMPUTER is Chrislin 
Industries newest CI-PCM+ and CI-PCM Memory Modules. 



• Pin-to-pin compatibility. 

• Full one year parts and labor warranty. 

• Onboard parity with interrupt on parity error. 

CI-PCM without RS232-C 
256K x 9 



Off the shelf deliveries. 

Addressable as a contiguous block in 64KB increments thru 
1 megabyte. 



$475.00 



CI-PCM+ with RS232-C 
512K x 9 



$895.00 



DON'T ASK WHY WE CHARGE SO LITTLE, ASK WHY THEY CHARGE SO MUCH. 

Chrislin Industries, Inc. 

31352 Via Colinas • Westlake Village, CA 91362 • 213-991-2254 




TWX 910-494-1253 (CHRISLIN WKVG) 

CIRCLE 133 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Screen Director 




As the software world moves toward 
making software packages more user- 
friendly, there seem to be three distinct 
approaches. The first I call KISS, for 
Keep It Simple, Stupid. The "attract" 
mode on a game is an example of this. By 
watching the computer play for a while, 
you can get the hang of the game, and are 
able to move right into it without any 
further instructions. In general, this 
approach does not work for larger, more 
complex software packages. The majority 
of those programs today use a menu- 
driven approach. For example, the Visi- 
series of programs, PFS and Lotus pack- 
ages all rely heavily upon a menu-driven 
approach. The third approach is to make 
software packages accept English-like 
commands. An extreme example of this 
is The Last One. In some sense, the Cobol 
language was a forerunner of the English- 
like approach to simplicity. 

In any event, Business & Professional 
Software, Inc. have chosen the English- 
like approach to make Screen Director a 
user-friendly package. In effect, Screen 
Director is a mini-language for creating 
and showing slides in contrast to, say, the 
Lotus Executive Briefing System which is 
a completely menu-driven system. Since 
the approaches are so completely differ- 
ent, I can say with a reasonable degree of 
certainty that if you like one you will not 
like the other. 

The Screen Director system consists of 
a manual (10 chapters, 4 appendices), a 
Kodak hand-held remote slide projector 
controller with a connector that plugs 
into the game port on the Apple com- 
puter, and two disks. One disk holds the 
Screen Director program, and the other 
is a demonstration disk with several slides 
and sample data. 

Using a graphics package such as the 
Apple Business Graphics package or 
VisiPlot, the user creates graphic images 
which are stored on a data diskette. These 
can then be accessed from the Screen 
Director program, arranged in sequence 
and shown as an electronic slide show. 
The Screen Director also has the ability 
to create and edit text slides. It will print 
both graphic,, and text slides on a wide 
variety of printers including the IDS prism 
printer for full color output. 



David H. Ahl 



As I mentioned earlier, Screen Director 
uses a set of English-like commands at 
the system command level. The basic 
structure of a command is: 

Verb (noun) (preposition) (modifier(s)). 

Command elements in parentheses are 
not used in all commands. Some examples 
of commands that Screen Director under- 
stands are: 

CLEAR TITLES 

LIST DESCRIPTIONS PRINTER 

SET TITLE "OIL IN THE US" 

DISPLAY IMAGE SHOW: OILAXES.S.DATA 

ADD 

LIST 

VERIFY 

CREATE SHOW: BOOK SALES 

SHOW FROM 8 AUTOMATATIC 1 

REMOVE FIRST, 4, 8 THRU 10 

MOVE 3, 5-9, LAST BEFORE 1 

HELP EDIT 

HELP SETUP 



As you can see from this short list, 
Screen Director has its own language. 
But it is a rather natural language. I found 
by laying the reference card on top of the 
Apple, I could pretty much figure out 
how to create a slide show without con- 
stantly referring to the manual. Of course, 
I did read the manual first! 

Chapter 1 of the manual is simply a 
description of the Screen Director system. 
Chapter 2 plunges right into a tutorial 
which takes you through creating a pre- 
sentation (using the sample data on the 
second disk), making a title slide, showing 
the slides manually and automatically, and 
saving the finished show on a disk. By the 
time you have finished the 17 pages of 
this chapter, you will probably have more 
questions than answers. This is because 
many of the commands are presented 
simply to enable you to get your hands on 
the computer and show what it can do; 
the explanations for the commands are 
not given until later in the manual. 

Chapter 3 presents some of the con- 

70 



cepts of a slide tray and screen. There 
are three main types of screens. The first 
is an image such as a line graph, area 
plot, bar graph, picture, etc. A text screen, 
as its name implies, holds alphanumeric 
text. A message screen flashes short 
messages on the monitor during a presen- 
tation for instance, to remind the user to 
change diskettes in the drive. 

Chapter 4 defines the basics of the 
Screen Director language. It also lists 
valid file and disk names. 

Chapter 5 starts getting into the meat 
of things. It describes how to set up a disk 
for the creation of a slide show. It also 
describes the help commands. These are 
incredibly useful, particularly when you 
are first learning the system. There are 
eight help commands which describe all 
the other commands. In addition, there 
are two levels of help. The first simply 
describes the commands and their struc- 
ture for, let's say, setting up. Typing 
CONTROL-A while in one of the eight 
help files will show you an explanation of 
the use of each command. 

Chapter 6 deals with creating and 
saving a tray of slides. Note that the 
terminology throughout Screen Director 
is as close as possible to that used by 
someone showing a Kodak carousel tray 
of slides. 

Each slide in the tray must be com- 
pletely defined; it is not enough simply to 
give the name of the image. Five char- 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Screen Director 

Type: Slide show utility 

System: 64K Apple, disk drive 

Format: Disk 

Language: Pascal 

Summary: Electronic slide show 

Price: $150 

Manufacturer: 

Business & Professional 

Software, Inc. 
143 Binney St. 
Cambridge, MA 02142 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



D 



A 








■ar 



i~«ri 



.M3K 



rn 




®f/D 



IP' - 



fer^ 



5u* 







frj 



\ 



\^^ 










J 


*^^y 






Ei 

r -■-'•• « 




PgaN 


V 


. ^ 


Iv^-^^B I ^^^^^ 





the 

classic 

fantasy 

game 

for the 

Apple II 



Don Worth 



now in 
hi-res 



can yot/ 
find the 
golden 
apple? 



Don Worth, the co-author of Beneath Apple DOS and Bag of Tricks, has returned to his first love — fantasy adventure! This 
special edition of the game that Softalk magazine labels a "classic" is far better than the popular original — with faster 
reaction time, high resolution graphics, sound effects, a deeper dungeon, and more monster types and magic items Lots of 
adventure at a reasonable price . . . $29.95. 
Runs on any 48K Apple II or Apple II Plus with one disk drive. 



Qs 



QUTiLny 

SOFTW71R€ 



6660 Reseda Blvd., Suite 1 05, Reseda, CA 91 335 • (213) 344 6599 



CIRCLE 256 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



We could tell you we make 

We don't have to. 





SERPENTINI 

A HI HIS AKCADE STYLt GAMC BY DA \ ID SffffM 



Brodefbund Softuiare 




You keep Broderbund at the top of the best seller 
lists, so you must know what it takes to make a 
great game. We think our APPLE and ATARI 
games are uniquely challenging with action and 
graphics second to none. But you keep ask- 
ing for Br0derbund games because they're just 
plain fun. 



All for the 

Apple 

and Atari 

on diskette. 



Enjoy the magic of our growing collection. Lead 
a daring rescue mission in CHOPLIFTER. Or sur- 
vive the maze and monsters in slithery SERPEN- 
TINE and LABYRINTH. Blast through the future 
with STAR BLAZER or conquer the ultimate pin- 
ball game with DAVID'S MIDNIGHT MAGIC. Take 
up train robbing in TRACK ATTACK or tense your 
mind and reflexes in DUELING DIGITS. 



Broderbund 



Br0derbund products are available at your retailer or by writing to: 
Br0derbund Software, Inc., 1938 Fourth Street, San Rafael, CA 94901 • Tel: (415) 456-6424 

Apple II is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. Atari is a registered trademark of Atari, Inc. 



the finest computer games 
You keep telling us. 




Sub against the convoy 
Apple & Atari disk 




DEADLY SECRETS 

Hi-res adventure 
Apple disk 




APPLE PANIC 

The arcade classic 
Apple disk, Atari cassette & disk 




STELLAR SHUTTLE 

Monsters and meteors 
Atari cassette & disk 



Software 




PUT US OUT OF BUSINESS! THE ARCADE MACHINE lets you 
design and produce your own computer games, without any pro- 
gramming knowledge! Send us your best game and enter the 
BR0DERBUND ARCADE MACHINE CONTEST We'll be giving 
away thousands of dollars worth of hardware and software in 
prizes. If you have a creative touch and an artistic eye, you too 
can be an arcade designer. Write to Br0derbund for contest details 
or visit your participating retail store! (Available on Apple disk.) 



All Brdderbund games are fully guaranteed. If they ever fail to boot, return the original disk to 
Br0derbund for a free replacement. If you have physically damaged the disk please include 

five dollars for replacement 



i 



CIRCLE 126 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Vol. 1 No. 1 



Apple adds a whole new cast of characters. 



As you may already know, both 
the Apple® II and III can drive virtually 
every printer on the market. 

Regretfully, not every printer on 
the market can offer you the same level 
of service and support you'd expect 
from Apple. So the same kindly, com- 
petent dealer who healed your Apple 
overnight may have no idea how to fix 
your Samurai Ichiban daisywheel. 




Silentype. Dot Matrix. Letter Quality. 

That's why we thought it would be 
nice, maybe even profitable, to offer 
a full line of printers that would look like 
Apples, last like Apples, with Apple 
warranties and Apple dealer service 
and Apple documentation. 

We even gave them Apple names: 

The new Apple Dot Matrix Printer. 

The new Apple Letter Quality Printer. 

And the new Apple Thermal Printer. 
(Which is really the old, reliable 
Silentype"") 

Taking it from the top, our 7 x 9 
Apple Dot Matrix Printer is a superb 
machine for correspondence-quality 
printing. With exceptionally legible, 
fully-formed characters, it gives you 
a choice of eight different type sizes 
and five different fonts. It can also give 
you proportional spacing. Plus boldface 
printing, underlining, varied pitches, 
varied line spacing and more. 

With 1 44 x 1 60 dots per square 
inch, our Dot Matrix can put all 
kinds of high resolution 
graphics on paper— from 
bar charts and line graphs 
to digitized portraits. 

The Apple Letter Quality 
Printer, on the other hand, is 
the preferred machine for just that. 
In fact, for any word processing or data 
processing applications where 
graphics aren't a primary concern. 

For one thing, it lets you get the 
words out faster. At a blazing 40 cps 



(instead of the usual 30-35), it's 
the speediest letter quality printer in 
its price range. 

It also offers a full 130- 
character print wheel. (The 
current standard is a not- 
so-full 96 characters.) 

Plus varied pitches and 
spacing, form or line feed, 
operation pause-seemingly 
unimportant talents until you 
discover your machine doesn't 
have them. 

Both the Apple Letter Quality and 
Dot Matrix printers come with self- 
teaching diskettes. So your Apple 
computer can tell you how to use your 
Apple printer. 




Naturally, all our printers -including 
the sturdy, inexpensive Silentype™- are 
deliberately designed to take full 
advantage of all the advantages 
built into every Apple computer. 
The interfaces are clean, the 
electronics compatible. So 
you don't have to go peeking 
and poking to adapt print 
commands or parameters, or 
spend your summer vacation 
kluging an interface. Which is 
a lot more than we can say for the 
Samurai Ichiban. 

All of which should stimulate you, 
we hope, to see the newest Apples 
up close. 
They look good, even on paper. 




(800) 538-9696 (California (800) 662-9238). Apple Computer Inc.. Advertising and Promotion Dept . 20525 Manam Ave . Cupertino. CA 95014 



CIRCLE 110 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Screen Director, continued... 

acteristics are necessary to define a slide: 
screen type (image, text, etc.), file (file 
and slide name), description, flash screen 
(yes or no) and display time. Flash screen 
means showing the slide like a blinking 
cursor; this really gets your attention! 
Figure 1 shows a list of slides in a tray 
with their characteristics. 



slide presentation. Unfortunately, there 
is no provision for adding, deleting, or 
editing material on a graphics slide as 
there is in the Lotus Executive Briefing 
System. I found this a disadvantage, as 
the slides that I created on VisiPlot were 
not always in the final form in which I 
wanted to show them. Furthermore, Visi- 
Plot has only one size type and I would 
like to have been able to use the large 



r 



//l SCREEN TYPE = 
F ILE = 

DESCRI PT lONr 
FLASH SCREEN= 
DI SPLAY T I ME = 

//2 SCREEN TYPE = 
F ILE = 

DESCR I PT ION= 
FLASH SCREEN= 
DISPLAY T1ME= 

m SCREEN TYPE= 
FILE = 

DESCRI PT ION= 
FLASH SCREEN= 
DI SPLAY T IME= 



IMAGE 

SHOW: O I LAXES . S .DATA 

OIL AXES 

YES 



IMAGE 

SHOW:OlLCONS . S .DATA 

OIL CONSUMPTION 1960-1978 

NO 



I MAGE 

SHOW: O I LPROD. S .DATA 

OIL PRODUCTION 1960-1978 

NO 





TYPE <CTRL-C> TO CONTINUE, <ESC> TO EXIT 



Uk SCREEN TYPE= 
F ILE = 

DESCR I PT ION= 
FLASH SCREEN= 
DI SPLAY T IME= 



IMAGE 

SHOW: O I L IMPO . S .DATA 

OI L IMPORTS 1960 - 19 7 

NO 





Figure I. List of four slides and their "characteristics. " 



Chapter 7 describes how to clear and 
set default values such as display time, 
screen type, and flash screen. • 

Chapter 8 describes how to make 
changes to trays you have created and 
saved previously, and also describes how 
to combine one or more trays, add 
screens, remove screens, and change their 
positions and characteristics. Frankly, I 
found this chapter somewhat confusing 
and I got myself into several predicaments 
which could only be remedied by restart- 
ing the system. I am not sure whether this 
was the fault of Screen Director, the 32K 
memory board in my Apple, or a raging 
thunderstorm outside. On the other hand, 
it was not a one-time occurrence. 

Chapter 9 describes various procedures 
and commands used for presenting a tray 
of screens (slides). It first recommends 
the use of the verify command to make 
sure that all the screens you want to use 
are on-line and then goes into the show 
command for presenting the tray either 
manually or automatically. In automatic 
presentation mode, the slides may be 
shown for the same amount of time 
(specified at show time) or for the display 
time specified on each slide. In addition, 
if you wish to view a slide longer than the 
display time or automatic time, you may 
simply press the space bar and that slide 
will stay on the screen until the space bar 
is pressed again. 

Chapter 10 describes the creation of a 
text screen for inclusion in your graphic 

November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



and inverse type faces available in Screen 
Director. 

Slides may be printed on any one of 
several line printers as well as the IDS 
Prism Color Printer. Unfortunately, the 
entire show must be printed automatically 
or manually. No provision is provided for 
printing individual slides, say slide 7 or 
slide 13, from a show. Trying to print to a 
printer whose slot has not been specified 
hangs the system. Your only recourse, 
then, is to re-start. 

Screen Director permits 17 image 
(graphics) screens to be stored on a disk. 
I felt this number was rather low, particu- 
larly in light of the many excellent hi-res 
packing routines on the market. For 
example, the Lotus Executive Briefing 
System stores 32 screens on a disk. Per- 
haps the reason that a disk stores so few 
slides is that Screen Director stores much 
additional information about each slide. 

Although a Kodak slide projector con- 
trol is provided, you may also use the 
push buttons on a set of paddles or 
joystick. One button moves the show 
forward one slide while the other moves 
it backward. Sorry, there is no focus con- 
trol. 

In contrast to the Executive Briefing 
System, which has several methods of 
switching from one slide to the next 
(downward roll, upward roll, dissolve, 
etc.), Screen Director has only two slide 
change methods: dissolve and overlay. 
The overlay is rather interesting. For 

75 



example, if you wished to show a graph of 
oil consumption as one slide followed by 
a graph of oil production and oil imports 
as the next two slides, each could be 
overlaid on the previous slide as shown in 
Figure 2. 

In summary, Screen Director is an 
excellent program for displaying hi-res 
graphics made by some other program 
along with text slides produced by Screen 



M 



B 

'-> 
■"i 

•• 

D 






OIL IN I HE U.S 



r 13 



t.' 



16- 
14 

.1 —i 
!£. 

19- 

8— 

6 

4 

2— 
a JL 



S 
60 






62 64 



5 



"X — 

i 



*0 



I 

'4 






5 



YEttR 1960-1978 




M 



26 - 
18-1 



i 16- 



64 66 68 70 72 
VEHR 1968- 1978 



OIL IN THE. U.S 



T 

76 



T~ 



,.ih t tp = CONSUMPTION 
BLUE - PRODUCTION 




€..€ 68 "0 72 ' 
VEmP 1968- 1978 



. b 



M 



:•■ 18- 



OIL IN THE 



itOHITE - CONSUMPTION 
BLUE - PRODUCTION 
ORANGE 




60 62 64 66 60 70 72 74 76 
vEmR 1966-1978 



Figure 2. "Overlay" dissolve technique 
allows an image to be overlaid on a 
previous one. Here, three images are over- 
laid. 




Put your 
business forms 

on an Apple 1 1 

An innovative software system that speeds the processing and analysis of 
common business forms on a personal computer VersaForm applications include: 

• Invoicing • Order processing Hard Disk 

• Purchase orders • Sales analysis 

• Client billing • Personnel records 

• Mailing lists • Inventory records 

VersaForm 



Available 



Business Form Processor 



Applied 

Software 

Technology 




14125 Capri Drive 

Los Gatos. California 95030 

(408) 370-2662 



CIRCLE 1 1 1 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Investigate Robotics 



RHINO XR-l 

MIGM -TECM ROBOT ■ FOft E OOCATION RESEARCH t INDUSTRY 



built with the same operating technology 
as large industrial robots ^ ^ ^ ^ 

$2400 

complete with 32" high robotic arm • power pak 

• controller card • cables • manual • tool kit 

• Use with any RS-232C computer 
port or modem 

• Rigid %" open aluminum 
construction 

• Six powerful DC Servo gear 
motors 

• Digital choppers on all axes 

• Controller card with Intel* 8748 
CPU 

• Built-in self test program 

• Reach: 22.5" maximum 

• Grasp: 2" 

• Lift: 16 oz. at extension 
"Hands-on-Introduction to 

ROBOTICS, The Manual for 
XR-1 " may be purchased 
separately @ $20.00 ea. p.p. 




Immediate delivery. Shipped F.O.B 
Champaign, IL (IL residents please 
add 5% sales tax) Price & 
specifications may be altered 
without notice. 
Dealer/Rep. inquiries invited. 




Sandhu Machine Design, Inc., Dept. CC-2 
308 S. State, Champaign, IL 61820 
217/352-8485 



CIRCLE 269 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Screen Director, continued... 

Director. This electronic slide show capa- 
bility should be valuable in business and 
industry. The English-like commands will 
appeal to many users. The program may 
have a special appeal to Pascal users since 
it is written in Pascal and allows the 
running of other Pascal programs, such 
as Apple Business Graphics, from within 
the Screen Director program. The inclu- 
sion of a Kodak slide changer is a nice 
touch. On the other hand, the system falls 
short in its ability to modify or edit graphs 
or charts produced by another software 
system. Assuming you are happy with the 
output produced by Apple Business 
Graphics or VisiPlot, this is not a severe 
limitation. The ability to overlay one slide 
on the previous one is excellent, however, 
I would have liked to see greater visual 
versatility in the slide changing methods. 

While the English-like commands com- 
bined with the eight help screens and 
reference card made using the system 
reasonably straightforward, I was still 
obliged to consult the manual more often 
than I do with a good menu-driven system. 
Also, it was not at all clear from the 
manual that loading an image from Visi- 
Plot or some other system, displaying it, 
and storing it as a slide would require a 
disk change although common sense tells 
you that this must be so. (Note: none of 
the other slide systems deal adequately 
with this operation either, although it is 
extremely vital.) 

Screen Director is not for everyone. If 
you like writing programs or have learned 
a foreign languge in school, you will have 
no trouble with it and will find it does an 
extremely competent job. On the other 
hand, if you are oriented to off-the-shelf, 
packaged software of the KISS or menu- 
driven variety, you should take a look at 
the Screen Director manual at your local 
computer store before sinking $150 into 
it. □ 

CIRCLE 343 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



fif* 




" Yes, this is my first day on the job, why?" 




NEECO 



C- Commodore Computer 

\ l( JO Personal ( omputer 
\ l( 1 ~>1 ~> ( ,raphi< Printer 
( I1M401U 
( I1M 40 « 2 

( \\\\m tj 

( liM SuperPel 9000 

( I1M8050 Du.il Disk Drive 

( |1M 4040 Dual Disk Drive 

( IIM 2011 Single Disk Drive 

( liM 4C1JJ I rat loi Punter 

( I1M8010 II I I Modem 

( |iM Dataselte 

( |i\1 II I I Interlat e< able 

II I I II I I Intel!, k <•( able 




$ 


299 9S 


$ 


195 00 


$ 


W5 00 


*1 


2«f5 00 


$i4 ( r> oo 


si 


995 oo 


*17«f5 oo 


*1 


2**5 oo 


$ 


<i<r, oo 


$ 


7 C >5 oo 


$ 


279 00 


% 


74 ( r, 


$ 


i«i 9«i 


S> 


49 95 



f S c w i uTOCtorf 



corvi 




—wnwmnTmiTmiwiWTHiTwr.fiwHimu 



////// 



WWW 



Qataw 



A 



/ 



s 




Professional Software/- < ii,\t < input. >s 

WordPro 1 N1 .i I ,iinil\ <>t ( U\t U on I I'm* rssiny Programs 

WordPro 2 Plus * l t » , » ,r ' 

WordPro i Plus * J 1 *"' 00 

WordPro 4 Plus % 450.00 

WordPro 5 Plus (f or C liM HtHM*) * 450.00 

1 he Administrator (DataBase tor (KM) * l>50 00 

Power 1 M ( Programmer's Utility KOMI * rl«MI5 

lntoPro ,M (Dataliasetor(liMl * 2<>5 tVO 



Amdek Monitors 

Video 100C (I imited 

Quantity) $11900 

Video I00C $185 00 

Color 1 $42 r >0() 

COlor 2 $899 00 



\ 



J A Atari 

Atari 400 16K 

At, in 800 1(>k dm 

( art ridge I 
Atari 410 

K<*( order 
Atari 810 Disk 

Drive 
Atari 822 I norma 

Printer 



$299 00 
I liASIC 
$ «99()0 

$ W.«IS 

$ 599 95 
$ 29<) 95 



CMD Mupet 

M(-800AMupet Controller $ W5.00 

(Miilti I'scr ( oiitrollii loi ( WW ( omputcisl 
CM lOOChannel Module $ 250 00 

Printer Module % 150 00 



Qume 

Sprint 9 45 

I r.u tor Option 



$249S 00 

$ 210 00 



Epson Printers 

MX 70 

MX 80 u C.raphtrax 

MX 80 1 1 

MX 100 1 I 

INU Kl AC I CARDS 

8141 RS-2 12 Interface lioard 

814") KS 2 12 Intert.u e lioard 

M 2K Putter 
81 51 RS-2 12 Intert.u e lioard 

u X ON X Of I 
81(>1 II \ \ Interface Hoard 

81 11 Apple Intert.u e Card 

82 12 Apple Intert.u e Cable 1 
8220 IKS 80 C able 



$ 299 9 r > 
$ H4S.00 

$ 745 00 
$ 94500 

$ 75.00 

$ 149 00 

$ 170 00 

$ 55 00 

$ B5.00 

$ IS 00 

$ 15 00 



cr 




£^ 




Diablo 630 Printer 

Diablo 630 

Tractor Option 



$2710 00 
$ 150 00 



WordPro, POWER, & InfoPro arc registered 
trademarks of Professional Software Inc. 
(All I OK OIK 711 PAI'.I ( MAM XI I OK ( OMPII II 
\\\ Will S1AK II SOMI \D\I KIISI I) PKK I S ()\ ( 



I 



NEC Spinwriter Printer 

NK" 77.10 

NK 7710 

NK 7720 

NK IS10 

NK 1500RD 

Tractor Feed Options are available 



$1085 00 
$108 r > 00 
$1()10 00 
$2290 00 
$1895 00 



PKODl'C I I INI AND PKK I IISIINCS 
I KIAIN PKODl'C IS I ISII I) DNDI K SIMII AK IN Sl( )( K ( ( )N|)I I l( )Ns 





NEECO 

679 Highland Ave. 
Needham, MA 02194 



MON tRI9:00 5:i0f.S.T. 



(61 7) 449-1 760 

TELEX: 951021 




MAST CAR UISA 



CIRCLE 230 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Slide Show 




The Slide Show is a software package 
designed to allow the Apple computer to 
emulate a 35mm slide projector on a TV 
or monitor. Since the authors are mainly 
involved with videotape production, they 
have put much emphasis on video-like 
special effect transitions between stand- 
ard hi-res pictures (slides). The Slide Show 
provides 20 different transitions to use 
between images. 

In contrast to the Lotus Executive 
Briefing System and the Screen Director 
system, The Slide Show has no provision 
for creating slides; rather it is simply a 
system to take hi-res images created by 
other software packages and show them 
in sequence. 

A slide sequence may contain up to 75 
hi-res images. Although a maximum of 16 
images may be stored on one disk, the 
program works with single or multiple 
disk drives, so longer sequences can be 
shown. 

The Slide Show provides three methods 
of advancing slides. For a show under the 
control of the operator, either the paddle 
button or a key press may be used to 
advance the slide. Alternatively, slides can 
be set to run automatically with the timing 
of the slide advance set at anything 
between eight seconds and seventeen 
minutes. Furthermore, these methods 
may be intermixed in a slide show. 

The manual is divided into five sections. 
The first section is an introduction and 



David H. Ahl 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: The Slide Show 

Type: Slide show utility 

Authors: Bruce A. Cash, 

Robert W. Hench 

System: 48K Apple, disk drive 

Format: Disk 

Language: Applesoft Basic 

Summary: Electronic slide show 

Price: $39.95 

Manufacturer: 

C & H Video 

1 10 West Caracas Ave. 

Hershey, PA 17033 



describes the features of the system. The 
second section takes you step by step 
through running a demonstration 
sequence which is included on The Slide 
Show disk. 

The third section of the manual 
describes the seven main commands in 
the menu. They are: Create, Display, 
Erase, Load, Modify, Print and Save. 

The fourth section comprises the bulk 
of the manual (28 pages). It is a tutorial 
which takes you through all the features 
of the system. The balance of the manual 
consists of six appendices and an adden- 
dum. 

The Slide Show system is completely 
menu-driven; the only thing you will ever 
have to type is the name that you wish to 
assign to a slide and the file name under 
which it is currently stored on a disk. 

The two commands used most are 
Create and Display. Create is the option 
used to create a slide sequence. Upon 
selecting Create, the program asks you to 
enter the name of the slide and press 
RETURN. The name of the slide is the 
same as the filename of the hi-res image 
on the disk. The menu then allows you to 
select the drive number from which the 
slide will be loaded. Following this, the 
program prompts you for the type of slide 
advance to be made from Slide 1 to Slide 
2. If you do not select a type of advance, 
the program will automatically default to 
a key press of any key. The program then 
asks you to input the letter for the type of 
transition between Slide 1 and Slide 2. 
The 20 transitions available are shown in 
Figure 1. 

The list of transitions is provided as 
Appendix D in the manual or may be 
shown on the screen by pressing 
CONTROL-L. After selecting a transition, 
Create goes back to Step 1 and asks you 
for the name of the next slide in the show. 

When you have finished the creation 
process, ESCAPE takes you back to the 
main menu from which you may select 
another option. 

To view the show that you have 
created, you simply press D for Display. 
There are no options with the Display 

78 



command: you simply see the show as 
you have created it. 

The Modify option steps through a 
show in the following order: slide name, 
type of slide advance, and type of transi- 
tion. If you wish to change an item, you 
simply type over the existing information 
or use the menu to select a different 
option. 

Save, as its name implies, saves a slide 
show sequence on a disk. Load brings it 
back in, and Erase eradicates it from 
memory (but not from the disk). With the 
Print option, a slide show sequence may 
be printed on a line printer. Note that it is 
the sequence of slides that are printed 
and not the hi-res images. 

The Slide Show package includes three 
important programs which are external 
to the menu-driven portion of the system. 
The Initialize and Copy programs allow a 
new disk to be initialized and slides to be 
copied on to it. Using Copy, 16 hi-res 
slides may be copied on one disk. This is 
two more than could be "normally" 
copied using FID or another standard 
copy program. On the other hand, the 
images are not packed nearly as densely 
as they can be with some of the "picture 
packer" routines. 

Another program, Create Run-Time, 
allows a complete slide show along with 




APPENDIX D - LIST OF 
SLIDE TRANSITIONS 



A) COLUMNS 

B) COLUMNS 2 

C) HALVES IN 

D) HALVES OUT 

E) HALVES W/BLUE 

F) HORIZ L/R FAST 

G) HORIZ L/R RIPPLE 
H) HORIZ L/R SLOW 
I) HORIZ L/R FAST 
J) HORIZ R/L SLOW 



K) NORMAL CHANGE 
L) OVERLAY DOWN 
M) OVERLAY L/R 
N) PSEUDO-DISS 1 
0) PSEUDO-DISS 2 
P) QUADS 
Q) RIPPLE 
R) THIRDS 
S) VERT DOWN 
T) VERT UP 



Figure J. List of 20 types of transitions 
from one slide to the next. 

November 1982 ° Creative Computing 




Musician or not, experience the 
ultimate in audiovisual pleasure. 

Music Maker 



The maximum in entertainment. 
Infinite in variety. 

Pinball 



Adventure on a grand scale. 



Space Vikings 



Superlative software 
Don't settle for less. 



48K Apple II disk. 



See your dealer. 

or write for brochures. 



"Apple" is the registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 
CIRCLE 294 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The Programmable Cube is like the popular physical game: it 
comes in many colors, you can turn its faces and rotate it, you 
can scramble it and solve it by moving the faces. It even comes 
with a complete solver for any scrambled cube. But it has an 
extra twist: it speaks a language especially designed for cubes 
through which you can write your own cube programs, either to 
produce fancy patterns or even to solve a scrambled cube with 
your own cube-solving strategy. 

High resolution graphics, color or black and 
white, shows all 6 sides and simulates motion. 

Tell it about your scrambled cube— it will 
lead you through the solution. 

Write your own cube programs: comes with 
complete programming environment including 
editor and debugger. 
■ Available for Apple II® or Apple II Plus", 48K 

Or 64K. Apple is a Trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 




How to Order: 

Send $34.95, W " 

Check, VISA or l< 

MasterCard to: "= = 

Specify 48K or 64K 

Conn residents add 7' 2% Sales Ta 






/MET4COMET 

SOFTWARE 
P.O. Box 31337, Hartford, CT 06103 



CIRCLE 205 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Slide Show, continued... 

all the display information to be stored 
on a run-time disk. The Create Run-Time 
program is menu-driven and very easy to 
use. 

In summary, The Slide Show is an easy- 
to-use package for the creation of an 
electronic slide show. While it is unlikely 
that anyone would want to use all 20 
transitional effects, it is nice to have such 
a large selection available. The manual, 
unfortunately, does not do justice to some 
of these effects. I would have liked to 
have seen some screen illustrations in the 
manual and a summary of the menu 
commands. Also, the long tutorial section 
and absence of an index in the manual 
made the going rather slow. 

On the other hand, the menu-driven 
nature of the system combined with the 
relatively complete explanations of the 
allowable commands at any particular 
point made using the system relatively 
straightforward and trouble free. I would 
have liked to see a high density packing 
routine used for storing images on a disk 
to allow more than 16 images. Neverthe- 
less, The Slide Show meets its goals with 
nerve and, if you are not looking to create 
or modify images created with other 
programs, represents a good buv for 
$39.95. rj 

CIRCLE 344 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PERSONAL 

FINANCE For the ATARI* 800 






The Scitor" Personal Finance and Record 
Keeping package provides your home 
with a sophisticated yet simple 
automated records system. You can easi 
ly organize and keep track of expenses, 
checks, credit cards, energy utilization, 
jogging logs, diet and fitness programs, 
and other personal records. Reports, high 



resolution graphs, and color bar charts 
can be generated from the records pro 
viding you with insight into expenses, 
budgets, and progress versus goals. A 
General Ledger capability is provided 
allowing use of this package by a small 
business. In addition, ledger data may be 
interchanged with VISICALC 



♦ * 



DEALER INQUIRIES WElLOME 



BSCITOR 



TRADEMARK OE ATARI IN(. 



TRADEMARK OF VlSlCORP 



710 LAKfWAY SUITE 290 
SUNNYVALE CA 94086 
i408i 730 0400 



CIRCLE 272 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



H 

"D 
(0 
O 

> 

b 
to 

u 

'c 
o 

o 
a> 

LU 



RUSH THIS POSTAGE-PAID CARD 
FOR YOUR FREE CATALOG -a 



NO SALESMAN WILL CALL 



NEW! 



• Computer electronics with new TRS-80 
Model III state-of-the-art computer 

• TV/Audio/Video servicing with choice 
of computerized Heath /Zenith color 
TV, videocassette recorder, or stereo 
system 

• Industrial Electronics for Instrumenta- 
tion and Control technicians with TRS-80 
Color Computer for hands-on training 

• Electronic Design Technology with 
design lab program for creative circuit 
and equipment design 




Name 



(Please Print) 



Age 



Street 



CHECK ONE: 

I | Microcomputers and 
Microprocessors 

□ Color TV, Audio, and 
Video System Servicing 

1~~1 Digital Electronics 

I I Electronics Design 
Technolgy 

|~1 Industrial Electronics 

Communications 
Electronics • FCC 
Licenses • Mobile 
• Aircraft • Marine 

O Basic Electronics 

□ Small Engine Servicing 
|~~l Appliance Servicing 
[~] Automotive Servicing 

□ Auto Air Conditioning 

□ Air Conditioning, Heat- 
ing, Refrigeration, & 
Solar Technology 

Building Construction 



CC 



City 



State 



Accredited by the Accrediting Commission of 
the National Home Study Council 



Zip 



175-112 



All career courses approved 
under Gl Bill. | ] Check for facts. 




NO POSTAGE 

NECESSARY 

IF MAILED 

IN THE 

UNITED STATES 



BUSINESS REPLY CARD 

FIRST CLASS PERMIT NO. 10008 WASHINGTON, DC 




POSTAGE WILL BE PAID BY ADDRESSEE 

NRI Schools 

McGraw Hill Continuing 

Education Center 
3939 Wisconsin Avenue 
Washington, D.C. 20016 




X 



Now NRI takes you inside the 



new TRS-80 Model III microcomputer 

to train you at home as the 



new breed of computer specialist! 



NRI teams up with Radio Shack 
advanced technology to teach 
you how to use, program and 
service state-of-the-art 
microcomputers . . . 

It's no longer enough to be just 
a programmer or a technician. j 
With microcomputers moving into 
the fabric of our lives (over 
250,000 of the TRS-80tm alone 
have been sold), interdiscipli- 
nary skills are demanded. And 
NRI can prepare you with the 
first course of its kind, cover- 
ing the complete world of 
the microcomputer. 

Learn At Home 
in Your Spare Time 

With NRI training, the program- 
mer gains practical knowledge of 
hardware, enabling him to design sim- 
pler, more effective programs. And, 
with advanced programming skills, the 
technician can test and debug systems 
quickly and easily. 





Training includes the TRS-80 Model III microcom- 
puter, professional LCD multimeter, the NRI Discov- 
ery Lab, Computer Assisted Instruction programs 
and hundreds of demonstrations and experiments. 

(TRS-80 is a trademark of the Radio Shack division of Tandy Corp.) 



Only NRI gives you both kinds of 
training with the convenience of home 
study. No classroom pressures, no night 
school, no gasoline wasted. You learn 
at your convenience, at your own pace. 
Yet you're always backed by the NRI staff 
and your instructor, answering questions 
and giving you guidance. 

You Get Your Own Computer 
to Learn On and Keep 

NRI training is hands-on training 
with practical experiments and demon- 
strations. You don't just program your 
computer, you go inside it. . .watch how 
circuits interact. . . interface with other sys- 
tems. . .gain a real insight into its nature. 

You also work with an advanced 
liquid crystal display hand-held multi- 
meter and the NRI Discovery Lab,® per- 
forming over 60 separate experiments. 
Both microcomputer and equipment 
come as part of your training for you 
to use and keep. 

Computer Assisted 
Instruction 

Your TRS-80 even helps train you. 
You receive 8 special lesson tapes in BASIC 



computer language. Using them in your 
microcomputer, you "talk" to it as you 
progress. Errors are explained, graphics 
and animation drive home key points. 
Within a matter of minutes, you'll be able 
to write simple programs yourself. 

Send for Free Catalog. . . 
No Salesman Will Call 

Get all the details on this exciting 
course in NRI's free, 100-page catalog. 
It shows all equipment, lesson outlines, 
and facts on other electronics courses 
such as Electronic Design, Industrial 
Electronics, TV/Audio/Video Servicing... 
11 different career opportunities in all. 
Keep up with the latest technology as you 
learn on the latest model of the world's 
most popular computer. If card has been 
used, write to: 



NRI Schools 

McGraw-Hill Continuing 

Education Center 
3939 Wisconsin Avenue 
Washington, D.C. 20016 




We'll give you tomorrow. 



Apple Flasher 




software o? 



Apple Flasher is a software package 
designed to find and display hi-res pictures 
which have been stored on disks by other 
Apple programs. 

Hi-res graphic images stored on disks 
as binary files must be loaded into an 
area of the memory, normally designated 
hi-res Page 1 or Page 2, in order to be 
seen. The normal load routine supplied 
w th Apple DOS takes about 10 seconds 
to load a hi-res image after the name of 
the file has been typed by the user. Apple 
Flasher both automates and speeds up 
this display process. The system is almost 
entirely menu-driven and requires only 
one keystroke to execute each com- 
mand. 

After loading the Apple Flasher disk, a 
logo screen is displayed and you are 
invited to "press any key." The program 
then asks you to place a picture disk in 
Drive 1. At this point, you may remove 
the Apple Flasher disk and put it away. 
On the other hand, if you have two drives, 
you may press 2 to use Drive 2 instead of 
Drive 1. Pressing any other key will then 
read the names of the files into the Apple 
Flasher program. 

Once these files have been read in, the 
menu screen appears showing the names 
of the files along with a letter (A to P) 
assigned to each filename. 



David H. Ahl 



creative GOittpatiRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Apple Flasher 
Type: Electronic slide show 
Author: Paul W. Mosher 

System: 48K Apple, Applesoft, 
disk drive 

Format: Disk 

Language: Applesoft Basic 

Summary: No-frills slide show 

Price: $34.50 

Manufacturer: 

Crow Ridge Associates, Inc. 

P.O. Box 90 

New Scotland, NY 12127 



The menu then allows you to enter one 
of three display modes: Scan, Projector, 
and Auto-Display. 

Scan automatically shows in sequence 
all the pictures in the most recently read 
disk drive. The pictures are shown for 
about two seconds each so this is an 
efficient way to search a disk quickly for 
a particular picture. The Scan may be 
halted temporarily by striking any key; it 
is resumed in the same way. 

Striking the space bar during a Scan 
makes the display show information about 
the picture on the bottom four lines of 
the screen. This information consists of 
the letter that has been assigned to the 
picture, the filename, and the time in 
seconds which that picture is to be dis- 
played in the Auto-Display mode. 

Projector mode imitates the action of a 
carousel slide projector. When this mode 
is selected, the first picture on the disk is 
displayed. By using either the game pad- 
dle buttons or the arrow keys you can 
move ahead to the next picture or back 
to the previous one. Paddle Button or 
the right arrow key moves ahead, while 
Button 1 or the left arrow key moves 
backwards. 

The Auto-Display mode shows each 
picture for the amount of time specified 
in a timing code "hidden" in the name of 
the file. Using time codes, you can create 
sequences of pictures that will be dis- 
played for varying lengths of time 
according to their content. The time 
interval may be varied between two 



seconds and four minutes. As in Projector 
mode, any key will interrupt the display. 

Timing codes are put in the picture 
names with a separate Applesoft program 
or keyboard routine. This routine is 
shown in Figure 1. Note that this portion 
of the Apple Flasher system is not menu- 
driven and requires a fair amount of 
typing on the part of the user. We are 
told by Crow Ridge Associates that they 
will soon be releasing Showmaker, a 
utility for setting up slide shows including 
an automatic method of placing time 
marks in the picture files. Nevertheless, I 
did not find the existing procedure too 
onerous and found I could make a display 
disk in about the same amount of time as 
it took with one of the more sophisticated 
systems. 

On the other hand, in contrast to the 
Executive Briefing System or the Slide 
Show, Apple Flasher does not offer the 
user any choice in transition effects, nor 
does it offer the ability to create or edit 
slides. 

The manual is skimpy but adequate. 
The author assumes that the user knows 
how to use his Apple and create hi-res 
images. 

Unfortunately, no provision is made to 
put the run-time system and a slide show 
on a single disk. This would be highly 
desirable so you could make a show, store 
it on a disk, and distribute multiple copies 
to stores, sales people, or other members 
of your organization. In its favor, Apple 
Flasher is a straightforward, easy-to-use 
electronic slide show system at a modest 
price. It is what it claims to be, "a 
convenient, rapid way to find and display 
hi-res pictures," in a no-frills package. D 

CIRCLE 345 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



(1) Boot with an ordinary DOS 3.3 disk 

Do not use the APPLE FLASHER disk for this process! 

(2) Piace the disk with the picture In drive 1 

(3) Type HGR so you can see screen 1 -- it'll be black 
(<0 Type BLOAD MYPIC,A$2000 -- you'il see your picture 

(5) type FOR N - 8312 TO 8319: POKE N, 0: tCXT 

(6) Type Poke 831^, 20 <--this is the number of seconds 

(7) Type BSAVE MYPIC, A$2000,L$2000 



Figure 1. Procedure to put timing codes on slides. 



84 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



897 N.W. Grant Ave. • Corvallis, Oregon 97330 • 503/758-0521 



idex 



TM 



/ 





Never having to type the word 

'CATALOG,' or trying to remember 

how to get from one part 

of a program to another! 

If you could do these functions, and many 

more like them, at the STROKE of a SINGLE 

KEY, would you? We thought you would! So, 

we invented the Enhancer ][ and the Function 

Strip. More than just another lower case 

adapter, the Enhancer ][ is an intelligent 

keyboard processor. Now characters, strings 

of data, commands and statements can all be 

stored in your Enhancer ][ for immediate recall 

by pressing JUST ONE KEY! 

Features that you would expect only on larger 

systems now can be yours. EASILY! For 

instance, wouldn't you like auto-repeat, and hi- 

speed repeat? How about a type-ahead buffer? 

Even user-definable function keys are available 

for greater input flexibility. 

The Videx Enhancer ][ and Function Strip; it 

really is the Dawn of a New Era for Apple ][ rM . 

Suggested Prices 

— ENHANCER ][ 149.00 

FUNCTION STRIP 79.00 

Package Deal 215.00 




dtafc I 



Apple ][ is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 
Enhancer ][ and Function Strip are trademarks of Videx. Inc 



V • 


c ^ •? - 


^ 


1 


jfll 








i 



mmm 


Lsi 


— 






CIRCLE 309 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



A. A 




■i: *«> 



ORE6A.ONLYS595. 

What nobody else can give you at twice the price. 



mv 



^■■B 




"THE COMMODORE 64 

COULD BE THE 
MICROCOMPUTER INDUSTRY'S 

OUTSTANDING NEW PRODUCT 

INTRODUCTION SINCE 
THE BIRTH OF THIS INDUSTRY." 



-SHEARSON/AMERICAN EXPRESS 



They're speaking to a group as interested 
as anyone else in the future of computers: the 
people who buy stock in the companies that 
make computers. 

It on the other hand, you're a person 
whose livelihood depends on a personal com- 
puter—or whose leisure time revolves around 
one— what follows should impress you even 
more than it impresses investors. 

MIGHT MAKES RIGHT . 

The value of a computer is determined by 
what it can do. What it can do is largely deter- 
mined by its memory 

The Commodore 64's basic RAM is 64K. 
This amount of power is unusual enough in a 
micro at any price. 

At $595, it is astonishing. 

Compared with the Apple ll+° for in- 
stance,the Commodore 64" offers 33% more 
power at considerably less than 50% of the cost. 

Compared with anything else, it's even 
more impressive. 

PILE ON THE PERIPHERALS . 

Because the basic cost of the 64 is so low 
you can afford to buy more peripherals for it. 
Like disk drives, printers, and a telephone modem 
that's priced at around $100. 

This means you can own the 64, disk 
drive, printer and modem for a little more than 
an Apple II + computer alone. 

HARD FACTS ABOUT SOFTWARE . 

The Commodore 64 will have a broad 
range of custom software packages including , 
an electronic spreadsheet; business graphics 
(including printout); a user-definable diary/ 
calendar; word processing; mailing lists, 
and more. 

With BASIC as its primary language, it is 
also PET BASIC compatible. 

The Commodore 64 will also be program- 
mable in UCSD PASCAL, PILOT and LOGO. 

And, with the added CP/M* option, you 



will have access to hundreds of exciting soft- 
ware packages. 

THE FUN SIDE OF POWER . 

The Commodore 64 can become very 
playful at a moment's notice. 

You can use Commodore's plug-in game 
cartridges or invent your own diversions. All 
will be enhanced by brilliant video quality 
(320 x 200 pixels, 16 available colors, 3D 
Sprite graphics), plus outstanding sound. 

The 64's built-in music synthesizer has 
a programmable ADSR (attack, decay, sustain, 
release) envelope, 3 voices (each with a 9-octave 
range) and 4 waveforms. All of which you can 
hear through your audio system and see in full 
color as you compose or play back. 

NOW'S YOUR CHANCE . 

If you've been waiting for the "computer 
revolution," consider it as having arrived. 

Through its 25 years of existence, 
Commodore has been committed to delivering 
better products and lower prices. 

Today, the company's vertical integration 
has resulted in the Commodore 64's price per- 
formance breakthrough heralded by Shearson/ 
American Express. 

Visit a Commodore Computer dealer and 
discover the 64 soon. 

It will expand your mind without deflating 
your wallet. 



"CP/M " is a registered trademark of Digital Research. Inc. 



Commodore Business Machines/Personal Systems Division 
P.O. Box 500 Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19428 

Please send me more information on the Commodore 64™ 



*" I 



Name, 



Company. 

Address 

City 

Zip 



.State. 



Phone. 



Cs commodore 

COMPUTER 



CRC-11 



CIRCLE 138 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Poor Man's 
Slide Show System 



This is a short program in Basic that 
will do a "slide show" presentation of hi- 
res pictures on the Apple. Load the 
program, then insert the disk containing 
your pictures in Drive 1. Type RUN, and 
the program asks if you wish to see a 
catalog of images (slides) on the disk. 
You are then prompted to type the names 
of the pictures you want displayed in their 
proper sequence. Press RETURN without 
typing a name when you are done. If you 



Kerry Shetline 

make a mistake, enter a "/" instead of a 
file name and the procedure starts over. 

After all the names have been entered, 
the program automatically starts to load 
and show the slides. 

The program can be controlled by 
paddles or keyboard. Use the right arrow 
or Button 1 to advance through the 



pictures, and the left arrow or Button to 
move backwards. The program immedi- 
ately displays the next picture in the 
sequence when you push the paddle 
button or arrow key. While that picture is 
being viewed, the next picture in the 
sequence will be loaded. You will hear a 
beep when the load is completed (about 
6-10 seconds) and can move on to the 
next picture at that point. You may stop 
the program by pressing ESCAPE. D 



i u u 

1 1. 

I ... m 

X A.. \f 

1 3 

i • •• 

I. -+ 



.1 50 

1.60 



REH3 Creative Cowputing slide show prog rati, by Kerry Shetline 

D I ii A 4> < 1 4 > s BO- 4 9 2 4 9 s B 1 « B •♦■ 1 - S 1 ■ 4 9 2 36a K B » 4 9 1 5 2 s C K B ■ 4 9 i 6 8 8 L * == C H R * < 4 ) •♦• 

"BLOAB " s S*< )■•■ f A*2000 n s 3i< :i. )■" v A*4000 M 

ONERR GOTO 290 

BEF FHPi X ) = X- :i •♦< Pi 1 >*< NOT X >s BEF FHFk X >«X+1~< P+l )*< X»P > 

TEXTS HOMES PRINT"- PRINTS INPUT "DO YOU WISH TO SEE THE CATALOG?"; R* a 

tr LEF7*< R* f i ^"Y" THEN 

p R I N T s P R I N T C H R * ( 4 ) " C A T A L G ' ' 
PRINTS PRINT "ENTER THE NAMES OF THE PICTURE5a"a PRINT 

FOR P»0 TO 14 a 

PRINT "PICTURE It" CHR*< 32*< P<9 > >;P+ij « INPUT A*< P )i 

IF A*< P )» ,,n THEN 190 

IF A*< P)« ,, / n THEN :i 40 
NEXT P 
p=P~la HGRs POKE 4*234, 0s [i=0s 5«0a PN*0a PRINT L*$ A*< >;S*< >a PRINT Lij 

Ai< I. >J 5*< 1 > 

PRINT CHR$(7)s POKE CKK y 
l\ ~ P E I::. I\ <, l\ B 1' > - 

IF PEEK* Bl>> 127 OR K>149 THEN 270 
IF PEEK(B0»127 OR K«136 THEN 250 
IF K«155 THEN 

POKE CKB„0s TEXT:: HOHEa END 

bG i 210 
PN«FWP< PN)a 
.ii D rHEN 

5«N0T 5a POKE Sl*5 f 0a PRINT L*J A*( FNP< PN ) >$S*< NOT S )a GOTO 200 
D»N0T Da PRINT Li; A*< PN )| S*< S >a PR1HT L*|A*< FNP< PN > >|;S*< NOT S>s GOTO 200 
PW»F NF< P'r^ >s 
IF NOT D THEN 

5«N0T Ss POKE Sl+S,0a PRINT L*; A*< FNF( PH ) >? S*< NOT S )a GOTO 200 
:80 D*N0T Ba PRINT L*J Ail PN )? $%< S >a PRINT L*? A*< FNF< PN > >;S*< NOT S)a GOTO 200 
<: k /\> i Ea i s HOHE s 

i F P E E r\ \ 2 2 2 >\ > 2 t:> 5 i H E N 

VTAB 12a INVERSES PRINT TAB( .1.6 > CHR*< 7 >"BGS ERROR!" SPC<15)a NORMALS 

FOR X*l TO 2000s 

NEXT Xs 

buTu i^u 



.i / 

1 u 
ivu 

200 

2 i 

2 2 

230 

2 ** i > 

... MM .. 

»•: ^j u 



.; ^.) u 
2 7 ^> 



88 



November 1982 c Creative Computing 



The First Computerized Jigsaw Puzzle 



v 



#* 



k 






. BH 







Spend fascinating, intriguing, challenging hours 
of endless, hi-res entertainment... with JIGSAW. 
Great for anyone and everyone. 







IL 




lmH-lV<i It»kV«MkfcX*jiilw^ 



supplied pictures (full-color, hi-res graphics). Each puzzle breaks apart into 180 separate 
pieces. Never repeats the same sequence of shapes-each game you randomly generate 
a brand-new puzzle. 

Thejpjctures supplied by JIGSAW c 

ten in machine language, permits fast loading, quick picture generation, rapid response. A 

super teaching aid for young people (for size, color, and shape relationships) 

CAUTION: PLAYING JIGSAW MAY BE HAZARDOUS TO YOUR HEALTH. 

i fun and excitement are infectious and you'll spend hours in front of your computer! 



FIEj IHJ 



TiiisJBrogcam was Written by Joe Calabiese JIGSAW requires Apple II, 48K. Now available at yoi 

.' t ^1 fife. \W W\ 1 :-. 



■ 



micro fun 









E is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 







opynght 1982 Micro, 




WANG 



4£ 





.*** 



*# 




f 




apple 





w 




■*^m 




i 











i 









■V 




Look Who 
Picked the Peach 

Did¥)u? 



They did. 

And perhaps you did too. If you 
own an IBM Personal Computer/"" an 
Apple III,™ a Zenith Z-89™ or a 
Hewlett-Packard HP-87; v you've had 
the chance to pick Peachware.™ All 
these companies chose Peachtree 
Software m to get the most out of 
their machines for you. 

And with good reason. Peachtree 
Software is the recognized leader in 
business software for microcomputers, 
with a reputation for comprehensive, 
well-designed packages, easy-to-use 
documentation and Peachcare™ —our 
own array of support services un- 
matched in the industry. 

With integrated systems like the 
Peachpak™ 8 Accounting Series — 
General Ledger, Accounts Payable, 
Accounts Receivable, Sales Invoicing, 
Inventory Control and PeachPay™ 
Payroll — Peachtree offers the manager 
unprecedented control over his critical 
accounting activities. And the Peach- 
pak 9 Office Productivity Series, 
based on the PeachText™* word 



processor and including the Peach- 
Calc™ Electronic Spreadsheet, Spell- 
ing Proofreader, Mailing List Manager 
and Telecommunications, expands 
the power of Peachtree Software 
to all areas of the office. 

Those qualities made our software 
the natural choice of these big manu- 
facturers. But they're not the only 
ones who've picked a peach. So have 
tens of thousands of individual users 
of the better CP/M™ —compatible 
microcomputers. 

If you haven't picked the Peach, 
isn't it about time you did? 



*We improved Magic Wand,™ and it's so good 
we put our name on it. 

Please send me information on Peachware™ by Peachtree Software. 



Name: 



Company:. 
Address:_ 
City: 



State: 



Zip:. 



I am a: □ prospective dealer □ user of software 

Peachtree Software Incorporated an MSA company 

3445 Peachtree Road, N.E./8th Floor / Atlanta, Georgia 30326/(404) 239-2045 




IBM is a trademark of International Business 
Machines Corp. 

Apple III is a trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 

Z~89 is a trademark of Zenith Corporation. 

HP-87 is a trademark of Hewlett-Packard Company. 

CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research Inc. 

Peachware, Peachtree Software, Peachcare, 
Peachpak, PeachPay, PeachText and PeachCalc 
are trademarks of Peachtree Software Incorporated, 
an MSA Company. 

Copyright © 1982 Peachtree Software Incorporated, 
an MSA Company. 



CC 1182 




Peachtree 
Software 



CIRCLE 242 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




A game of ups and downs, 
with a laugh at every floor! 



Quick! Run to the hotel lobby! Grab the luggage! 
Race to the penthouse! Rush back for more! 
Everybody's in a hurry, and the tips keep running 
out! No time to waste — no time even to wait for 
the elevator. You only have time for laughing, 
chuckling, chortling and a giggle or two. (Oops 
— look out for that luggage-stealing Hotel Ghost!) 



Your time's running out, but the fun never does. 
Pack your game bag with BELLHOP, family fun 
from Hayden Software. 



to order call: 



1-800-631-0856 

(in N.J. call 201-8434)550, ext. 382) 
BELLHOP, #19109, Apple II disk, $34.95 



HAYDEN 




CIRCLE 182 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



^MHMHMBMH 



^^Kmtmmmmmmm^^^m^^^m^ 









Micro-Dynamo 




A Language for Simulating the World 



creative GonepatiRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Micro-Dynamo 

Type: Model-building language 

System: Apple II, two disk drives, 
language or RAM card 
and Pascal 

Format: Disk and 114-page manual 

Summary: Builds and runs complex, 
multi-equation models of 
business, environment, 
economics, health care, 
the world, etc. 

Price: $245 
Manufacturer: 

Addison-Wesley 

Publishing Company 
Jacob Way 
Reading, MA 01867 



Christopher U. Light 



Perhaps the first attempt at building 
a mathematical model of the economy 
was Thomas Malthus's observation in 
1798 that the population of the world 
was growing geometrically while the 
food supply could grow only arith- 
metically. 

Christopher U. Light, 919 North Michigan Ave, 
Suite 3008, Chicago, IL 6061 1. 

November 1982 c Creative Computing 



If the number of people were to 
double every 25 years (l... 2. ..4. ..8. ..16 
...32...) and the amount of food pro- 
duced were to grow at a linear rate ( 1 ... 
2...3...4...5...6...) every quarter cen- 
tury, Malthus pointed out, in time 
there simply wouldn't be enough food 
to feed all the people. The inevitable 
result: widespread starvation, misery, 
poverty, war, famine and pestilence. 
This conclusion lead Thomas Carlyle 
to dub economics "the dismal science," 
a sobriquet it has yet to outgrow. 

Malthus's prediction was not ful- 
filled — at least in the short run — in 
part because he couldn't foresee the 
great advances in technology that 
would happen in the next two cen- 
turies. In essence, his model was very 
incomplete and would remain so until 
the invention of the computer. 

His work, however, was never for- 
gotten. Thoughtful people have long 
been aware that the world's resources 
are finite and may someday be used 
up. A decade ago two events based on 
this realization shocked the world. 



93 



The second of these was the 1973 
OPEC embargo on oil and subsequent 
doubling, tripling and quadrupling of 
its price. This followed by little more 
than a year the publication of the first 
"doomsday" study to use modern 
model-building and computation 
techniques. 

Sponsored by the Club of Rome and 
entitled the Limits to Growth, this 
study attempted nothing less than to 
model mathematically the entire 
world using who knows how many 
variables and equations birth rates, 
fertility rates, land available for culti- 
vation, industrial output, pollution, 
capital formation — and the inter- 
action and feedback loops between 
these variables. 

Although the final model reported 
in the book examined only five major 
variables, these were actually sum- 
mary variables produced by sub- 
models and were based on consid- 
eration of hundreds of factors. It was 
a staggering project which required the 
power of the biggest computers of its 
day. 

The results are well known: no 
matter how the authors varied their 
assumptions within reason, each simu- 
lation run predicted that, unless man- 
kind could develop conservation 
measures immediately, sometime in 
the early to middle part of the 21st 



Micro-Dynamo, continued... 

century the world's resources would 
simply be insufficient to support its 
ever growing population. The result: 
poverty, famine, war, misery and a 
rapid decline in the total population 
caused by deaths due to these factors. 

The technique of forecasting 
changes in complete systems with 
variables that impinge upon and inter- 
act with each other, is called "system 
dynamics/ 1 and a language called 
Dynamo for what were then con- 
sidered giant mainframe computers 
such as the IBM 360 was developed 
in 1958 by Alexander Pugh and others 
working with him. 

Later it was made interactive and 
revised for the mini-computer. 

Micro- Dynamo is a rewriting of it 
in Pascal for the Apple. 

Writing and Running the Model 

Although the manual for Micro- 
Dynamo is subtitled "System Dynam- 
ics Modeling Language," the complete 
Pascal/Dynamo package is far more 
than just another language. It con- 
tains the essential elements of a word 
processor and includes many menu- 
driven prompts that require only one- 
key responses. 

In brief, the steps in writing and 
running a model that will plot over 
time four variables in four colors 
simultaneously on a color monitor or 
print a plot of 10 variables at a time 
on a printer are: 

1) Hit E, so the command menu will 
run the editor, and then type in your 
program. 

2) Hit Q so the editor menu will 
present its save menu. 

3) Hit W to write your program on 
a disk with the name you give it. 

4) Hit E to exit the editor. 

5) Hit L (for linker) to call the 
compiler. 

6) When prompted, re-enter the 
name of your file. 

7) Wait while your program is com- 
piled and error messages are printed 
out. 

8) Return to the editor, correct the 
errors if necessary and repeat the 
above steps, or, if no corrections are 
needed, simply wait while your pro- 
gram is run and the predicted values 
of all of your designated variables are 
first listed numerically and then 
plotted. 

If you hit Reset or Escape at the 
wrong time, you'll curse a blue streak, 
but otherwise error-trapping seems 
just fine. 

So that is the system itself similar 
to a word processor except that it deals 
in equations and also runs a program. 
The language in which you write your 
program is not especially difficult to 
learn, but it is neither Basic nor 
Fortran and has some surprises for 



programmers familiar with those two. 

Dynamo is a very specialized, single 
purpose language whose only function 
is to make it easy for a model-builder 
to enter and run a dynamic model 
(one in which all variables except 
constants are mathematical functions 
of time). While this specialization 
does, of course, reduce its versatility, it 
also means that the unexpected occurs 
less often and the language can be 
learned quickly. 

An experienced Apple user who is 
familiar with either Basic or Fortran 
and also with model-building should 
need only a day or two to grasp both 
the language and its editor/ printer 
system. 

Modelling Malthus 

Perhaps the best way to discuss 
Micro- Dynamo as a programming 
language is with an illustration. Be- 
cause most of the examples that come 
with the package are long and com- 
plicated (Jay Forrester's World 
Dynamics model, for example), let's 
write a little program using Malthus's 
observations. 

Let's assume, as he incorrectly did, 
that the population of Great Britain is 
15 million and that it isdoublingevery 
25 years (which is an annual com- 
pound growth rate of about 3%). 

Let's assume that food production 
grows by 5% of its initial amount 
every year. At the end of 25 years, it 
will be 125% higher, while the popula- 
tion will have doubled. 

Let's also assume that all of the 
British farmers in 1798 could grow 
enough food to provide 3000 calories 
a day for each of the 15 million 
people, but that each person requires 
2000 calories a day. In other words, 
there is a surplus of food in time zero 
(1798), but with the population grow- 
ing exponentially and food production 
linearly, the annual surpluses will 
become shortages at some point in the 



future. Question: in what year will 
this happen. 

To find out, we have written a short 
program in Micro- Dynamo that 
appears in Listing 1 . As you study the 
program, probably the first thing you 
will notice is that there are no line 
numbers. Micro- Dynamo does not 
use line numbers because you can 
enter the lines in any order and the 
language will sort them in memory so 
that they will be in the correct order 
when the program is run. 

The second thing you will note is 
that there is no asterisk between 
(DESPOP.K) and (RATE) in line 3. 
Although Micro- Dynamo does recog- 
nize the asterisk as a multiplication 
sign, and requires it if there are no 
parentheses, it also accepts back to 
back parentheses as a command to 
multiply their contents. 

In place of line numbers, this 
language uses the first lew columns 
(up to the first space) to indicate the 
kind of instructions the line contains. 
The asterisk in line 1, for example, 
makes that line the title that will be 
printed at the head of the graph. 

In the second line, L indicates a line 
defining a difference equation for a 
level (a stock that is constant at a 
point in time but which changes over 
time), while R indicates a rate (a flow 
over time that changes the level of the 
stocks). Think of water flowing into or 
out of a bucket at some rate per minute 
but which is at a certain level in the 
bucket if measured at a given time. 

The letter C indicates that the line 
sets the value of a constant, while A 
stands for auxiliary and is used for 
equations that have the same time 
period on both sides. 

PRINT tells which variables should 
have their values printed. PLOT does 
the same thing for a graph. And SPEC 
sets certain specifications including 
the number of time periods the pro- 
gram is to compute. 



Listing I. 



t MALTHUS I AN POPULATION GROWTH 

NOTE 

L DESPOP. K=DESPOP. J+ (DT) * (NEWPOP. JK) 

R NEWPOP . KL= ( DESPOP . K ) ( RATE ) 

C RATE=.03 GROWTH RATE 

L CAL.K=CAL- J+(DT) <-05*ICAL) 

C ICAL=45000 

N CAL=ICAL 

A C ALPOP - K=C AL . K / 2000 

N DESPOP=15 

NOTE POPULATION IN MILLIONS 

A POP - K=M I N ( DESPOP . K , CALPOP . K ) 

PR I NT DESPOP , C AL , POP 

PLOT DESPOP=D , POP=P ( , 300 ) Z C AL=C ( 40E03 , 300E03 ) 

SPEC DT= 1 /PLTPER= 1 OZPRTPER= 1 0/LENGTH= 1 OO 

RUN 



94 



November 1982° Creative Computing 










Me8aWa s a ,ea ' THE ULTIMATE COMPUTER 



time space battle 
between the forces of the Colonists 
and the Kryon Empire. Join an inter- 
galactic shootout with up to eight star- 
ship commanders transmitting orders 
from the keyboard cockpits of their 
craft anywhere in the U.S.A. 

CIRCLE 139 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CONFLICT 



Attacking, evading, scanning, com- 
municating. That's MegaWars. Easy 
to learn but difficult to master. That's 
why CompuServe will give one free 
hour to every MegaWars player enter- 
ing a game before December 31, 1982. 



Call toll free 
800-848-8990. 
You'll receive the illustrated guide to 
CompuServe, America's most compre- 
hensive Videotex service, plus the 
MegaWars Commanders Briefing. 

CompuServe 

5000 Arlington Centre Blvd. 
Columbus, Ohio 43220 

800-848-8990 



yp> 



.*;>. 



^ 




VIC 20 owners rejoice! HES presents a com- 
plete range of software from our exciting 
series of games to our professional group of 
utility and language programs. 

Our new cartridge programs include: HES 
MON, an indispensible monitor for assembly 
language programmers; HES WRITER, a 



VIC 20 is a registered TM of Commodore 



a fun and easy way to learn computer pro- 
gramming; and VIC FORTH, a powerful lan- 
guage that is many times faster than BASIC, 
yet easier to use than assembly language. 

HES is committed to offering high-quality, 
well-documented computer programs on a 
continual basis. Look for our cartridge and 
cassette based software at your local dealer. 

CIRCLE 184 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Human Engineered Software 
71 Park Lane 

Brisbane, California 94005 
Telephone 415-468-4110 



■■■i 



Micro- Dynamo, continued... 

Letters following a dot are time- 
scripts, subscripts indicating time 
periods. There are only three: J is the 
previous time period; K the one the 
program is calculating currently, and 
L is the next one. Double timescripts 
(.KL, lor example) indicate that that 
variable doesn't change between those 
two time periods. 

Now study the example in Listing 1. 
The first L line says that the desired 
population (that produced by un- 
checked growth and thus presumably 
desired by the parents of the children, 
hence the variable name) in any given 
year is equal to its value in the previous 
year plus the new population per time 
period multiplied by the number of 
time periods between each computa- 
tion (DT which is, in this model, one 
year). 

The next line, R, states that next 
year's new population will be equal to 
this year's total population times the 
annual growth rate. The constant line 
following sets that growth rate at 3% 
a year; the term "growth rate" that 
follows is one of the permissible ways 
of making a remark. 

The following line is like the first 
and states that the total number of 
calories available to feed the popula- 
tion is the same as last year plus the 
new production which is 5% of the 
initial value each year. ICAL sets the 
initial daily average food production 
for Great Britain at 45,000 million 
calories or 3000 per day per capita. 

The letter N that begins the next line 
signifies that the information in the 
line initializes some variable. In this 
case CAL with no subscript — is 
given its initial value in time period 
zero. 



The auxiliary line that follows deter- 
mines the population that can be fed if 
each person requires 2000 calories a 
day. 

Another initializing line sets the 
beginning population at 15 (in mil- 
lions), while the line beginning with 
NOTE is a third way of making a 
remark. 

The next line illustrates one of the 
logical operators of the language. In 
this case the actual (or maximum pos- 
sible) population equals the lower 
(minimum) of the unchecked popula- 
tion, DESPOP, or the population that 
can be fed, CAL POP. 

The PRINT line says to print values 
of the unchecked population, the total 
food available measured in calories 
per day, and the actual population. 

PLOT says to use D when plotting 
DESPOP on a daisy wheel printer, P 
for POP and C for CAL and to set the 
bottom and top scales of the graph at 
and 300 for the first two and at 40 
thousand and 300 thousand for the 
third. 

The specification line sets the basic 
time interval as one period (one year), 
but plots and prints points every ten 
years for a total of 100 years . . . Whew! 

When the program is run, Micro- 
Dynamo sorts the equations into a 
usable order (to get the initial values at 
the beginning, for example), compiles 
the program and searches for errors, 
computes the values of the variables 
time period by time period, prints 
them on the screen and finally plots in 
hi-res color a graph of these values. 

The graph for our little Malthusian 
model is shown in Figure 1. On it the 
straight line above the other lines is 
average daily total food available (in 



••:;■' 



fi 



r*^ 



....-•• 



..••■ 







^ 






,jL 



v* 



::: 

:.. r 






^ 



e <--TIME--> 

l^§JE;D£'Efi£.< = 309) 
CjftL< 40T ! 38BT > 



180 



Figure 1. Graph of Malt bus's "dismal" 
model. 

thousands of millions of calories) each 
year for 100 years. The curved line 
beginning near the origin and dis- 
appearing off the graph at the top is 
unchecked population. Superimposed 
on this curved line for part of its dis- 
tance and then branching off to the 
right below it is actual (or maximum 
possible) population, which is the 
lower of the unchecked population or 
the number of people that could be led. 

After running the program and pro- 
ducing its plots. Micro- Dynamo asks 
if you would like to change any of the 
parameters and rerun it. We could, for 
example, set the initial population at 
10 million, graph two centuries in- 
stead of one and change the scale of 
the graph and we could do all of 
this directly from the keyboard during 
the rerun phase. 

The program would then be run 
again with the new values but without 
having to be compiled anew. Only if 
the structure of the model is changed 
is it necessary to return to the editor 
and then recompile to make the altera- 
tions. 



History Updated 



At Addison-Wesley, I had the opportunity to briefly 
use Micro- Dynamo. Having run some of the first articles 
on Dynamo in the November 1974 and March 1975 issues 
of Creative Computing, I was curious to see how far 
dynamic modeling had come in the last eight years. 

In 1973, Pugh-Roberts Associates released Dynamo, 
a compile-and-go processor. In the March *75 article. 
Jay Anderson of Bryn Mawr found that Dynamo was 
somewhat cumbersome and slow for classroom use. He 
recommended using a "recipe" for translating System 
Dynamics models or existing Dynamo programs into 
Fortran IV. Although it required more programming 
effort, the result was a program that was more trans- 
portable and which ran much faster. 

With Micro- Dynamo on the Apple, the transport- 
ability problem has been largely solved. However, 
the speed problem has not. Forrester's World Model, 
admittedly a large model with 249 statements, took 
5.2 minutes to load, 4.1 minutes to "reorder" the equa- 
tions and a few seconds more to display the results. 

One particularly unfriendly aspect of the software is 
that in some places it expects a Return after an input 



and in other places it doesn't. By itself this would not 
be horrible except that in certain places a Return is 
interpreted as no response. For example, to load a model, 
you should type: 

L (no return) 

MODEL NAME (Return) 

If you type, as I did: 

L (Return) 

MODEL NAME (Return) 

the program assumes that the Return after the L means 
no model name is to be loaded and it terminates. Yes, 
terminates. That puts you back into Apple Pascal and 
you must start over from scratch. 

On the bright side, once your model is loaded cor- 
rectly and the equations reordered, new model condi- 
tions (not equations), may be input reasonably easily 
and executed reasonably quickly. Coupled with the 
forthcoming book from Addison-Wesley, Micro- 
Dynamo is an excellent system, particularly for educa- 
tional and scientific environments. DHA 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



97 




y&'J-$ffil>#W!'s 



Computer Exchange — The IBM-PC Supply Center 




PERSONAL COMPUTER 




HARDWARE 



AST RESEARCH. Combo Plus. 64K with one option 
Combo Plus. 256K with one option 



for the 
IBM PC 



NEW* 
NEW 



LIST 
PRICE 
$ 495 

$1095 



OUR 

PRICE 

$379 

$729 



SOFTWARE 



BUSINESS 



ASHTONTATE. dBase II 

COMSHARE TARGET. Target Planner Calc 

DENVER SOFTWARE. Easy (Executive Accounting System) 

INFORMATION UNLIMITED. Easywnter II (a WPS) 

Easyspeller (88K Words) 
Easytiler (a DBMS) 

INNOVATIVE SOFTWARE. TIM III (a DBMS) 

* INSOFT. Data Design (a DBMS) 
INNOVATIVE. Spell Guard 
ISM. MatheMagic 
MICRO LAB. The Tax Manager 

* MICROPRO. WordStar* plus free WordStar Training Manual 

MailMerge™ 
SpellStar™ 

Special! All Three Above. WordPac 
WordStar Training Manual 
MICROSOFT. Muftiplan (uses MSDOS) 



PERFECT SOFTWARE 



Options Async Comm Port . Para Printer Port , Clock/Calender 
Add $80 for second option and $55 for third 
Parity Memory Card, 64K $ 395 $279 

256K $ 995 $659 

Note All of above cards are memory upgradeable 



§YAO INC.. DS1. Z80B for CP/M 80 

DS2. above with serial port. (Sept) 
CORVUS. Hard Disk System. See Corvus Section This Page 
CURTIS, PC Pedestal. r m (or Display on PC 
3 Foot Cable for IBM Mono Display 
DAVONG. DS 1-501 Hard Disk. 5 Meg 
64K RAM Card 
256K RAM Card 
«*. MICROSOFT, 64K RAM Card w /Parity RAM Drive & Utility 
128K RAM Card w/Panty, RAM Drive & Utility 
256K RAM Card w/Parrty, RAM Drive & Utility 
64K RAM Chips T M w /Parity. RAM Drive & Utility 

* QUADRAM CORPORATION 

Quadboard, 64K expandable to 256K. 4 function board 

256K, four function board 
Microta/er or Interfa/er 
TG PROOUCTS. Joystick 
TANOON. Disk Drives 

TM 100-1 Single Sided 160K 
TM100 2 Double Sided 320K 
VISTA COMPUTER. 576K Maxicard 
XEOEX. Baby Blue. 64K plus CP/M operation 



660 
760 

80 
50 



$1995 



299 
799 
350 
525 
875 
175 



$570 
$660 

$ 65 

$ 39 

Call 

Call 

Call 

$259 

$395 

$659 

$129 



$ 595 
$ 995 


$449 
$689 
Call 


$ 65 


$ 49 


$1395 
$ 600 


Call 
Call 
$1195 
$495 



SELECT INFO.. Select 
SORCIM. SuperCalc 
SuperWnter 
Spell Guard. 
VISICORP. V.siCalc*/256K 
VisiDex 

VisiTrend/Plot 
VisiFile 
Desktop Plan 



Perfect Writer T M 
Perfect Speller™ 
Perfect Filer T M 
(a WPS) 



call on availability 
call on availability 



for the 




IBM PC 




LIST 


OUR 


PRICE 


PRICE 


EW! Call on availability 


$ 50 


$ 39 


jm) $ 725 


$545 


$ 350 


$259 


$ 175 


$129 


$ 400 


$299 


$ 495 


$369 


NEW' $ 225 


$169 


$ 295 


$220 


$ 90 


$ 69 


$ 250 


$189 


lanual $ 495 


$249 


$ 150 


$ 79 


$ 250 


$149 


$ 895 


$459 


— 


$ 25 


$ 275 


$199 


$ 389 


$239 


$ 189 


$119 


$ 289 


$179 


$ 595 


$375 


$ 295 


$219 


$ 395 


$295 




Call 


$ 250 


$189 


$-250 


$199 


$ 300 


$239 


$ 250 


$199 


$ 300 


$239 



UTILITY 



NAGY SYSTEM 
NORELL DATA. 



Copy/PC. Backup Copier and Utilities 
™ System Backup. Bit Copier 



35 
50 



29 
39 



HOME & EDUCATIONAL 



LIST 
PRICE 



OUR 
PRICE 



ACORN. Lost Colony 
AUTOMATED SIMULATIONS. 
AVALON HILL. Galaxy 



Temple of Apshai 



Midway Campaign 

Computer Stocks and Bonds 

Voyager 

Draw Poker 
CONTINENTAL. The Home Accountant Plus 
DAVIDSON, The Speed Reader 
INFOCOM. Deadline 
Zork I 
Zork II 
ON-LINE SYSTEMS. Frogger 
SIRIUS. Conquest 



$ 
$ 

$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 



30 
40 
25 
21 
25 
25 
21 
90 
75 
50 
40 
40 
35 
30 



24 
29 



$ 20 
$ 17 
$ 20 
20 
17 



$ 
$ 
$112 



55 
39 
29 
29 
26 
23 



PRINTERS, Daisy Wheel 



*- QUME. Sprint 9. 45 Cps RO 
Sprint 5. 45 Cps RO 



Limited SPECIAL 1 
Limited SPECIAL 1 



$2660 
$2995 



$1660 
$1795 



PRINTERS, Impact 

EPSON. See Epson section below 

IDS. Prism 132. Color w/Graphics $1995 $1549 

Prism 80. Color, w/Graphics $1795 $1450 

* Pager Tiger 445C. w/Graph.cs & 2K Limited Special' $ 895 $495 

Microprism 480. near letter quality $ 799 $699 

OKIDATA. Microlme 82A. 120 Cps 80 Col Para & Serial $ 649 $495 



*• 



* CORVUS SYSTEMS 



6 Meg Hard Disk 
11 Meg Hard Disk 
20 Meg Hard Disk 

IBM PC Interface (IBM DOS). Manual & Cable 5' 

Mirroi built m for easy backup 

Apple Interface. Manual & Cable 5 

Other Interfaces. Omni Net. Constellation. Mirror All in Stock 



LIST 


OUR 


PRICE 


PRICE 


$2995 


$2495 


$4795 


$3995 


$5795 


$4795 


$ 300 


$239 


$ 790 


$649 


$ 300 


$239 



EPSON PRINTERS & ACCESSORIES 



MX80 x/Graftrax • (to be discontinued by Epson) 

MX80 F/T w/Graftrax ♦ 

MX100 F/T w/Giaftrax ♦ 

Cable. IBM PC to MX80 80FT or 100 



$ 645 
$ 745 
$ 995 
$ 60 



$445 

$525 
$695 
$ 45 



Apple Man CP M IBM VisiUic WordStar jnr) /BO ur 
registered trademarks of Apple Computer Inr Warner 
Communications Co Digital Research Inc Inter 
national Business Machines Corp VtsiCrxp Inc MicroPro 
international Corp and /nog Inc respecti»ely MicroPro 
MailMeige SpellStar DataStar SuperSort and CalcStar 
are trademarks oi MicroPro International Corp Insotl and 
Data Design are trademarks o* Insott Inc RAMCard 
Microsoft Mulliplan and MS are trademarks ol Microsoft 
Corporation Videi and Videolerm are trademarks of 
Videi inc VisiCorp VisiDei Visilrend Plot Visifiieand 
Desktop Plan are trademarks of VisiCorp Inc VIC20 is a 
trademark ol Commodore 



MONITORS 



NEC 



12" Green 

12" Color. Composite 
SANYO. 9" B&W 
+ 9" Green 

12" B&W 

12" Green 

13" Color. Composite 

13" Color RGB 

Monitor Stand 

12" Green 

12" Green #300 

13" Color I, Composite 

13" Color IIA. RGB. Hi Res. (Ap II. Ill & IBM PC) 

13" Color III. RGB. Commercial, (Ap II, III) 

DVM. Color II or III to Apple II Interface 

Note Color II and III come with cable for IBM PC 



ZENITH. 
AMDEK. 



LIST 


OUR 


PRICE 


PRICE 


$ 249 


$159 


$ 450 


$349 


$ 190 


$149 


$ 200 


$119 


$ 250 


$199 


$ 260 


$199 


$ 470 


$349 


$ 995 


$795 


$ 50 


$ 39 


$ 150 


$119 


$ 200 


$159 


$ 449 


$359 


$ 999 


$799 


$ 569 


$469 


$ 199 


$175 



OTHER CALLS 
(503) 772-3803 



vka 




NATIONAL 



ORDERDESK lULLrKtt 

(800) 547-1289 

OREGON ORDERS: 772-3256 



Portland. OR. Cash & Carry Outlet. 11507 D SW Pacific Hwy . Terrace 
Shopping Center. Tigard. OR. over the counter sales only On 99W be 
tween Rte 217 and Interstate 5 Call 245 1020 



MB 



«.» ~« sm BUSINESS & DEVELOPMENT 
8 CP/M SOFTWARE 



ADVENTURE. Adventures #1 to #12 inclusive. 8" 
ASHION TATE, dBase II. 8" 
COMSHARE TARGET. Target PlannerCalc 
FOX & GELLER. QuickC ode for dBase II 
Quickscreen for dBase II 
dUtil tor dBase II 
INFOCOM. Deadline. 8" 
Zork I. 8" 
Zork II 8" 
INNOVATIVE. Spellguard. 8 
ISM. MatheMagic 

MICROCRAFT. Legal Billing & Time Keeping 
Prof Billing & Time Keeping 
it MICROPRO. WordStar* plus free WordStar Training Manual 
MailMerge T M 
SpellStar T M 

Special" All Three Above WordPac 
WordStar Training Manual 
DataStar' M 
SuperSort' v 
CalcStar' M 

Special 1 All Three Above, DataPac 
MICROSOFT. Multipian (uses MSDOS) 
OASIS. The Word Plus (a WPS) 
MICROSOFT. Fortran 80. 8" 

BASIC Compiler. 8" 
COBOL 80. 8" 
BASIC 80. 8" 
PEACHTREE. Magic Wand. 8" 

GL. A/R. A/P or Inventory. 8" 
PERFECT SOFTWARE. Perfect Writer r M 
Perfect Speller™ 
Perfect Speller ' M 
QUALITY. GBS with 3 generators, (a DBMS) 
SELECT INFO.. Select (a WPS) 
SORCIM. SuperCalc 

Super Writer, call on availability 
Spell Guard, call on availability 



LIST 


OUR 


PRICE 


PRICE 


$ 129 


$ 95 


$ 700 


$495 


$ 50 


$ 39 


$ 299 


$249 


$ 149 


$129 


$ 99 


$ 75 


$ 60 


$ 45 


$ 50 


$ 39 


$ 50 


$ 39 


% 295 


$220 


$ 100 


$ 75 


$ 750 


$395 


$ 750 


$395 


$ 495 


$249 


$ 150 


$ 79 


$ 250 


$149 


$ 895 


$459 


— 


$ 25 


$ 350 


$199 


$ 250 


$150 


$ 350 


$180 


$ 695 


$359 


$ 275 


$199 


$ 150 


Call 


$ 500 


$325 


$ 395 


$295 


$ 750 


$545 


$ 350 


$275 


$ 500 


$350 


$ 750 


$495 


$ 389 


$239 


$ 189 


$119 


$ 289 


$179 


% 10ft 


VVft 


$ 595 


$375 


$ 295 


$219 


$ 395 


$295 


$ 295 


Call 



ES3 



HEWLETT 
PACKARD 



H/P 85A Microcomputer 

H/P 87A Microcomputer 

H/P 125 Microcomputer 

H/P 7225A Professional Plotter 

H/P 8290B Serial Printer 

H/P 7470A Graphics Plotter 

H/P 41C Calculator 

H/P 41CV Calculator with 2 2K Memory 

H/P 41 Card Reader 

H/P 41 Opbcal Wand 

Wide variety of software and accessories available 



Limited Special 
Limited Special 
Limited Special 
Limited Special 
Limited Special 
New 1 



LIST 
PRICE 

$2750 
$2495 
$2750 
$2750 
$ 945 
$1550 



250 
325 
215 
125 



OUR 
PRICE 

$1699 

$1599 

$1699 

$1699 

$599 

$1125 

$185 

$245 

$175 

$ 99 

Call 



C* commodore 

Qz commodore V/lf^I?fl * 

..\VV:H.VVVVV 





VIC ZU Home Computer 

Oatasette VIC 1530 

Disk Drive VIC 1540 

Super Expander VID 121 1A 3K with lots ol extras 

3K Memory Expander Cartridge 

8K Memory Expander Cartridge 

16K Memory Expander Cartridge 

VIC Modem. Telephone Interface 

Joystick 

Game Paddle Pair 

Software full line in stock. Call 



$300 


$229 


$ 75 


$ 59 


$ 600 


$479 


$ 70 


$ 56 


$ 40 


$ 29 


$ 60 


$ 48 


$ 159 


$115 


$ 120 


$ 96 


$ 10 


$ 8 


$ 20 


$ 15 



DISKETTES 



• Control Data Corporation 12 for 10 Special 

CDC. 120 each 5. with ring. SS SO (Apple. IBM etc ) 
12 each 5 « with ring. SS. SD (Apple IBM etc) 
12 each. 5 . with ring. SS. DO (H/P IBM etc) 
12 each 8". SS. SD 
10 each. 5 « with ring. DS DD (IBM) 

VERBATIM. 10 each 5«, with ring. SS. SD or SS. DD 

MAXELL. 10 each 5 ■.. SS. SD 

DYSAN. 10 each 5 «. SS. SD 
10 each 5 DS DD 



Limited Time! 



$ 450 


$195 


$ 40 


$ 22 


$ 51 


$ 28 


$ 51 


$ 28 


$ 50 


$ 39 


$ 50 


$ 28 


$ 55 


$ 35 


$ 55 


$ 39 


$ 65 


$ 49 



ADnrDILIf* llirADIIATIAII AUnTmilC All Mail PO Box 1380. Jacksonville. OR 97530 

UKUtKINu I II r UKMAMUIM ANU ItKlYlo! WeshipimmediatelyonCashierChecks.MoneyOrders.FortunelOOOChecks.andGovernmentChecks 
Personal Checks and Company Checks allow 20 days to clear Add 3"' for VISA or MC Add 3' for shipping, insurance and handlm ^minimum $51 UPS ground is standard AddlO more 
for US Postal. APO or FPO Include telephone no No COD Prices subiect to change and typographic errors, so call to verily All goods are new include factory warranty and are guaranteed 
to work Due to our low prices all sales are final Call before returning goods tor repair or replacement ORDER DESK HOURS 8to6PST.MF 10to4Sat&Sun 1pm hereis4pm in NY 

OUR REFERENCES! We have been a computer dealer since 1978 and in mail order since 1980 Banks First Interstate Bank. (503) 776 5620 and Jefteison State Bank 
(503) 773 5333 We belong to the Chamber of Commerce, (503) 772 6293. or call Dun & Bradstreet if you are a subscriber Computer Exchange is a division of Tech Group 



SffcS 3 



*^ 



.&» 









Manufactured 
Exclusively for 




Bell e, Howell by ^CippkZ computer 



LIST 


OUR 




PRICE 


PRICE 


SAVE 


$ 1725 


$ 1195 


$ 530 


$ 645 


*520 


$ 125 


$ 525 


$ 450 


$ 75 



B&H Apple II+ 

64K (48K + ALS 16K) 
DISK II w/3.3 Cont. 

DISK II Only 

OR: SAVE OVER *350 on a pair of drives. 
Buy a pair of Micro-Sci A2 Drives. 
See opposite page. 



apple ii/ii+ 

supply center 



Apple II* differs from the 
Apple Apple II* only in that it is in 
black hammertone color and its 
warranty is longer 
Warranty Factory warranty is by 
Bell and Howell (not by Apple) and 
is one year parts plus 90 day labor 
Warranty service available at Bell 
and Howell service centers or 
return to Computer Exchange 



* Mi 



195 


(149 


149 


$ 59 


249 


$169 


425 


$319 


599 


$459 


125 


$ 75 


1395 


$995 


345 


$245 


345 


$249 


249 


$229 


375 


$319 



345 
269 
149 
749 



$249 
$199 
$ 59 

$450 



CP M book 



HARDWARE 

for Apple 11/11 + 

LIST OUR 

PRICE PRICE 
MICRO-SCI. Disk Drives. Plug/software compatible 
to Apple See Micro Sci section 
RAM CARDS 
Microsoft. 16K RAM Card 

* ALS. 16K ADDRam 
Saturn Systems. 32K 

64K 
128K 
VC Expand 40 or 80 
Axlon. 320K RAM Disk system 
80 COLUMN VIDEO CARDS: 
ALS. Smarterm 
Videx. Videoterm 
See more ALS and Videx below 
Vista. Vision 80 
M&R. Sup R term 
MISCELLANEOUS 

ALS. Smarterm 80 Col Card Special 
Z Card (Z 80) W/CPM Special 
16K ADDRam Special 

>f Synergizer Pack Special 

Synergizer Pack includes above 3. 
Note Above is a limited time offer 
Apple Computer. 
Silentype II Printer 
Graphics Tablet 
Joystick II 
Game Paddle 
Numeric Keypad 
jf Axlon. 320K RAM Disk System 
CCS. Serial Interface 7710A 

Other CCS Cards in stock 
Dan Paymar. Lower Case Chips 
Hayes. Micromodem II 
Smart modem 
jf Keyboard Company. 
Joystick II 
Game Paddle 
Numeric Keypad 
M&R. RF Modulator 

Sup R fan 
licrosoft. Z80 Softcard 
16K RAM Card 
Softcard Premium Pack! 
Mountain. 
CPS Multifunction Card 
» Clock/Calendar 

Novation. Applecat Modem 

Orange Micro. Grappler 

^ Practical Peripherals. * cable & 

MBS 8K Serial (Epson) 

MBP 16K Para (Epson) 

* Microbuffer II 16K. (printer") 
Microbuffer II 32K. (printer ") 

RH Electronics. Super Fan II 
SSM.A10 Serial Para Interface 
TG Products: Game Paddles 
Joystick 
Select A Port 
4- Videx. Videoterm 80 col 
Soft Video Switch 
Enchancer II 
Enchancer (Rev 6 or 7*) 
Function Strip 
Full Videx Line Call, up to 




395 

795 

50 

30 

150 

1395 

150 

Call 

50 

379 

279 

50 

30 

150 

30 

50 

399 

195 

775 

239 

280 

389 

165 

Conn ) 

159 

159 

259 

299 

75 

195 

40 

60 

60 

345 

35 

149 

129 

79 

5 off 



$335 
$675 
$ 39 
$ 19 
$119 
$995 
$139 
Call 
$ 39 
$289 
$229 

$ 39 
$ 19 
$119 
$ 25 
$ 39 
$269 
$149 
$579 

$209 
$245 
S329 
$119 

$129 
$129 
$209 
$229 
$ 59 
$159 
$ 29 
$ 45 
$ 45 
$249 



25 
99 
99 
59 



SOFTWARE 



on disk for Apple 11/11 + 



OUR BEST SELLERS - CALL ON OTHERS 



BUSINESS 



LIST 
PRICE 



Apple Computer. Inc. 

The Controller (Accounting) 
Apple Writer II 
Apple Pascal 
Apple Fortran 
DOS Tool Kit 
DOS 3 3 Upgrade Kit 
Apple Pilot 

DJ Portfolio Evaluator 
How to 1 
Microcouner 
Micro Telegram 
Time Manager 
Apple Logo 
Applied Soft Tech., Versa Form 
Artsci. Magic Window 
Ashion tate. dBase II (CP M) 
Beagle Bros.. Utility City 
DOSS Boss 
Borderbund. G/L with A/P 

A/R (call on avail ) 
Payroll 
Continental. GL. AR. AP or PR ea 
1st Class Mail 
Property Mngmt 
dBase II for Apple 11/11* CP/M 
Fox ft Geller. 

Quickcode for dBase II 
Hayden. Pie Writer (Specify brd 
High Tech.. Store Mgr 
L Job Control Sys 

Info Master 
Howard Soft. 

Creative Financing 
Real Estate Analyzer II 
1982 Tax Preparer 
Info. Unhm . Easywnter (PRO) 
k Innovative. Spellguard (CP/M) 
Insoft. Accountant (CP/M) 
For each GL. A/R. A/P or Payroll 
k Micro Craft. 

(CP/M) Professional Billkeeper 
Legal Billing & Timekeeping 
Micro Lab. Data Factory ver 5 
Visifactory 
Invoice Factory 
Tax Manager 
Micro Pro. (all CP/M) 



625 

150 

250 

200 

75 

75 

150 

50 

50 

250 

250 

150 

175 

389 

100 

700 

30 

24 

495 

495 

395 

250 

75 

495 

700 

295 
170 
250 
750 
189 

195 
195 
150 
175 
295 



750 
750 
300 
75 
200 
150 



OUR 
PRICE 

$499 
$119 
$199 
$159 
$ 59 
$ 59 
$119 
$ 45 
$ 39 
$199 
$199 
$119 
$139 
$289 
$ 75 
$479 
$ 22 
$ 18 
$369 
$369 
$295 
$189 
$ 59 
$369 
$479 

$259 
$115 
$189 
$350 
$119 

$145 
$145 
$115 
$129 
$150 
$ 99 



$395 
$395 
$249 
$ 56 
$129 
$ 95 



WordStar* ♦ Training Manual 


$ 375 


$199 


MailMerge™ 


$ 125 


$ 69 


SpellStar T M 


$ 200 


$119 


SPECIAL 1 All 3 above 


$ 700 


$350 


Data Star T M 


$ 295 


$169 


CalcStar T M 


$ 195 


$119 


SuperSort T M 


$ 200 


$119 


SPECIAL' All 3 above 


$ 690 


$345 


WordStar* Training Manual 


— 


$ 25 


Muse. Super Text II 


$ 150 


$113 


Super Text 40/80 


$ 175 


$129 


Form Letter 


$ 100 


$ 75 


On-Line. Expediter II* 


$ 136 


$ 75 


Screenwriter II 


$ 130 


$ 95 


General Manager 


$ 150 


$115 



100 



OUR 
PRICE 



$ 49 



LIST 
PRICE 
Osborne C P. Soft.. (Disk and Book) 

Some Common Basic Programs 

75 Business. Statistics and Math 

programs for the Apple II $ 

Practical Basic Programs 

40 more very valuable programs 

beyond "Some Com Basic Prog" $ 
Peachtree. GL. AR. AP, INV or PR $ 

Magic Wand (Specify board) $ 

Perfect. Perfect Writer $ 

Perfect Speller $ 

Perfect Filer $ 

Sensible. Sensible Speller $ 

Silcon Valley. Word Handler $ 

Sof/Sys. Executive Secretary $ 

Executive Speller ' $ 

Solldus Softech 

Stockfile $ 

Stockseller $ 
Software Publishing. 

PFS II $ 

Graph $ 

Sorcim. SuperCalc. (CP/M) $ 
Southeastern. 

Data Capture 4 0. specify brd $ 

Stoneware. DB Master $ 

DB Utility I or II $ 
VisiCorp Personal Software. 

Visicalc 3 3 $ 

VisiDex Special' $ 

VisiFile $ 

Desktop Plan II or III Special 1 $ 

Visiplot $ 

VisiSchedule New 1 $ 

VisiTrend & VisiPlot Special' $ 

VisiTerm $ 

Zork $ 

UTILITY & DEVELOPMENT 

Beagle. Utility City $ 

DOS Boss $ 

Central Point Software: 

Filer. DOS Utility $ 

Copy II Plus (bit copier) $ 

Epson. Graphics Dump $ 

Insoft. 

GraFORTH by Paul Lutus $ 

ALD System II by Paul Lutus $ 

TransFORTH II by Paul Lutus $ 125 

Electric Duet by Paul Lutus $ 30 

Microsoft. 

AIDS $ 125 

BASIC Compiler $ 395 

Cobol 80 $ 750 

Fortran 80 $ 195 

Olympic Decathlon $ 30 

TASC Compiler $ 175 

Omega. Locksmith (bit copier) $ 100 

On-line. Expediter II $ 100 

LISA 2 5 $ 80 

Phoenix. Zoom Grafix $ 40 

Southwestern. ASCII Express $ 80 



100 


$ 49 


400 


$189 


500 


$250 


389 


$239 


189 


$119 


289 


$179 


125 


$ 95 


250 


$119 


250 


$189 


75 


$ 55 


600 


$350 


700 


$450 


125 


$ 95 


125 


$ 95 


295 


$219 


90 


$ 69 


229 


$179 


99 


$ 75 


250 


$189 


250 


$175 


250 


$199 


250 


$175 


200 


$159 


300 


$239 


300 


$210 


100 


$ 79 


40 


$ 33 



30 
24 

25 
40 
15 

75 
75 



$ 22 
$ 18 



18 

35 

9 

59 
59 
99 
25 



$ 75 

$299 
$559 
$149 
$ 24 
$159 



75 
75 
60 
29 
59 



THE WORLD'S LARGEST COMPUTER MAIL ORDER FIRM 



wkil^ 



B&H APPLE II* 
64K STARTER SYSTEM 



SPECIAL 



J F" $1,795 
r SAVE $ 765 



• 48K BftH Apple II* 

• ALS 16K RAM Card 

• Disk fl with 3 3 DOS ft Controller 

• Sanyo 9" Green Monitor 

Save $132 total Substitute a A2 Micro-Sci drive 

for the Disk II. 
Add another A2 drive and save a total of $888 



//-sci 



FOR THE APPLE 11/11- , III 
DIRECT SUBSTITUTES 
for APPLE DRIVES 



MICRO-SCI 

Micro-Sci A2 drives and/or controllers are direct plug 
compatible substitutes for Apple drives and controllers 



For Apple II 

A2. 5 V\ 143K Disk Drive 
Controller Card for A2 Drive 
A40. m", 160K Disk Drive 
A70, MT. 286K Disk Drive 
Controller for A40 or A70 
Filer. Disk Utility Software 
For Apple III NEW 

A3. 5 ■■.. 143K Drive 
A73. Mt\ 286K Drive 
A143. 5'A, 572K Drive 



LIST 
PRICE 



479 
100 
449 
599 
100 
20 

449 
649 
799 



OUR 
PRICE 
$369 

$ 79 

$359 
$479 
I 79 
I IS 

S359 

$529 
$669 



OVERSTOCK SPECIAL 
FOR APPLE 11/11+ 

VIDEX. Videoterm, 80 column S 345 $249 

ALS 16K AddRAM Card $ 149 $ 59 

ALS ZCard, Z80 CP/M Card $269 $199 

ALS Smarterm 80 Col Card $ 345 $245 

ALS Synergizer Pack $ 749 $450 



HOME & EDUCATION 



Autom Sim.. Crush Crumb Chomp $ 
Broderbund. 
Apple Panic 

Arcade Machine (call first) 
Star Blazer 
Many others 
Budgeco. Raster Blaster 
Cavalier. Bug Attack 

Star Thief 
Continental. Home Accountant 

Home Money Minder $ 
Edu Ware 

Hayden. Sargon II (Chess) 
Infocom. Deadline 

Zork I or II 
Insoft. Electric Duet by Lutus 

GraFORTH by Lutus 
Lightning. Mastertype 
Microsoft. Olympic Decathlon 

Typing Tutor 
Muse. Robot War 

Castle Wolfenstem 
On line. Pegasus II 
Ultima II 
Threshold 
Cranston Manor 
Mystery House 
Softporn (X Rated) 
Ulysses & Golden Fleece 
Sentient. Oo TOPOS 
Sirius. Gorgon 
Twerps 
Sir-Tec. Wizardry 
Sub Logic. Flight Simulator 

Pin ball 
Strategic. Southern Command 
OTHER BRANDS IN STOCK CALL 



30 

30 
45 
32 

29 
30 
30 
75 
35 
Call 
35 
50 
40 
30 
75 
40 
30 
25 
40 
30 
30 
55 
40 
35 
25 
30 
40 
33 
40 
30 
50 
34 
30 
60 



$ 23 

$ 21 
$ 32 
$ 24 

Call 



22 
23 
23 
56 
26 
Call 
29 
38 
29 
25 
59 
29 
24 
19 



$ 29 



23 
22 
27 
30 
26 
19 
22 



$ 22 
$ 25 
$ 29 
$ 22 
$ 39 
$ 28 
$ 23 
$ 30 



ATARI R 




800 Computer 16K 


$ 899 


$665 


800 Computer 48K 


$1099 


1777 


400 Computer 16K 


Special! % 299 


$225 


810 Disk Drive 


$ 600 


$444 


850 Interlace 


$ 220 


$159 


410 Recorder 


$ 100 


$ 79 


16K RAM 


$ 100 


$ B5 


32K RAM 


$ 200 


$109 


Call for other software and accesories 





SEC 



8001 32K Computer $ 995 $739 

286K Total, Dual Drive PC8031 $ 995 $739 

32K addon and I/O Unit PC8012 $ 649 $415 
Call for other software and accesories 



Computer Exchange 

ALL MAIL: P.O. Box 1380, Jacksonville, OR 97530 

WAREHOUSE AND OFFICES BY APPOINTMENT AT 6791 UPPER APPLEGATE ROAD 

CIRCLE 145 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



* Means a BEST buy. 
A Division of 

awcHmxn 

Ad #939 



Micro-Dynamo, continued... 

Our model is obviously incomplete, 
as was Malthus's version of it. For 
one thing, it fails to consider the effect 
on food production of having more 
labor to cultivate the land. Including 
this would involve a feedback loop of 
the sort that Micro- Dynamo is ex- 
plicitly designed to handle. 

Other Features 

Nor can a simple program like this 
one illustrate the rest of the features of 
the language, which include pseudo 
random numbers distributed either 
uniformally or normally, sudden 
shocks to the system, regular cyclical 
behavior of one or more variables, 
delays, smoothing (averaging) of a 
variable and arbitrary relationships 
between two variables entered by 
using a table of numbers instead of 
an equation. 

Mathematical operators available 
are the basic four (+,-,*,/), sin, cos, 
sqrt, the exponential e and natural 

logarithm. No operator is available for 
raising a value to a power; logs must be 
used instead. Although there is a max- 
imum number of equations Micro- 
Dynamo can handle at once strictly 
speaking, a limit on the number of 
mathematical operators this num- 
ber is not given in the instruction 
manual. The manual does, however, 
note that about 100 different variables 
are possible. 

Logical operators are limited to 
greater than, less than, greater than or 
equal to, and less than or equal to. 
Because the programmer neither has 
nor needs control of the order in which 
the program lines will be run, there 
are no gotos, subroutines, or other 
branches. 

Lastly, Micro- Dynamo cannot 
solve simultaneous equations. It must 
find a starting point and work 
sequentially along a time path. If it 
can't, it stops and prints out the error 
message SI M U LTANEOUS ACTIVE 
EQUATIONS INVOLVINGandthen 
displays the offending equations. 

Like all high-level languages. 
Micro- Dynamo has numerous ways to 
tell the programmer he has made a 
mistake 55 of them, in fact, not one 
of which is "syntax error." Some are 
reasonably familiar: DIVIDE BY 0, 
MODEL IS NOT ON DISKETTE, 
SQRT OF NEGATIVE NUMBER. 
Others are very specific to the task of 
the language: BAD LEFT SIDE OF = 
(left hand side of an equation is in- 
correct); NOT USED (some variable 
you included in the program was 
never actually used in your model, 
indicating that an equation mav have 
been left out); TOO FEW) also TOO 
MANY) (when parentheses don't 
match). 



Because this is a compiled language, 
errors are caught during the compila- 
tion stage well before the program is 
run. When an error is found, the 
compiler stops, prints the error mes- 
sage and the line it is in, and puts the 
letter V above the line pointing at the 
character it thinks is in error. Even 
though the error may be serious 
enough to prevent the program from 
running, you are jiven an opportunity 
to quit or to finish compiling to 
search for more errors. Only after an 
error-free compilation will the pro- 
gram begin running. 

Shortcomings 

Unfortunately, as good as Micro- 
Dynamo is — and, unless some hid- 
den bugs come out in time, it should 
find enthusiastic acceptance among 
model builders it does have some 
drawbacks. Most of these short- 
comings stem from the fact that it is a 
revision of a language that is now 
almost a quarter of a century old 
rather than a new package designed 
specifically to accommodate the 
abilities and limitations of microcom- 
puters. 

Although it has been shined up, its 
age does peek through. Variable 
names, for example, are limited to six 
characters as in Fortran IV, and state- 
ment lines can be a maximum of 80 
columns long, which is the same num- 
ber as on the cardboard IBM card that 
was the only input device available a 
couple of decades ago. 

Even though an Apple monitor dis- 
plays only 40 columns, statements 
longer than that continue past the end 
rather than wrapping around to the 
next line as in Basic. To see the 
remainder, you must press CON- 
TROL-A to shift the screen light and 
left — a pain in the neck. 

Although the screen display is an 
impressive hi-res color graph, printed 
graphs use characters a number or 
letter — for each plot just as they did 
on the IBM 1401. (You rememberthat 
one ... it was the Model-T of the in- 

dustrv.) 

Although you can get a hi-res plot 
by hitting RESET, then booting DOS 
from a slave disk (not the system 
master, which zaps hi-res page one) 
and using a graphics package to do a 
screen dump to a printer, it is laborious 
and erases both Micro- Dynamo and 
your program from memory. 

It is unfortunate that the author 
of the micro version of this language 
ignored the development of the dot 
matrix printer and its graphics capa- 
bilities in the interval since the main- 
frame and mini versions were written. 

And, perhaps most serious, the 
Micro- Dynamo package itself makes 



no provision for listing your program 
so that you can proofread it easily. 
This didn't matter when you could 
have it all on a handful of cards that 
could be listed off-line by any reader 
printer, but editing a 200-line program 
when you can see only 24 lines at a 
time on the screen is a nightmare, 
especially when it has no line numbers. 
Because the program is saved on 
the disk as a separate file, Pascal can 
list it, but the Micro- Dynamo in- 
structions don't explain how. 



Dynamo, Pascal, and 
the User 

For our Micro- Dynamo review. 
WC decided to find a reviewer who 
was familiar with systems modeling 
but not with Apple Pascal, the 
computer environment under 
which it runs. We felt that this 
strategy would ensure the best pos- 
sible "simulation" of a typical 
Micro- Dynamo user. 

A few capabilities of the Pascal 
system that we forgot to tell our 
reviewer about would have made 
his job even easier. First, it is pos- 
sible to print charts on paper 
exactly as they appear on the screen 
if you purchase a separate graphic 
dump program that is compatible 
with Pascal. Second, most 80- 
column boards can be used w it h the 
system for a fuller display of your 
model as you work on it. 

On the other hand the Pascal sys- 
tem, and the reliance of Micro- 
Dynamo on it can be blamed for 
some of Mr. Light's problems. The 
saving and printing of work files, 
including models, has seldom been 
adequately explained in print. The 
authors of Micro- Dynamo could 
have overcome the unfriendliness 
of Apple Pascal only through great 
effort. The Pascal system was de- 
signed for programmers and many 
non-programmers find it somewhat 
confusing. — MC 



A Bug? 

Finally, either the package has a bug 
or the instruction manual is not en- 
tirely clear (and most of the time it is 
so precise and lucid that it could serve 
as a model instruction manual for the 
industry which is sorely in need of 
one). 

When you wish to leave the editor 
and run the program you have written, 
you type Q for quit and then are shown 
an exit menu. The author of the 
manual suggests always selecting W to 
write the program on a disk. This is 



100 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



fine until you return to the editor from 
the compiler to correct your errors. 
When you have finished, pressing W 
writes the old program back on the 
disk rather than the corrected one. 

Saving the corrected program is 
laborious. You must type Q for quit, 
U for update, R to return to the editor, 
Q to quit again, W to write the up- 
dated program to the disk, the name 
of your program using DYN2: as a 
prefix instead of the more familiar suf- 
fix D2 if you want it sent to drive two 
and finally E to exit the editor. 

Knowledge of the Pascal operating 
system is not strictly necessary to get 
Micro- Dynamo up and running. 
Nevertheless, you won't get the most 
out of it unless you insist that your 
dealer give you a ten-minute dem- 
onstration on the Pascal operating 
system before you leave his store. 

Undoubtedly some of the out-of- 
date features have been retained to 
make it easy to convert programs writ- 
ten for mainframe and mini versions 
of Dynamo into Micro- Dynamo. 
Those familiar with the capabilities of 
microcomputers but new to dynamic 
model building may find them a 
nuisance, but nothing more serious 
than that. 

All in all, it is an exciting package 
that should receive serious considera- 
tion by professional forecasters and 
model-builders and may even enter the 
homes of a few Apple owners who like 
to create doomsday scenarios for 
parlor games. □ 

CIRCLE 352 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



A Textbook for 
Modelers 

For those interested in systems 
modelling who need more informa- 
tion than the Micro-Dynamo 
manual can provide, Addison- 
Wesley has published a big, hard- 
bound book called Introduction 
To Computer Simulation: The 
Systems Dynamics Approach. 

Written by five people, the book 
starts with explanations of the basic 
ideas behind systems dynamics, 
such as cause and effect thinking, 
and feedback relationships. In the 
course of more than 550 pages, it 
presents an extremely broad view 
of the tricks and techniques of 
modelling. 

The suggested price of the book 
is $21.95. The Reading, Mass- 
achusetts-based publishing com- 
pany also plans an instructor's 
Manual. MC 



?mTkT»j 



YOUR ATARI* 400* 



r*T^TTI77IT T 



* ii j 



H&i 



OSA»5 



K**S 




1 \^ tM 



rA^ 



&&* 



\s 



me 



mory 



6** 



K/\M 



\s 



avav 
ttvese 



\at)\e 



for 



y°° r rnost 



i-^SasSS* 



acwan 



tsAos3i c 



,\at)\e 



***:Z* 48* 



tine 



»«?JE£- *?££.**" 






yovif 



att A» n 



CO 



mp\«*e 



easy 
ictioos 



more 



nea^ St cl7-2807 



.800 



547 




'Trademark of Atari. Inc. 



P.O. Box 748 

Oregon City, Oregon 97045 

ELECTRONICS, INC. 503/655-9574 
CIRCLE 226 ON READER SERVICE CARD 








c> 







SHORT TERM TRADER 



used to invest jn <*ocks for the past 
four years could have made you annual 
returns ot 14% to 93%. Compounding 
these annual returns would have 

TRIPLED YOUR DOLLARS 

in four years. 

NOT JUST ANOTHER 
"PORTFOLIO" PROGRAM 

technical charting of price/volume 
averages enables your computer to make 

BUY SELL DECISIONS 

on any stock. 

MENU DRIVEN 
GOOF PROOF ENTRY 

on formatted screens 

HANDLES STOCK SPLITS 
COMMISSION COST 

estimates for both full service and 
discount brokers 

PROJECTS VALUE OF CALL 
OPTIONS 

HIRES GRAPHS 

of market indicators and individual 
stocks. 

RUNS on APPLE II PLUS® 

with one drive. 

Send for free brochure. 80 page manual 
and 2 disk program $54. Manual alone 
$8. Visa and MasterCard users include 
account number and expiration date. 

® Registered trademark of Apple 

Corporation. 



MICRO 

STATISTICS 




DIVISION OF KCR INCORPORATED 

100 N.TRAVIS, BOX 1263, SHERMAN. TX. 75090 
214 868*1019 



n*XL 



Kits Now 
Available 



CIRCLE 222 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



NEWPORT Pro-Sticks 

the Mercedes of Joysticks 
'Creative Computing Magazine* Aug. 1982 

Soft-Touch Controllers 

for busy fingers and fast action 

Kl^W Extension "Y" Adapters 

•3- — with rapid fire action 



Build your own custom video- 
game controls from our proven 
high quality arcade components. 

Create your own control console rifcht in 
your home. Send $3.00 for a brochure of 
creative and innovative ideas in custom 
video game joysticks and controllers. In- 
cludes easy to follow schematics and in- 
structions for Atari, Apple, Pet Com- 
modor, TSR-80, and other computers, 
and a complete kit and components price 
list. 

INQUIRE ABOUT OUR CLUB DISCOUNTS 



Please rush me 
each (includes 



brochures at $3.00 

First Class Mail and 



handling) and mail to: 



Na 



me 



Address 
City 



State Zip 



NEWPORT MACHINE DESIGN 

P. O. Box 418. Bishop, CA 93514 
(714) 873-5677 

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••4 

CIRCLE 232 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




#* 



Are you the seeker of lost treasures in an enchanted 
realm of magical beings? Perhaps you're an 
astronaut, thousands of light years from 
earth, searching the galaxy's rim for 
^ the fabulous treasures and ad- 
vanced technologies of a 
long-dead civilization. Maybe 
k you're the plunderer of 
^ ancient pyramids in a 
N^ maddeningly dangerous 
^^ land of crumbling ruins 
^ and trackless desert 
wastes. 



J 



1 




I 



(LiuUtUiDbUcb 



you wish to soar to 
other worlds, to behold 
wonders never beheld 
by mortal eyes, to dream 
unrestrained to the 

furthest limits of your 

imagination. 




4 



The ADVENTURE SERIES 

by Scott Adams has been 

reviewed by every major 

/ microcomputing magazine, 

receiving only the highest 

praise for its mind-puzzling 

challenge & refreshing originality. 

Tens of thousands of adults and 

children have matched wits with 

the Adventure Master. Now, it's your 

turn, if you crave the challenge and 

panorama of the exotic, touched with 

sparkling humor, then the Adventure Series is for you. 



NffitiB© 



incredibleTAdventL 

a. ^. -X *._ - -, 




1982 



A DIVISION OF SCOTT ADAMS INC 



BOX 3435. LONGWOOD FL 32750 

(305) 862-6917 (QUESTIONS) 

ORDER FROM YOUR FAVORITE DEALER 

or CALL TOLL FREE (800) 327-7172 



(ORDERS ONLY PLEASE 



A 

» 11 <J 





SINGLE 
TAPE 


12 PACK 
TAPE 


SINGLE 
DISK 


TRIPLE 
DISK 


12 PACK 
DISK 


APPLE 


$19 95 
24K 


$ 129.951 
24 K 


$29 95* 
48K 


$69 95' 
48K 


— 


ATARI 


$19 95 
24K 


$129 95 1 
24 K 


— 


$3995 
40K 


$129 95t 
48K 


CP/M (Z 80) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


$129 951 


TRS-80 
MOD 1&3 


$1995 
16K 


$129 95t 
16K 


— 


$39 95 
32K 


$129 95! 
32K 


TRS-80 
MOD 2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


$129 95 






Adventure Hint Book (All 12) $7 95 

Adventure Hint Sheet (Singlet 1 00 

Commodore VIC (Cartridge) 39 95 

T I 99/4 (Tape or Disk) 29 95 

Requires Adventure Command Module 

'Scott Adams Graphic Adventure Series 
Apple Disks-Full Color Hi Res Graphics 
1 12 Adventure Hint Book Incl 



. 









CIRCLE 103 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ZBasic 2.2 



coira 




Finally, A Compiler For Everyone 



Harry McCracken 



creative contpotiRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Z Basic 2.2 

Type: Basic compiler 

Format: Tape or disk 

Summary: Excellent Basic compiler 

Price: $79.95 on tape 
$89.95 on disk 

Manufacturer: 

Simutek 

4897 E. Speedway 

Tucson, AZ 85712 



Many TRS-80 programmers wish to 
write programs which need a fast execu- 
tion speed, such as business programs 
which do lots of sorting and game pro- 
grams with animated graphics. Some of 
these programmers learn machine lan- 
guage, but more of them are either intim- 
idated by the complexity of machine 
language programming or simply do not 
have the time to delve into learning a new 
language. 

What these people need is a Basic 
compiler; that is, a program which con- 
verts Basic programs into machine lan- 

Harry McCracken, 47 Carleton Street, Newton, 
MA 02158. 

November 1982 • Creative Computing 



guage. There are several compilers avail- 
able for the TRS-80, most of which are 
expensive, require lots of memory and 
disk storage, and are complicated and 
time consuming to use. What has been 
lacking until recently was a Basic com- 
piler as flexible and simple to use as Level 
II Basic itself. 



Z Basic supports quite a 

few commands and 

functions beyond those 

of Level II Basic. 



Enter Simutek's ZBasic 2.2 by Andrew 
Gariepy. ZBasic is the one Basic compiler 
that offers the speed of machine language, 
without giving up the many virtues of 
Basic. It is cheap, as Basic compilers go, 
runs on a 16K tape or disk system, and is 
a joy to use. 

Anyone with a fair knowledge of Basic 
can easily put ZBasic to good use. It is an 
interactive compiler; that means that the 
Basic program and its compiled machine 
language equivalent are both in memory 
at the same time, and that you can jump 
quickly and easily between them. That is 
the key to both the power and the ease of 
use of the compiler. 

103 



Both tape and disk versions of the 
package include numerous versions of the 
compiler; there are separate ones for 16K, 
32K, and 48K systems, and versions with 
and without high-precision math and disk 
I/O. After you load the appropriate 
version into the computer, ZBasic offers 
you the option of changing the parameters 
which allow you to relocate the program, 
chain programs, and restrict string 
lengths. 

After that, you proceed normally. Write 
your program and debug it to your heart's 
content as you would without ZBasic; 
you only need compile your program 
when you want to execute the machine 
language version. 

Of course, since ZBasic, your Basic 
program, and the compiled program must 
all be in memory at once, space for your 
program is limited; about 15K in a 48K 
disk system, for instance. However, by 
relocating or chaining programs, you can 
make programs as big as or bigger than 
you can under ordinary Basic. 

Compiling The Program 

Compiling your Basic program is very 
simple: just hold down the Z, X, and C 
keys at once, and, if your program has no 
errors, ZBasic will compile it and give 
you a menu allowing you to run your 
compiled program, save it, or return to 
Basic. 

If ZBasic finds an error in your pro- 
gram, it tells you what and where it is and 



ZBasic 2.2, continued... 

returns to Basic so you can fix it. ZBasic 
can't find logic errors in the flow of your 
program; it just detects syntax errors, and 
other errors which prevent it from com- 
piling your program properly. 

While ZBasic can compile most Basic 
commands and functions, there are a few 
useful ones it cannot handle. Programs 
with ON ERROR GOTO statements, for 
example, must be adapted before they 
can be compiled. While ZBasic lacks 
several scientific functions such as SIN 
and TAN, an appendix in the manual 
shows how to get some of them by calling 
the TRS-80 ROM. 

Some Basic commands work slightly 
differently in ZBasic. INPUT, for 
instance, does not print a question mark 
automatically. ZBasic is also more picky 
about syntax than ordinary Basic. All 
arrays must be DIMed, and complicated 
string formulas may have to be broken 
down. 

The biggest difference between ZBasic 
and Basic is the way ZBasic handles non- 
integer math. The documentation calls 
the ZBasic system @Math, because you 
must put an @ before all non-integer math 
statements. Stranger than that, though, is 
the requirement that non-integer numbers 
be in strings. That means that the Basic 
statement A=B*.25 becomes @A$=B$* 
".25" in ZBasic. That sounds very odd, 
but it is easy to get used to. The main 
problem is that it makes converting pro- 
grams which use high-precision math into 
proper ZBasic syntax a time consuming 
task. 

ZBasic supports quite a few commands 
and functions beyond those of Level II 
Basic. Most of these are equivalents of Z- 
80 instructions, such as LDIR, and LDDR, 
which make it possible to split-scroll the 
screen. One of the nicest new commands 
is a tone generator, which makes it simple 
to add sound to any program. 

While programs compiled by ZBasic 



are generally not as fast as equivalent 
code written in assembly language, they 
are almost always at least ten times faster 
than their Basic versions. Programs which 
do not make extensive use of non-integer 
math and string functions improve their 
running times even more significantly. In 
ordinary Basic, SET and RESET graphics 
are so slow that they aren't often useful. 
ZBasic makes them run so fast that they 
become a real alternative to character 
string graphics. Even the fastest sorting 
methods seem to creep in Level II Basic; 
ZBasic makes them zip. 



/ like ZBasic so much 
that I simply load it in 

before doing any 
Basic programming. 



CMDFILE 

The disk version of ZBasic includes a 
utility which is a valuable tool in its own 
right. CMDFILE, as it is called, is a 
versatile program which lets you load in 
machine language files from tape and 
disk, relocate them, and save them back 
to tape or disk. This not only allows you 
to save ZBasic programs on disk to tape, 
but also lets you save any non-protected 
machine language tape to disk, and vice 
versa. 

On the whole, the documentation is 
quite good. The bulk of the manual is 
made up of an alphabetical list of ZBasic 
commands and functions, what they do, 
and any differences between the way 
ZBasic and ordinary Basic handle them. 
The section of the manual which 
describes relocating and chaining pro- 



grams is especially good; it makes fairly 
complicated procedures easy to under- 
stand. 

Another useful chapter is the one which 
explains how to convert programs so that 
they satisfy ZBasic. The manual also 
includes several useful subroutines and 
programs, such as a sorting routine and a 
primitive pong game. 

The documentation for CMDFILE, 
although well written, is far more tech- 
nical than the rest of the manual; if you 
don't understand hexadecimal, you really 
won't be able to make much use of 
CMDFILE. One other annoying although 
nonfatal problem with my copy of the 
manual is that several pages are in the 
wrong places. I don't know if that is the 
case with all copies of the manual or just 
mine. 

Anyone who is writing a program in 
Basic with hopes of selling it to one of the 
software publishers should think very 
seriously about compiling it with ZBasic 
before submitting it. The publishers of 
some other compilers require that you 
pay them a percentage of any royalties 
you earn from programs compiled with 
their compiler. All Simutek requires is a 
credit line and copyright notice at the 
start of the program and in the documen- 
tation. That is a small request indeed, 
considering that ZBasic can increase the 
sales potential of a Basic program dramat- 
ically. 

If you are a Basic programmer who is 
dissatisfied with the speed of Basic (I've 
never met one who wasn't) the price of a 
tape or disk copy of ZBasic is well justi- 
fied by the speed and power you gain. 

I like ZBasic so much that I simply 
load it in before doing any Basic pro- 
gramming; that makes it one of the few 
programs I use almost every day. To my 
mind, ZBasic 22 is as big an improvement 
over Level II as Level II is over Level 
I. □ 



Bit Pit 



Chas Andres 




104 



November 1982° Creative Computing 




NOW THE COMPUTER AGE 
IS THREE TO THIRTEEN. 




With Computer 
Learning Games™ 
from The Learn- 
ing Company 
and an Apple 
computer, you 
can give your kids one of life's great- 
est gifts —the love of learning. 

As the company that makes learn- 
ing playful, we can help you give 
your kids a head start on life. 

Younger kids will learn direction 
concepts like "above or below" and 
"left or right." Older kids acquire 
logic skills while creating patterns 



with colors and shapes. They'll also 
learn computer-age skills like num- 
ber plotting and computer chip cir- 
cuit design. 

All learned from creative games 
using imaginary characters and 
lively themes. From Juggles' Rainbow 
to Gertrude's Puzzles, there are six 
packages in all. 

So if you've got kids aged three 
to thirteen, take them to your local 
Apple dealer and try our learn- 
ing games. 

Then you'll see how exciting learn- 
ing really can be. 



Please send me a copy of your 
computer learning games catalog. 

NAME 

ADDRESS 

CITY 



STATE 



ZIP. 



The Learning Company 
4370 Alpine Road, Dept. 103 
Portola Valley, CA 94025 
(415) 851-3160 




c<^^ ^S^T 

CIRCLE 201 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer. Inc. Bumble Games, Bumble Plot, Juggles' Rainbow. Gertrudes Puzzles, 
Gertrude's Secrets, Rocky's Boots, Logic Gators and Computer Learning Games™ are trademarks of The Learning Company 







c 



\19^ 



m 







THE FRANKLIN 



•:•;• 



You just cant beat an ACE. Especially the Franklin ACE 1000. 
It's the professional personal computer with all the trump cards 
— it costs less, it includes 64K of RAM, upper and lower case, 
a numeric pad and VisiCalc keys, all features not found on 
the Apple II. 

Peripherals that work with the Apple II will work with the Franklin 
ACE 1000. Programs that run on the Apple will run on the ACE. 
Totally Apple compatible . . . yet, so much more! 




The Franklin Ace 1000— price, power, quality, reliability— the 
best deal in town. Call or write today for the name of your local 
authorized Franklin dealer. 



7030 Colonial Highway 
Pennsauken, NJ 08109 
609-488-1700 



Franklin ACE is a trademark of Franklin Computer Corporation 
Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 
VisiCalc is a registered trademark of Visi Corp. 

CIRCLE 174 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



NOW HERE FOR YOUR APPLE : 
A CARD THAT BLOWS ALL THE OTHERS AWAY! 



Loads or saves a full VisiCalc model in 20 seconds 

(Not 16 MINUTES LIKE the others) 

• 136K for a VisiCalc model. 
^ • Super-fast phantom disk drive. 









x 



Team the 

Ramex-128 with our 

Super Expander™ disk, 

and give yourself the power 

to run large, VisiCalc models 

without wasting a lot of time. You 

see, Super Expander loads a 

maximum-capacity model (say, 254 

lines over 30 columns) in 20 seconds! Work 

with your model. Then save it all back to disk. 

In 20 seconds. And Super Expander includes 

tips and memory-map enhancements to speed 

your work even more. 



The Ramex-128, just $499. And Super Expander, just 
$64.95. Get them both at your local dealer or direct. 
MasterCard and Visa holders order toll-free, 1-800-835-2246. 
Dealer inquiries invited. 



Priced under $500. 



Finally. Its all together. A superb quality 128K card, 
the Ramex-128™. The card that doesn't require 
you to go poking about on the motherboard, 
pulling chips, installing a strap, etc. 
The first card that comes complete with 
incredible disk emulation software, 
including eight new DOS com- 
mands. And the first 128K 
card for less than $500. 



r / 




Under $500. What are you waiting for? 



iCalcis 

a registered 

trademark of 

VisiCorp. Apple 

registered trademark 

of Apple Computer, Inc. 

Ramex-128 is a trademark 

of Omega Micro Ware, Inc. 






O/WEGA MICROWARE, INC 

222 SO. RIVERSIDE PLAZA • CHICAGO, IL 60606-312-648-4844 

CIRCLE 234 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MMSFORTH 




Forth For The TRS-80 



If you are interested in one of the most 
powerful computer languages ever 
invented, then you will be interested in 
this review of Forth. 

Forth was created in 1969 by Charles 
H. Moore at the National Radio Astron- 
omy Observatory in Charlottesville, VA. 
It has grown into a language that not only 
controls the radio telescopes of that 
observatory, but is used at other observa- 
tories around the country. It is also one 
of the better application languages around 
because of the ease and speed with which 
programs can be written in it. 

When I became interested in Forth, I 
didn't want to spend a great deal of money 
just to try it out, so I invested in the 
public domain assembly language source 
code of the language which is offered by 
the Forth Interest Group for less than 
$20. That version is meant to be imple- 
mented on an 8080 microprocessor based 
machine, and is not easily converted to a 
Z80 based microcomputer. 

By far the easiest way to try Forth is to 
purchase a version designed to run on a 
Z80 computer. 

The version I now have is MMSForth, 
which costs $129.95 for the disk-based 
version 2.0 from Miller Microcomputer 
Services. 

Getting Started 

The first thing you notice when you 
open the package is the loose-leaf, three- 
ring binder containing 135 pages of infor- 
mation on Forth: how to get it running, 
how to program with it, and some 
examples of simple programs. When you 
send in your license agreement, you 
receive another 67 pages which contain a 
memory map, the Forth glossary, 8080 
assembler tables, and several other tables 
and lists. 

Anthony T. Scarpelli, 98 Foxcroft Dr., Scar- 
borough, ME 04074. 



Anthony 7. Scarpelli 



It takes several hours to read through 
the manual, but to get started you need 
read only the preface and the first appen- 
dix. 

The first appendix tells how to boot the 
system disk. What appears after the boot 
is the copyright information, your serial 
number, a copyright message, and the 
address of MMS. A few seconds later the 
directory listing the options you have 
available appears. You need not choose 
any of them, though, the boot loads the 
Forth language and is ready to go. 

This directory is called the Utilities 
menu, and allows you to choose from the 
following: 

FORMAT allows you to format a disk- 
ette. 

BACKUP allows you to back up the 
system or any Forth diskette. 

COPIES allows you to copy a range of 
blocks (a block is 1024 bytes of infor- 
mation). 

SEARCH allows you to search for 
occurrences of words. 

TRANSLATE allows you to translate 
from the older version 1.9 to the present 
version. 

ALLCAPS allows you to change lower- 
case letters in some of the blocks to 
uppercase if your system doesn't support 
uppercase. 

CUSTOMIZE allows you to configure 
the system for your own TRS-80. 

EXTENSIONS displays the system 
options available. 

PROGRAMS displays the programs 
that are available on the other diskette. 

The extensions include: DBL-PREC 
(double-precision numbers), ARRAYS 



(one and two dimensions), STRINGS 
(similar to Level II strings), RANDOM (a 
random number generator), GRAPHICS 
(the TRS-80 graphics), SCREEN-PRINT 
(prints the screen to your printer including 
graphics characters), CASSETTE (tape 
routines), CLOCK (time and date rou- 
tines), and TOOLKIT (various other 
handy routines). 

The power of Forth comes from its 
ability to create new words, and to create 
words that define other words. When you 
use a word, Forth executes it as long as it 
is in the dictionary, and as long as any 
parameters the word may need precede 
it. 

This version of Forth includes about 
200 words with which you can create 
more words. One of the ways to create a 
word is with a colon definition. For 
example, if I write: 

: TEST word word word etc. ; 
I have defined a word called TEST using 
several previously defined words. The 
colon precedes the new word, and the 
semicolon ends the definition. This pro- 
cess continues until an entire routine or 
even a program can be called by just one 
word. 

All of the utilities, extensions, and 
programs in MMSForth are words that 
have been previously defined, words that 
are made up of the core words, and core 
words that eventually become machine 
language routines. 

Features 

Let us now consider some of the fea- 
tures that make this version of Forth a 
very good buy and a very handy develop- 
ment system. 

MMSForth will run on a 16K machine 
with only one disk drive. With 32K or 
more, however, there is more room for 
words and programs. Backing up a disk- 
ette can be done on just one drive, so a 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



109 



MMS Forth, continued... 

minimum system is all that is needed to 
use the language. It will also support 
multiple drive systems, and a version for 
the Model III is available. 

One of the nice things about MMS- 
Forth is that many of the features of Level 
II Basic have been incorporated as exten- 
sions. Strings and graphics use similar 
words, and are used much like their Basic 
counterparts. The difference is that the 
execution speed of Forth is nearly as fast 
as assembly language, so graphics and 
string manipulation are much faster. 

Another feature is that the screen-print 
routine will print the TRS-80 graphics if 
your printer is capable of handling them. 
The printer driver can be the regular 
ROM routine or a custom driver that can 
be changed to fit your system. An 
extended driver is available with page- 
formatting features. 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: MMSForth 

Type: Language and programming 
environment 

System: TRS-80 Model I, III 16K, 
IBM PC 32K 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine 

Summary: Good value 

Price: TRS-80 version $129.95, 
IBM version $249.95 

Manufacturer: 

Miller Microcomputer Services 
61 Lake Shore Rd. 
Natick, MA 01760 



Programs 

Some of the programs included on the 
second disk show Forth at its best. The 
SORT program demonstrates differences 
in speeds between different types of sorts. 
To show, for example, how slow an 
insertion sort is, this program loads the 
screen with a group of random characters, 
then sorts them. It does the same for the 
selection and Shell sorts, the quicksort, 
and a quicksort with assembly partition. 
It is fun to watch, and a good way to show 
off your system. 

The game of Life is an old favorite. 
Programmed in Basic, the game takes a 
long time to go through a generation, but 
this Forth version is nearly as fast as an 
assembly language program. 

One of the handy things you can do 
with Forth is to put assembly language 
mnemonics right into the definitions. Or 
you can create "code" words of just 
assembly language mnemonics. This ver- 
sion of Forth contains an 8080 assembler. 
When the loops of Life are converted to 



assembly language routines, the speed of 
a generation is extremely fast— much less 
than a second. 

To start you off, a few patterns are 
available to initialize the Life generations. 
With the doodle routine, you can draw 
your own patterns. 

Another game on the disk, BREAK- 
FORTH, demonstrates how a high level 
language can be used to write a fast 
action, real-time version of a popular 
game. 

CHECKBOOK is an example of a bus- 
iness program written in Forth. The 
source code for the program is provided 
and explained word by word. 

Using some of the standard Forth editor 
commands, and some of its own, NOTE- 
PAD allows you to write one page of text. 

The Editor 

The standard screen editor provided 
with the system is one of the best I have 
used. By using the CLEAR key, and the 
SHIFT and CLEAR keys together, you 
can delete, insert, and move characters, 
lines and whole screens of information. 
The arrow keys move the cursor around 
the screen with ease. 

Forth is written in blocks of 1024 
characters which comprise one screen of 
information (64 characters by 16 lines). 
Writing Forth programs involves the 
editing of these screens. Once a block is 
edited, it is saved in one of the two block 
buffers so another block can be edited. 
When a third block is called up, the first 
block is automatically saved on disk. 
When you finish writing the program, the 
word FLUSH saves the remaining blocks 
to disk. 

Documentation 

I am a firm believer in good documen- 
tation which provides as much informa- 
tion about a program as possible. MMS- 
Forth does a pretty good job of it, but 
doesn't go all the way. If you were to buy 
a Basic interpreter, you can be quite sure 
you wouldn't get the source code for it. 
With MMSForth you receive the source 
code for the entire system disk except for 
the first 13 blocks. You must list it 
yourself, but it is there. You also get the 
source code for the program disk. 

The first 13 blocks contain the core 
words and assembly language routines as 
well as the disk I/O. The blocks which 
are provided allow you to see high level 
Forth programming, and when you 
become good at Forth, you can modify 
the code to improve upon or customize it 
for your own purposes. A total of 128 
blocks of source code is a great deal to 
understand and change, but at least it is 
there, and I commend MMS for providing 
it. 

If you have heard anything about stan- 
dardization, it is probably that everyone 
would like it, but little is being done about 

110 



it. There are currently four languages that 

have been standardized, but Forth is not 
yet one of them. However, thanks to a 

great deal of effort on the part of people 
who want to see Forth standardized, the 
Forth-79 Standard has come into exis- 
tence. 

MMSForth 2.0 contains the words pub- 
lished in this standard. This means that 
source code created on the TRS-80 can 
be transported to any other Forth 
machine and vice versa. That is the 
theory, anyway. I commend MMS for 
going along with the standard, and hope 
that in the future we TRS-80 owners will 
be able to talk to an Apple or IBM owner 
as easily as to another TRS-80 owner. 

I have read everything available on 
Forth, and I can say that, except for one 
book, learning Forth from the available 
information is like learning Chinese from 
a dictionary. I thank MMS for providing 
a great deal of information on Forth, but 
Forth is an entire language, and you 
cannot learn it simply by reading the 
documentation normally provided with 
the system. You must go to other sources, 
and you must sit at the keyboard and 
work with the language. 

Forth was not an easy language for me 
to learn. All of the manuals I have read 
started out with the easy things, but had a 
tendency to stop. The more difficult 
concepts, the use of assembly language, 
the extensibility of Forth, the best way to 
program in Forth, and good programming 
techniques, just were not there. I had to 
struggle with words that were defined, 
words that were not clearly explained, 
and words that were not explained at all. 
MMS provides you with enough to start 
out, but you must purchase and study 
some of the other books and manuals 
available before you will become good at 
Forth. Luckily, one of the best books, 
Starting Forth by Leo Brodie (Prentice- 
Hall, 1981), is also sold by MMS. I recom- 
mend purchasing this book along with 
this program. 

Although I have been very pleased with 
MMSForth, I have two real complaints 
about it. The first is that looking up 
unfamiliar information is very difficult. 
There is a table of contents, but it is too 
broad to be of much help. 

My second complaint is that occasion- 
ally some aspect of what I wanted to 
know was not explained in sufficient detail 
for a beginner. An index would be very 
handy, and I understand that one is being 
compiled. So there is hope. Whenever I 
ran into a real problem, a quick call to 
Miller Microcomputing got me an answer 
to it. 

Summary 

My overall recommendation is to buy 
this program if you want to try Forth. It is 
definitely a good value. □ 

CIRCLE 349 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

November 1982° Creative Computing 



"The Philadelphia Story" in Reading: 
Improved Skill and Comprehension 

At a Price Any 

District Can 
Afford 




Courseware Breakthrough 

For the past fourteen years, the Philadelphia City Schools 
have been using a Computer Assisted Reading Develop- 
ment program throughout the district. It has undergone 
constant revision and testing so that it can be described as a 
model of computer-assisted learning. Now, Radio Shack has 
adapted this program for our TRS-80 Model III microcompu- 
ters, making it available to your district for the first time. 

With C.A.R.D. I, your students can take advantage of a 
proven program that requires a minimum of teacher super- 
vision. Using clearly developed lessons designed to hold 
their interest, they can improve reading comprehension. 

Skill Development 

C.A.R.D I: Sentences, the first of our Philadelphia-based 
courseware packages, is broken down into four topics, each 
of which builds a skill area in sentence use. The first topic, 
Sentence Recognition, asks students to identify which 
groups of words are sentences, while Labeling offers them a 
selection of possible labels to express the relationship be- 
tween keywords. Sentence Relationships asks them to iden- 
tify sentences with a related meaning, while Ordering 
Sentences has them put a series of sentences in logical order. 

Each topic has a pretest, six or seven developmental lessons 
and a post-test. If the student passes the first pretest, he or 
she goes immediately to the pretest for the next topic. Other- 
wise, the student works through the lesson sequence, before 
tackling the post-test and going on to the next topic. 



Now the Philadelphia School 
District's Computer Assisted 
Reading Development 
Program (C.A.R.D.) Can Be 
Included in Your School's 
Curriculum as Part of a 
New Series from Radio Shack. 



Reinforcement and Branching 

One of the significant learning aspects of the C.A.R.D. pro- 
gram is that the computer provides immediate constructive 
feedback to every student response in the form of congratu- 
latory messages, reinforcement after correct answers, and 
hints or corrections after incorrect responses. 

In addition, key questions within the lesson are used as 
criteria for branching students through different lesson 
paths. When a student answers one of these questions, the 
computer immediately evaluates the response and automat- 
ically sends that student along the appropriate lesson path. 

Comprehensive . . . Yet Affordable 

C.A.R.D. I: Sentences will soon be joined by Paragraphs, 
Directions and Comprehension to give your district the full 
range of reading programs. C.A.R.D. I is priced at only 
$ 199.00 and is ready to run on your disk-based Model III 
with just the addition of either our TRS-80 AUTHOR I, a 
complete computer lesson development program, or the 
TRS-80 AUTHOR I Lesson Presentation Package. 

For more information, visit your nearest Radio Shack 
Computer Center, store or participating dealer — or contact 
your Radio Shack Educational Coordinator. 

For the name of the fall-time Educational 
Coordinator in your area, call Radio Shack's 
Education Division at 800-433-5682 toll-free. 
In Texas, call 800-772-8538. 



Radio /hack 



The biggest name in little computers 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 

Retail prices may vary at individual stores and dealers. 

CIRCLE 258 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



TM 







$74.95 

WithZenerRav M 
Protection $109.00 I 



MASTERCARD — VISA 




"COOL IT" 




• ALSO FITS ON APPLE'S* NEW MONITOR STAND 

• RED PILOT LIGHT ON/OFF SYSTEM SWITCH 

• CLIPS ON — NO HOLES OR SCREWS • REPLACEABLE SWITCH 

• AVAILABLE IN 120V or 240V AND 50/60 HZ • DURABLE MOTOR 

• REDUCES HEAT CAUSED BY EXTRA PLUG-IN CARDS 

• SOLD WORLD WIDE • UNIQUE 1 YEAR WARRANTY 

• TAN OR BLACK COLOR • QUIETEST FAN ON THE MARKET 

• INCREASED RELIABILITY — SAVES DOWN TIME AND REPAIR CHARGES 

• LOW NOISE DUE TO DRAWING EFFECT OF AIR THROUGH YOUR COMPUTER AND SPECIAL FAN AND MOTOR DESIGN 

• TWO EXTRA 120V OUTLETS FOR MONITOR AND ACCESSORIES TURN ON WHEN YOU TURN ON YOUR FAN 
(NOT AVAILABLE ON 240V MODEL) 

SUPER FAN II™ WITH ZENER RAY OPTION $109.00 

ZENER RAY™ TRANSIENT VOLTAGE SUPPRESSOR 

OUR BUILT IN ADVANCED DESIGN UNIT GIVES 

DRAMATIC COST SAVINGS — STOPS ANNOYING DOWN TIME 

INSURANCE FROM VOLTAGE SPIKES - GLITCHES 

DANGEROUS VOLTAGE SPIKES CAN JEOPARDIZE YOUR COMPUTER SYSTEMS 
PROTECT COMPUTER - DISK DRIVE - PRINTER AND MONITOR 

NO CUTTING WIRES • WON'T VOID WARRANTY, JUST PLUG IN SUPERFAN II WITH ZENER RAY 

OTHER PRODUCTS BY % Alectronics, inc. 

SUPER RAM II™ 16K RAM CARD FOR YOUR APPLE II. 2 YEAR WARRANTY $125 

GUARDIAN ANGEL™ an uninterruptable power source $595 

12 VOLT TRANSVERTER 12 volt — runs your apple ii computer and 

AND 51/4 " DRIVE FROM YOUR CIGARETTE LIGHTER $149 

•Registered trademarks of App.e Computer, no. DEALER , NQU , R , E S INVITED 



CIRCLE 266 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



^^^■■■M 



IBH^^H 




JRT Pascal 



com 




Pascal For CP/M Systems 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: JRT Pascal 2.1 

Type: Language 

System: CP/M 

Format: 8 inch single density disk 

Language: Machine 

Summary: Tremendous value for 
the price 

Price: $29.95 

Manufacturer: 

JRT Systems, Inc. 

Box 22365 

San Francisco, CA 94122 



Roger Edelson 



While the $29.95 price of JRT Pascal 
may be the first feature which attracts 
attention, the virtues of the compiler go 
far beyond this reasonable price. For 
starters, the floating-point operations are 
performed in 14-figure BCD format which 
allows calculations to range from 10~ 64 to 
10+ 63 (a range of 128 magnitudes). Other 
CP/M Pascal compiler implementations 
offer only seven digit precision with a 
dynamic range of 10 36 . With 14-digit 
precision, JRT Pascal is suitable for both 
business and scientific applications, and 
as the data are stored in BCD format 
there are no errors when converting from 
internal storage to print format. 

The second most noticeable features 
of JRT Pascal are its ease of use and the 
reasonable size of the resident compiler. 
JRT Systems has solved the problem of 
fitting the compiler and CP/M operating 

Roger Edelson. 3270 Granville Ave.. Los Angeles, 
CA 90066. 

November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



into a 52K memory space with enough 
room left over to produce useful results. 

One well known and highly respected 
Pascal compiler simply will not run under 
CP/M on my NorthStar Horizon which 
has only 56K of useable memory available 
below the Disk Boot PROM. 

The JRT compiler occupies approx- 
imately 20K of memory and allows parts 
of the program to be compiled separately 
into "external modules/' These external 
modules are then linked together at run- 
time under the EXECutive interpreter. 
For this reason, it is not necessary to run 
a huge compiler when linking various 
external procedures, and it is therefore 
possible to run large, useful programs. 

The use of external procedures by JRT 
Pascal does not require any extra pro- 
gramming effort as the "virtual storage 
manager" handles everything auto- 
matically. To make use of externals even 
easier, they do not even have to be on the 
same, or logged-in disk; the EXEC pro- 
gram will search all available drives 
automatically. As initially configured, the 
EXEC interpreter will search drive A first, 
followed by drive B. A customization 
program is provided, however, which 
allows the user to define the search 
sequence as well as the drives to be 
searched. 

Dynamic Memory Management 

The EXEC program is loaded starting 
at the CP/M standard location of 100H 
and then loads the referenced Pascal 
program just above it. Both programs are 
fixed in size — the EXEC.COM file as 

113 



defined in the release (about 20K) and 
the Pascal Program Module, by the size 
of the compiled .INT file. 

The data stack (which contains all static 
variables, as created by the VAR declara- 
tions, and the parameters and procedure 
activation blocks) is variable in size and 
grows upward from the high end of the 
Pascal program. 

Dynamic storage, which contains the 
I/O buffers, the dynamic variables, the 
file control blocks, and the external 
procedures, grows downward from the 
top of available storage. If there is limited 
available memory area, a collision 
between the data stack and the dynamic 
storage area is possible. 

To avoid run time errors, the EXEC 
virtual storage manager attempts to main- 
tain a minimum of 64-byte buffer between 
the two areas. If the memory space 
between the two variable areas falls below 
this value, the run-time system takes 
several different actions to restore this 
cushion. In the first stage, the least- 
recently-used external procedure is 
deleted, and then if necessary, the 
dynamic storage area is compressed. 

The use of separately compiled external 
procedures coupled with the dynamic 
memory management system allows the 
size of the complete Pascal program to be 
practically unlimited. The external pro- 
cedures are loaded into the dynamic 
storage area when first referenced by the 
main program, a procedure which is 
transparent to the user. 

Unlike program chains or overlays, the 
external procedures remain in memory 
until an impending memory collision is 
detected. When this condition occurs, the 
EXEC program automatically unloads the 
least-recently-used external procedure, 
but to minimize the time required to 



JRT Pascal, continued... 

reload the procedure when again re- 
quired, the control blocks associated with 
the procedures are maintained. This 
procedure makes the actual storage 
capacity of the computer seem consid- 
erably larger than would be inferred from 
the actual memory size. 

Another dynamic allocation feature 
available with JRT Pascal is dynamic 
strings. Similar to the string size dynamic 
structure found in MBasic, the string size 
is dynamically allocated. This means that 
strings do not have to be padded to fill 
the predefined size — a feature which 
makes string operation easy and virtually 
transparent. 

Further, in JRT Pascal strings may be 
of any length up to 65K bytes, if required; 
the actual maximum size will be much 
smaller, as determined by available 
memory. 

Debugging 

JRT Pascal provides 75 specific English 
text error messages of between one and 
four lines, plus ten general run-time 
messages which are identified and defined 
in the manual. 

To assist in debugging, significant addi- 
tional information is provided when the 
EXEC program exits on an error. After 
the appropriate error message has been 
displayed, the current line number and 
last entered procedure name are provided 
in most cases. 



A system status display containing 
useful information about the state of the 
run-time system at the time of error 
detection is created. The system status 
display presents nine fields of information 
indicating the address of the error, the 
current usage information for the address 
field. A typical system status display is 
presented in Figure 1, along with a sim- 
plified memory storage map. 



JRT Pascal supports 

both sequential file 

processing and random 

file processing. 



Also presented in the system status 
display is a count of the number of times 
storage has been auto-compressed 
(compr:), and a count of the number of 
external procedures which have been 
purged (purge:). The address given as 
prog: is the starting address of the main 
Pascal program; the HEX number at size: 
gives the program size, which when added 
to prog: gives base:— the bottom of the 
data stack. 

The two values low: and tos: provide 
information detailing the amount of avail- 



able memory which lies between these 
two dynamically allocated storage areas. 
It is this space (low:-tos:) which the 
dynamic storage allocator attempts to 
maintain at a value greater than 64 bytes. 

JRT Pascal supports both sequential 
file processing and random file pro- 
cessing. Sequential file processing is 
usually faster than using random files 
because the disk operations can be organ- 
ized sequentially, minimizing disk access. 

JRT Pascal also allows improved disk 
use by allowing the user to define the size 
of the buffer which serves as a temporary 
storage area for data written to or read 
from the disk. 

Often, it is not possible to prearrange 
the order in which data files will be 
required by the program; in these cases 
the slower random file processing must 
be used. In version 2.0 of JRT Pascal, 
random files were limited to 65K. Version 
2.1 has removed this limit, allowing file 
sizes of 8Mb— the CP/M maximum. 

JRT Pascal allows full random access 
to data by the Relative Byte Address 
(RBA) which gives the location of the 
data item within the file. This technique 
allows great flexibility, as the files may be 
of random length rather than forcing all 
files to be the size of the largest. A sample 
program illustrating random access to a 
file containing sales information is shown 
in Listing 1; the records are located by 
department number. 



Figure I. Sample system status display memory allocation. 



Listing I. Sample random file program. 



System status display 



addr :34F5 
base :S3BC 
low :A8B9 



prog : 3BA7 
cur :S9AC 
compr: 00O2 



size :4815 
tos :SA33 
purge: 00 00 



I ow > 



tos-- 
cur- - 
base - 



-> 



- / 



-> 



prog- - > 



100h--> 



CP/M 



dynamic 
storage 



unused 



data stack 



Pasca I code 



EXEC run-tiint 
system 



reserved area 



«'--adar (of error) 



PROGRAM INQUIRY; 
LABEL 10; 



TYPE 
DEPT 



RECORD * RECORD 
INVENTORY 
MTD SALES 
YTD SALES 
DISCOUNT 
END; 



REAL; 
REAL; 
REAL; 
REAL; 



VAR 

INPUT AREA 
DEPT FILE 
DEPT 



: DEPT RECORD; 

* FILE OF DEPT RECORD; 

: INTEGER; 



BEGIN <* INQUIRY *> 

0PEN( DEPT.FILE, ' C : DEPTDATA. RND ' , BINARY ); 

REPEAT 

WRITE* 'Enter dept number : '); 
READLN( DEPT ); 

IF DEPT * 999 THEN GOTO 10; (# EXIT *) 
READ< DEPT FILE, RRN, DEPT; 

INPUT AREA ) ; 
WRITELN; 
WRITELN( 'dept', DEPT, 

inv' , INPUT.AREA. INVENTORY: 9: 2, 
disc', INPUT AREA. DISCOUNT: 9: 2); 
WRITELN( ' MTD sales 7 , MTD SALES:9:2, 

YTD sales', YTD SALES: 9: 2); 
WRITELN; 
10» (• EXIT LABEL •) 
UNTIL DEPT « 999; 

CLOSE ( DEPT FILE ); 
END <# INQUIRY •>. 



114 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 




Kelly's 
Computing 




□ 400 COMPUTER 399.00 Now 299.00 

□ 800 COMPUTER 899.00 Now 660.00 

□ 810 DISK DRIVE 599.00 Now 440.00 

D 410 CASSETTE RECORDER 99.00 Now 87.50 

□ 850 INTERFACE MOD 219.00 Now 180.00 

□ PAC MAN (CART) 44.95 Now 38.50 

□ CENTIPEDE (CART) 44.95 Now 38.50 

□ CAVERNS OF MARS (DISK) 39.95 Now 33.50 

D STAR RAIDERS (CART) 49.95 Now 33.50 

□ SPACE INVADERS (CART) 44.95 Now 27.50 

□ ASTEROIDS (CART) 44.95 Now 27.50 

□ MISSILE COMMAND (CART) 44.95 Now 27.50 

□ JOYSTICKS (PAIR) (ACCS) 21.95 Now 19.50 

D PADDLES (PAIR) (ACCS) 21 .95 Now 19.50 

□ GOLD EDITION 1-12 (DISK & CASS) (WHILE THEY LAST) 100.00 Now 87.50 

□ ADVENTURES 1-12 (CASS) ea. 19.95 Now 16.50 

□ LUNAR LANDER (CASS) 14.95 Now 13.50 

□ STAR FLITE (DISK) 19.95 Now 16.50 

□ REAR GUARD (DISK) 19.95 Now 16.50 

D GALACTIC EMPIRE (CASS) 19.95 Now 16.50 

□ GALACTIC TRADER (CASS) 19.95 Now 16.50 

□ TREASURE QUEST (CASS) 19.95 Now 16.50 

□ GHOST HUNTER (DISK) 34.95 Now 29.50 

□ GHOST HUNTER (CASS) 29.95 Now 25.50 

D PREPPIE (DISK) 29.95 Now 25.50 

D PREPPIE (CASS) 24.95 Now 19.50 

□ TEMPLE OF APSHAI (DISK & CASS) 39.95 Now 33.50 

□ STAR WARRIOR (DISK & CASS) 39.95 Now 33.50 

□ RESCUE AT RIGEL (DISK & CASS) 29.95 Now 25.50 

D DATESTONE OF RYN (DISK & CASS) 19.95 Now 16.50 

D CRUSH. CRUMBLE & CHOMP (DISK) 29.95 Now 25.50 

□ INVASION ORION (DISK & CASS) 24.95 Now 19.50 

□ RICOCHET (DISK & CASS) 19.95 Now 16.50 

□ UPPER REACHES OF APSHAI 19.95 Now 16.50 

□ CURSE OF RA 19.95 Now 16.50 

D CRYPTS OF TERROR (DISK) 34.95 Now 29.50 

□ CRYPTS OF TERROR (CASS) 29.95 Now 25.50 

□ EMPIRE OF THE OVERMIND (DISK) 35.00 Now 29.50 

□ TANKTICS (DISK) 29.00 Now 25.50 

□ TANKTICS (CASS) 24.00 Now 19.50 

□ CONTROLLER (DISK) 30.00 Now 25.50 

D CRYPTS OF TERROR (CASS) 29.95 Now 25.50 

□ EMPIRE OF THE OVERMIND (DISK) 35.00 Now 29.50 

D EMPIRE OF THE OVERMIND (CASS) 29.50 Now 25.50 

□ SHAMUS (DISK & CASS) 34.95 Now 29.50 

□ MASTER TYPE (CASS) 39.95 Now 33.50 

D BASKETBALL (CART) 34.95 Now 29.50 

D SUPER BREAKOUT (CART) 44.95 Now 33.50 

□ SCRAM (CASS) 24.95 Now 19.50 

D TOUCH TYPING (CASS) 24.95 Now 19.50 

□ MAILING LIST (CASS) 24.95 Now 19.50 

□ MACRO ASSEMBLER & TEXT EDITOR 89.95 Now 78.50 

□ ASSEMBLER 59.95 Now 50.50 

□ RLE MANAGER 800 (DISK) 99.95 Now 87.50 

D DISK MANAGER (DISK).' 29.95 Now 25.50 

□ MICRO PAINTER (DISK) 34.95 Now 29.50 

□ GRAPHIS MASTER (DISK) 39.95 Now 33.50 

□ SAMMY THE SEA SERPENT (DISK & CASS) 24.95 Now 19.50 

□ PAGE 6 (DISK) 29.95 Now 25.50 

□ DISK DETECTIVE (DISK) 29.95 Now 25.50 

□ PATH FINDER (DISK) 34.95 Now 29.50 

□ SPEED READ PLUS (DISK) 59.95 Now 50.50 

□ SPACE EGGS (DISK) 29.95 Now 25.50 

□ GALAXY (DISK) 25.00 Now 19.50 

□ B-1 NUCLEAR BOMBER (CASS) 16.00 Now 13.50 

D MIDWAY CAMPAIGN (CASS) 16.00 Now 13.50 

□ NORTH ATLANTIC CONVOY RAIDER (CASS) 16.00 Now 13.50 

D NUKEWAR (CASS) 16.00 Now 13.50 

□ CONFLICT 2500 (CASS) 16.00 Now 13.50 

D PLANET MINERS (CASS) 16.00 Now 13.50 

□ LORDS OF KARMA (CASS) 20.00 Now 16.50 

□ APPLE PANIC (DISK) 29.95 Now 25.50 

□ RASTER BLASTER (DISK) 29.95 Now 25.50 

□ BUG ATTACK (DISK) 29.95 Now 25.50 

□ TUMBLE BUGS (DUNG BEETLES) (DISK) 29.95 Now 25.50 

□ CANYON CLIMBER (DISK & CASS) 29.95 Now 25.50 

□ LE STICK (ACCS) 39.95 Now 33.50 

D PACIFIC COAST HIGHWAY (DISK & CASS) 29.95 Now 25.50 

D INTRUDER (DISK) 34.95 Now 29.50 

D INTRUDER (CASS) 29.95 Now 25.50 

□ SHOOTING ARCADE (DISK & CASS) 29.95 Now 25.50 

D TRACK ATTACK (DISK) 29.95 Now 25.50 

□ CLOWNS & BALLOONS (DISK & CASS) 29.95 Now 25.50 

□ MEGALEGS (DISK & CASS) (WHILE THEY LAST) 34.95 Now 29.50 

□ COMPU-READ (DISK) 29.95 Now 25.50 

□ COMPU-MATH/FRACTIONS (DISK) 39 95 Now 33.50 

□ COMPU-MATH/DECIMALS (DISK) 39.95 Now 33.50 

D COMPU-MATH/FRACTIONS (CASS) 29.95 Now 25.50 

□ COMPU-MATH/DECIMALS (CASS) 29.95 Now 25.50 

□ MATCH RACERS (DISK) 29.95 Now 25.50 

D PATHFINDER (AVAIL. FALL) (DISK) 34.95 Now 29.50 

□ DEADLINE (DISK) 49.95 Now 42.50 

□ ZORK I (DISK) 39.95 Now 33.50 

D ZORK II (DISK) 39.95 Now 33.50 

□ POOL 400 (CART) 39.95 Now 33.50 

a ACTION QUEST (DISK & CASS) 29.95 Now 25.50 



□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 
D 
□ 
D 
□ 
□ 
□ 

a 
□ 
□ 
□ 
□ 

D 
□ 

a 
a 

D 

a 

D 

□ 

□ 

D 

a 



K-RAZY SHOOTOUT (CART) 

SPEED READ PLUS (DISK) 

HI-RES ADV. #0- MISSION: ASTEROID (DISK). 



49.95 

59.95 

24.95 

HI-RES ADV. #2- WIZ & PRINCESS (DISK) 32 95 

CROSSFIRE (DISK) 29 95 

MOUSEKATTACK (DISK) 34 95 

JAWBREAKER (DISK & CASS) 29 95 

THRESHOLD (DISK) 39 95 

SOFTPORN ADVENTURE (DISK) 29 95 

THE NEXT STEP (DISK) 39 95 

FROGGER (AVAIL. FALL) (DISK & CASS) 34 95 

ALI BABA AND THE FORTY THIEVES (DISK) 32 95 

DELUXE INVADERS (DISK) 34 95 

GALACTIC CHASE (DISK) 29 95 

GALACTIC CHASE (CASS) 24 95 

THE SHATTERED ALLIANCE (DISK) 39 95 

GHOSTLY MANOR (AT FA2) (DISK). 

PROTECTOR (DISK & CASS) 

CHICKEN (DISK & CASS) 

DODGE RACER (DISK & CASS) 

WARLOCKS REVENGE (DISK). 



24.95 

34.95 

34.95 

24 95 

35.00 

VISICALC (DISK) 250.00 



WORDRACE(DISK). 

ALIEN SWARM (DISK) 

ALIEN SWARM (CASS) 

DODGE RACER (DISK & CASS). 

SNAKE BYTE (DISK) 

CYCLOD (DISK) 



24.95 
34.95 
29.95 
29.95 
29.95 
29.95 



Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 

Now 



Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 

Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 



42.50 
50.50 
19.50 
29.50 
25.50 
29.50 
25.50 
33.50 
25.50 
33.50 
29.50 
29.50 
29.50 
25.50 
19.50 
33.50 
19.50 
29.50 
29.50 
19.50 
29.50 
219.50 
19.50 
29.50 
25.50 
25.50 
25.50 
25.50 



IBM 

□ LOST COLONY (DISK) 29.95 

□ TEMPLE OF APSHAI (DISK) 39.95 

□ GALAXY (DISK) 25.00 

□ MIDWAY CAMPAIGN (DISK) 21 .00 

□ COMPUTER STOCKS AND BONDS (DISK) 25.00 

□ VOYAGER (DISK) 25.00 

□ DRAW POKER (DISK) 21 .00 

D CHAMPIONSHIP BLACKJACK (AVAIL JULY) (DISK) 39.95 

D THE HOME ACCOUNTANT PLUS (DISK) 150.00 

□ WRITE-ON (DISK) 129.95 

□ EASy (EXECUTIVE ACCOUNTING SYSTEM) (DISK) 725.00 

□ DEADLINE (DISK) 49.95 

D ZORK I (DISK) 39 95 

□ ZORK II (DISK) 39.95 

D T.I.M. Ill (DISK) 495.00 

("Total Information Management ') 

□ MATHEMAGIC (DISK) 89 95 

D EASY SPELLER (DISK) 175 .00 

□ EASY FILER (DISK) 400.00 

□ EASYWRITER II (DISK) 350.00 

□ THE TAX MANAGER (DISK) 250.00 

□ WORDSTAR (DISK) 495.00 

□ MAILMERGE (DISK) 150.00 

□ CONQUEST (AVAIL JULY) (DISK) 29.95 

□ SUPERCALC (DISK) 295.00 

D SUPERWRITER (AVAIL JULY) (DISK) 395.00 

D IBM JOYSTICKS (ACCS) 64.95 

□ GRAPHICS HARDCOPY SYSTEM (DISK) 24.95 

□ VERSAWRITER GRAPHICS TABLET (ACCS) 299.00 

□ DESKTOP PLAN I (DISK) 300.00 

□ VISITREND/PLOT (AVAIL JULY) (DISK) 300.00 

□ VISIDEX (AVAIL JULY) (DISK) 250.00 

□ VISICALC (DISK) 200.00 

D VISICALC/256K (DISK) 250.00 

□ VISIFILE (AVAIL AUGUST) (DISK) 250.00 



RAM FOR ATARI 400 + 800 

48K (Reg. $299.00) NOW 185.00 
32K (Reg. $199.00) NOW 85.00 

I SEND FOR FREE # CATALO<T*~ # ~ *~" 

I WE PAY SHIPPING on all software orders OVER $50 in Continental U.S 
" (Foreign & Air Extra). ADD $2.50 SHIPPING & HANDLING on orders 

under $50. CALIF. RESIDENTS ADD 6% SALES TAX. We accept 

MASTER CARD and VISA. C.O.D.'S ADD $5.00. 



25.50 

33.50 

20.50 

19.50 

20.50 

20.50 

19.50 

33.50 

125.00 

110.00 

575 00 

42.50 

33.50 

33.50 

399.00 

75.00 

149.00 

335.00 

280.00 

199.00 

399.00 

99.00 

25.50 

225.00 

299.00 

55.00 

19.50 

250.00 

250.00 

250.00 

199.00 

175.00 

199.00 

199.00 



NAME . 
STREET. 
CITY _ 



CARD# 



STATE & ZIP 
_ EXP. DATE 



SIGNATURE 



! 



Outside California (800) 572-9215 (Toll Free) 
or (714) 369-8113 or (714) 787-7002 



i 

I 

i 
i 
i 

• 

! 

i 

• 

i 

i 
i 

I 



3515 Bryce Way, Riverside, CA 92506 



CIRCLE 196 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



BUSINESS 
OPPORTUNITY 



Service & Maintain 

Coin Operated 

Micro-Computers 

In Libraries 




DEALER 
REPRESENTATIVES 

WANTED 
PART OR FULL TIME 




NO ROYALTIES, 
NO FRANCHISE FEE 




Exceptionally lucrative ground-floor op- 
portunity to participate in the explosive 
Micro-Computer Market. The Computer 
Bus offers Community minded Micro- 
Computer owners the chance to develop 
their own successful business within a 
relatively short period of time with this 
innovative Microcomputer concept. The 
prognosis for success has never been 
better. 

If you are accepted as a Computer Bus 
"Learning Center' Dealer you will operate 
your own sales and rental business from 
your home or office, featuring a product 
line of uncompromising quality and out- 
standing company support. 

Investment required $3,000. secured by ex 
tensive computer software and hardware 
Selected territory, leads, national and region 
al advertising, technical suppo/t and full 
back up service 

For additional information call toll fraa 
1-800-321-3670 

Ohio Residents Call Collect 
1-216-255-1617 



the COMPUTER BUS 

persons! A business computer systems 




the COMPUTE* BUS 101 River St Grand River Ohio 44045 

Authorized ATARI • Dernier 



JRT Pascal, continued... 

As mentioned, the use of separately 
compiled external procedures eases the 
size problems associated both with the 
compiler and the run-time program and 
adds no tedious details to the program- 
mer's task. The external procedures are 
auto-loaded as required by the run-time 
program, EXC. The external procedures 
and functions must be declared in fhe 
main programs which reference them, and 
these procedure declarations and par- 
ameter lists must be consistent among 
different files. This is very important as 
the compiler will not check these declar- 
ations and validate the consistency. 

The external procedures produced 
under the JRT compiler can access all 
the global variables in the main pro- 
gram—variables which have been de- 
clared before any procedure or function 
declarations. 

In the example of Listing 1, 
CUSTOMER-LIST is a global variable. 
To access global variables or files, their 



As distinct from the 

original implementation 

of Pascal, the JRT 

version supports 

extensive capability 

for Input/Output 

control. 



CIRCLE 142 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



declarations must be inserted in the 
external procedure file following the 
reserved word EXTERN, and preceding 
the procedure header. These declarations 
must be identical to the global declara- 
tions in the main program, though addi- 
tional constants and type identifiers may 
also be present in this area. 

While the structure of a JRT Pascal 
external procedure is similar to a standard 
"internal" procedure in format, there are 
two minor differences. First, the PRO- 
CEDURE statement must be preceded 
by the word EXTERN, and second, the 
END statement must be followed by the 
standard semicolon and then a period, to 
signify the end of the compile unit. 

Activan 

JRT Pascal provides Activan, an exclu- 
sive external procedure, which monitors 
the execution of a Pascal program. Act- 
ivan monitors the line numbers as used 
by the compiled program and keeps a 
line counter record for all numbers within 
the specified range. Both the range of 
line numbers to be monitored and their 
spacing may be specified, and can be 



changed as the program is executing. 

The output of Activan is a graph show- 
ing the amount of time spent executing 
each portion of the program— an invalu- 
able aid in tuning and optimizing program 
operation. All that is required to use the 
Activan facility is to compile a program 
with the %LTRACE directive or to set 
the $L switch on; the program is then run 
by specifying the $A switch at run-time 
(i.e., EXEC TESTPGM $A). 

As distinct from the original implemen- 
tation of Pascal, the JRT version supports 
extensive capability for Input/Output 
control. It is possible to make use of a 
built-in procedure, "CALL, to make direct 
calls to the CP/M operating system, BIOS 
(user dependent Basic Input/Output 
System), or any machine language code 
present in the main storage. 

As a complement to this built-in pro- 
cedure, JRT Pascal also provides a special 
purpose assembler which translates 
assembly code into relocatable external 
procedure modules. These external pro- 
cedures are then automatically loaded as 
required at run-time just as any other 
external procedure. 

Additionally, if a Microsoft format 
assembler (RMAC, or Macro-80) is avail- 
able, then the CONVERT utility converts 
REL files produced by these assemblers 
into .INT format files. These files may 
then be accessed as external procedures. 
These features are not found in the 
"standard" implementations of Pascal, 
and therefore JRT Pascal is not portable 
to the extent that such functions are 
used. 

As most Pascal implementations have 
evolved away from the original UCSD 
version, this lack of portability is no real 
handicap, and the additional features are 
very worthwhile. 

Documentation 

The 125-page manual is well written 
and complete. There are sufficient exam- 
ples of all the functions that even an 
inexperienced user can readily make use 
of the advanced features. The Table of 
Contents is so complete that the lack of 
an Index is hardly noticed. 

Initially, JRT Pascal was available only 
as a CP/M compatible program on 8" 
single density (IBM 3740 format) disks, 
but JRT Systems has informed me that 
the latest version is available in many 
popular 5 1/4" formats. Through an 
arrangement with Allenbach Industries, 
JRT Pascal may now be obtained in 
NorthStar, Osborne, Apple CP/M, Super 
Brain, and Heath soft-sector formats. 

While "there is no such thing as a free 
lunch," JRT Pascal at $29.95 (which 
includes postage) certainly allows the user 
to experience champagne and caviar at 
cafeteria prices. □ 

CIRCLE 341 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



116 



November 1982 c Creative Computing 



YOU NEVER HAD IT 

SO SOFT! 




SOFTWARE FOR YOUR ATARI, 

APPLE, COMMODORE OR VIC! 



ATARI HOME COMPUTER 
PROGRAMS 

HOME OFFICE 

CX404 ATARI Word Processor. $119.00 

CX8102 Calculator $29.00 

CX412 Dow Jones Investment 

Evaluator $99.00 

CX4109 Graph It Joystick 

optional $17.00 

CX4104 Mailing List $20.00 

CX41 15 Mortgage & Loan 

Analysis $13.00 

CX4103 Statistics I $20.00 

CX8107 Stock Analysis $20.00 

CXL4015 TeleLink I $23.00 

HOME STUDY 
CX4101 An Invitation to 

Programming I $20.00 

CX4106 An Invitation to 

Programming 2 $23.00 

CX4117 An Invitation to 

Programming 3 $23.00 

CX4107 Biorhythm $13.00 

Conversational Languages (ea.) $46.00 

CX4121 Energy Czar $13.00 

CX4114 European Countries 

& Capitals $13.00 

CX4108 Hangman, Joystick 

optional $13.00 

CX4102 Kindgom $13.00 

CXL4007 Music Composer $34.00 

CX4123 Scram, uses joystick . . . $20.00 

CX41 1 2 States & Capitals $1 3.00 

CX4110 Touch Typing $20.00 

HOME ENTERTAINMENT 

PAC MAN $35.00 

CENTIPEDE $35.00 

CAVERNS OF MARS $32.00 

CXL401 3 Asteroids $29.00 

CXL4004 Basketball $27.00 

CX4105 Blackjack $13.00 

CXL4009 Computer Chess $29.00 

CXL4012 Missile Command $29.00 

CXL4008 Space Invaders $29.00 

CXL401 1 Star Raiders $39.00 

CXL4006 Super Breakout $29.00 

CXL4010 3-D Tic-Tac-Toe $27.00 

CXL4005 Video Easel $24.00 

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES & AIDS 

CXL4003 Assembler Editor $47.00 

CXL4002 ATARI BASIC $47.00 

CX8126 ATARI Microsoft Basic . $70.00 

CXL4018 PILOT $72.00 

CX405 PILOT(Educational) .... $105.00 



ATARI PROGRAM EXCHANGE: 

Eastern Front '41 $25.50 

Avalanche $15.50 

Outlaw $15.50 

747 Landing Simulation $15.50 

Babel $15.50 

Dog Daze $15.50 

Downhill $15.50 

Attack! $15.50 

Blackjack-Casino $15.50 

Reversi II $15.50 

Domination $1 5.50 

Solitare $15.50 

Disk Fixer $15.50 

Supersort $1 5.50 

Data Management $15.50 

Chameleon $15.50 

Instedit $15.50 

Insomnia $1 5.50 

My First Alphabet $25.50 

Mapware $18.00 

Number Blast $11.50 

Family Cash Flow $15.50 

Weekly Planner $15.50 

Bowler's Data Base $13.00 

Banner Generator $11.50 

Visicalc $189.00 

Letterperfect (Word Processor) . $99.00 
Data Soft 

Textwizzard $89.00 

Canyon Climber $24.00 

Tumble Bug $24.00 

Shoot Arcade $24.00 

Pacific Coast $24.00 

Bishops Square $24.00 

Micro Painter $27.00 

Data Sam $119.00 

Clowns & Balloons $24.00 

Color Print $32.00 

Graphics Master $30.00 

Data Lisp $70.00 

Mail List $20.00 

OnLine 

Jaw Breaker $27.00 

MouskATTACK $31.00 

Invasion Orion $18.50 

Mission Asteroid $22.00 

The Next Step $34.00 

Softporn $27.00 

Wizzard & Princess $29.00 

Upper Reaches $32.00 

Curse of Ra $32.00 

Arcade Plus 

Ghost Hunter (cassette) $24.00 

Ghost Hunter (disk) $30.00 



KByte 

KByte Krazy Shoot Out (ROM) $39.00 

K-DOS $69.00 

K-Razy Kritters $39.00 

K-Star Patrol $39.00 

K-Razy Antiks $39.00 

Stick Stand $6.99 

Compumax 

Accounts Receivable $110.00 

General Ledger $1 10.00 

Inventory $130.00 

Payroll $110.00 

Personal Finance $130.00 

Synapse 

File Manager 800 $79.95 

Dodge Racer $19.00 

Chicken $24.00 

Slime $24.00 

Nautilus $24.00 

Disk Manager $24.00 

Fort Apocalypse $24.00 

Assembler $39.00 

Protector $24.00 

Shamus $24.00 

Page 6 $24.00 

EPYX (Automated Simulation) 

Ricochet $14.50 

Crush, Crumble & Chomp . . . $24.00 

Star Warrior $29.00 

Rescue at Rigel $24.00 

Datestones $16.00 

APPLE 

Apple Dictionary $79.00 

Visicalc $189.00 

— CALL FOR PRICES ON — 
Visicalc Advance VISI FILE 

Visicalc Business Forcast VISI DEX 
Visischedule VISI PACK 

Visiterm VISI PILOT 

VISITREND 



COMMODORE 
BUSINESS MACHINES 

SOFTWARE 

Word Pro 5 Plus $319.00 

Word Pro 4 Plus $299.00 

Word Pro 3 Plus $199.00 

Commodore Tax Package $589.00 

Visicalc $189.00 



Medical Billing $449.00 

The Source $89.00 

OZZ Information System $289.00 

Dow Jones Portfolio $129.00 

Pascal $239.00 

Legal Time Accounting $449.00 

Word Craft 80 $289.00 

Power $79.00 

Socket 2 Me $20.00 

Jinsam $Call 

MAGIS $Call 

CPA $Call 

Real Estate Package $Call 

The Manager $209.00 

Softrom $129.00 

BPI Inventory Control $319.00 

BPI Job Costing $319.00 

BPI Payroll $319.00 

BPI General Ledger $329.00 

Creative I SAM $79.00 

Creative General Ledger $229.00 

Creative Accounts Receivable $229.00 
Creative Inventory $229.00 

VIC 20 

VIC1901 VIC AVENGERS $23.00 

VIC1904 SUPERSLOT $23.00 

VIC1906 SUPER ALIEN $23.00 

VIC1907 SUPER LANDER $23.00 

VIC1908 DRAW POKER $23.00 

VIC1909 MIDNIGHT DRIVE .... $23.00 

Terminal 40 col. exp SCall 

UnWord $13.00 

Grafix Menagerie $11.00 

VIC PICS $15.00 

Ticker Tape $13.00 

Banner Headliner $13.00 

RS 232 $39.00 

VT 106A Recreation Pack A $44.00 

VT107A Home Calculation Pack $44.00 
VT164 Programmable Character/ 

Gamegraphics $12.00 

Household Finance $27.00 

VIC Games $19.00 

VIC Home Inventory $13.00 

VIC Rec/Ed II $13.00 

VL101 Introduction to 

Computing $19.00 

VL102 Introduction to BASIC 

Programming $19.00 

VM1 10 VIC20 Programmers 

Reference Guide $15.00 




computer mail order 



800233-8950 



477 East Third Street 
Williamsport, PA 17701 
(717)327-9575 



CALL TOLL FREE 

In-stock items shipped same day you call. No risk, no deposit on 
C.O.D. orders. Pre-paid orders receive free shipping within the 
continental United States with no waiting period for certified checks 
or money orders. All prices shown are cash prices add 3% for 
Mastercard and Visa. NV and PA residents add sales tax. All items 
subject to availability and price change. 

CIRCLE 146 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



W€St 

800- 648-33 1 1 

P.O. Box 6689 

Stateline. Nevada 89449 

(702) 588-5654 




A 

ATARI 



400 

16K . . . $ 249 
32K . . . s 369 
48K . . . $ 469 

410 Recorder $76.00 

810 Disc Drive $449.00 

822 Printer $269.00 

825 Printer $589.00 

830 Modem $159.00 

820 Printer $259.00 

850 Interface $169.00 

CX40 Joy Stick $18.00 

CX853 16K RAM $77.95 




800 

16K ... $ 649 
32K . . . $ 724 
48K . . . s 769 

Microtek 16K RAM $74.95 

Microtek 32K RAM $119.95 

Ramdisk (128K) $429.95 

Intec 48K Board $219.95 

Intec 32K $119.95 

One year extended warranty $70.00 

481 Entertainer $69.00 

482 Educator $130.00 

483 Programmer $49.00 

484 Communicator $344.00 



FRANKLIN 
ACE1 



III 




64K Personal Computer 

Hardware, software and 

peripheral compatable with the 
Apple II and even has some fea- 
tures not found on the Apple. 

MICRO SCI Apple ll/Franklin compatable Disk Drives! 

Call now for best price!! 





i 



A HOT ATARI - 
GAMES A< 

PAC MAN $35.00 

Centipede $35.00 

Caverns ot Mars $32.00 

Asteroids $29.00 

Missile Command $29.00 

Star Raiders $39.00 

Canyon Climber $25.00 

Protector $24.00 

Mouskattack $31.00 

Jawbreaker $27.00 

Ghost Hunter $24.00 



Telecommunications 

Modems 

Hayes 

Smart $239.00 

Chronograph $199.00 

Micromodem II $279.00 

Micromodem 100 $309.00 

Novation Auto $239.00 

D Cat $169.00 

Cat $159.00 

Anchor Modem $79.00 




KBYTE 

ROM CARTRIDGE GAMES 
FOR YOUR ATARI 

I Krazy Shoot Out $39.00 

Krazy Kritters $39.00 

Krazy Antics $39.00 

|K-star Patrol $39.00 

STICK STAND .«L 

Sg99 

ARCADE ACTION FROM YOUR 

ATARI JOYSTICK \l 



AMDEK 
MONITORS 

300G $169.00 

Color I $339.00 

Color II $699.00 

Color III $429.00 

OTHERS 

Zenith 9 " (Green) $109.00 

BMC 12" Green $85 00 



PERQOM 



Finally, a dual disk drive for 
the Atari 800/400. Both single 
and dual drive models read 
both sides of the disk! Will 
read all disks written for Atari 
810. CALL FOR INTRODUCT 
OR Y PRICE! 



SEC 

COMPUTERS 

8001-A $749.00 

8031 $749.00 

8012 $549.00 

PRINTERS 

8023 $549.00 

7710/7730 $2399.00 

3510/3530 $1789.00 

MONITORS 

JB 1201 $179.00 

JC-1201 $349.00 

JC-1202 $899.00 

SANYO 1000 COMPUTER $1599.00 




VISICORP 



VISICALC 

Apple II ♦ $189.00 

Atari $189.00 

Commodore $189.00 

IBM $189.00 

Also available are: 

VTSIDEX VISIPLOT 

VISIFILE VISITERM 

VISIPACK VISITREND 



SOFTWARE 

We stock manufacturer's and third party software 
for most all computers on the market! Call today 
for a copy of our new 

CATALOG 

You'll find programs by Atari, APX, Data Soft 
Crystal Software, EPYX, Synapse, OnLine. Arcade 
Plus, K BYTE, Magis. Canadian Micro, Professional 
Software, Creative Software, BPI, VISICORP, Com- 
modore, NEC and of course our own! 




Maxell Disks 

MD I (box of 10) $36.00 

MD II (box of 10) $46 00 

MFD I (8") $44.00 

MFD II (8" Double Density) $54.00 

| Syncom (box of 10) $29.00 

Computer Covers 

Commodore VIC 20 $6.99 

Atari 400 $6.99 Commodore 8032 $14.99 

Atari 800 $6.99 Commodore 

Atari 810 $6.99 8050/4040 $10.99 



W€St 



In Nevada 
CALL 
1(702)588-5654 









P.O. Box 6689 

Stateline. 
NV. 89449 



ca 



HEWLETT 
PACKARD 




HP* 85 s 1969 

HP-87 $1799.00 

HP* 125 $1999.00 

HP«85 16K Memory Module $169.00 

5 V* " Dual Master Disc Drive $1 799.00 

Hard Disk w/ Floppy $4349.00 

Hard Disk $3549.00 

"Sweet Lips" Plotter $1199.00 

80 Column Printer $649.00 



m 



HEWLETT 
PACKARD 

HP41CV 

CALCULATOR 

$ 239 




HP 41C $189.00 

HP 11C $79.00 

HP 12C $114.00 

NEW 15C $119.00 

NEW 16C $125.00 

HPIL PERIPHERALS IN STOCK! 




EPSON 



PRINTERS 

MX 80 w/Graftrax $449 

MX 80 FT III CALL 

MX 100 CALL 

ADA 1600 Parallel Printer to CBM $1 19.00 

ATC-1 Parallel Printer to Atari $29.00 

AP 80 Apple Parallel Card & Cable $69.00 

IBM-1 Parallel Printer to IBM $32.00 




CBM 8032 

s 999 



c* 



Word Pro 5 + $319.00 

Word Pro 4 + $299.00 

Word Pro 3 + $199.00 

The Administrator $379.00 

InfoPro Plus $219.00 

Power $79.00 

Televideo 
Terminals 




910 $579 

912C $699 

920C $749 

925C $749 

960 $950 

802 $Cah 

802H $Call 

816 $Call 

806 $Call 




TEC 



PRINTERS! 

Starwriter 

F10-40CPS $1399.00 

F10-55CPS $1749.00 

Prowriter 8510A $499.00 

Prowriter 1550 $799.00 

ADA 1450 Serial Printer to CBM $1 19.00 

ATC-2 Serial Printer to Atari $29.00 

AP-S10 Apple Serial Card & Cable $95.00 



Commodore 

Business Machines 

CBM 64 CALL 

4032 $969.00 

8096 Upgrade Kit $369.00 

Super Pet $1599.00 

2031 $529.00 

8250 Doubled Sided Disk Drive $1699.00 

D9060 5 Megabyte Hard Disk $2399.00 

D9090 7.5 Megabyte Hard Disk $2699.00 

8050 $1299.00 

4040 $969.00 

8300 (Letter Quality) $1799.00 

8023 $769.00 

4022 $499.00 

Pet to IEEE Cable $37.00 

IEEE to IEEE Cable $46.00 

Tractor Feed for 8300 $240.00 



VIC 20 
$ 179 



rj < nmmiirtm « 



VIC 20 




«*»U III \\ 



VIC 1530 Commodore Datassette $69.00 

VIC 1540 Disk Drive $499.00 

VIC 1515 VIC Graphic Printer $339.00 

VIC 1210 3K Memory Expander $32.00 

VIC 1 1 10 8K Memory Expander $53.00 

16K VIC Expansion $94.00 

VIC 1011 RS232C Terminal Interface $43.00 

VIC 1112VIC IEEE 488 Interface $86.00 

VIC 1211 VIC 20 Super Expander $53.00 

VIC Mother Board $99.00 



Smith-Corona 



TP-I 



s 649 




Letter Quality 

Daisy Wheel 

12 CPS Text Printer 




I 





In-stock items shipped same day you 
call. No risk, no deposit on COD 
orders. Pre-paid orders receive free 
shipping within the continental United 
States with no waiting period for 
certified checks or money orders. 
All advertised prices include a 3% 
cash discount from normal credit card 
prices. NV and PA residents add sales 
tax. All items subject to availability 
and price change. 



CENTRONICS 
PRINTERS 

739-1 $519 

739-3 $619 

2 Meter RS232 RS232 Cables $29.95 

— ALSO — 

Diablo 630 Special $1799.00 

Talley 8024-L $1629.00 

IDS Prism CALL 

Daisywriter CALL 



82A 


OKI DATA 
PRINTERS 


$469.00 

$599.00 

$1099.00 

$1249.00 


83A 




84 Paralli 
84 Serial 


si 




NOTE 



Okidata 82A and 83A Printers come equipped 
with both parallel ports & RS232 Serial pons. 



ADDITIONAL MANUFACTURER'S DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE TO QUALIFIED EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



800 




477 E. 
THIRD ST. 
Williamsport 
PA 17701 




IN PA 

CALL 

(717)327 9575 



CIRCLE 146 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Programming in Pascal 



So, you say you are fed up with the 
different dialects of Basic. You have had 
enough of its slow execution times, of 
having to fill up memory space with REM 
statements so you won't become tangled 
in the variable jungle. Your GOTO state- 
ments sometimes lead off to Fantasy 
Island and your GOSUB and FOR... 
NEXTs are for the birds. In short, your 
program structure is about as solid as the 
kids' first tree house and you want out of 
the whole mess. 

After reading all the reviews and arti- 
cles you have decided to step up to 
structured programming and take part in 
the new wave that the ads tell you is 
sweeping the world of micros and minis. 
You have decided to hop on board the 
Pascal wagon and find a better way of 
doing things. 

Zipping down to the local computer 
book store you return with a bushelful of 
manuals and texts on Pascal and settle 
down to learn. However, it has been a 
long time since graduation, and you can't 
seem to pick up the information from the 
printed page as easily as you once did. 

You need help. You need a teacher. 
You need an audio-visual presentation of 
the fundamentals of the language. Well 

Greg Greene, 207-885 Craigflower Rd., Victoria, 
B.C. Canada, V9A 2X4. 



Greg Greene 



friend, here it is. 

Just such a course is now available from 
the Heath/Zenith folks, at your local 
Heathkit store or Heath/Zenith Data 
Systems dealer. The course is entitled, 
"Programming in Pascal, an individual 
learning course." It consists of a 510-page 
manual and five cassette tapes. The tapes, 
of course, provide the audio and the 
manual the visual part of the instruction. 

Of special interest is the way the mate- 
rial is presented. The manual consists of 
several lessons which break the material 
into easily digested parts. The manual is 
not just a printed version of the material 
on the tape. The authors have used the 
instructional techniques that work best 
on paper in the manual, and those that 
work best in audio on tape. 

The pages of the manual do not consist 
of mere words; they incorporate overhead 
projections and flip charts. That is not to 
say that the actual film is presented. It 
isn't, but the page looks as the film would 
when projected. In fact, I believe that 
you could reproduce the page for pro- 
jection purposes if you desired. In any 
case the effect is the same as sitting in a 
classroom. 



120 



The audio tapes are keyed to the text. 
You are told which tape to use, and when 
to turn it on. The voices on the tape are 
both pleasant and well modulated— one 
male and one female. I defy you to fall 
asleep while listening to it. Both speakers 
are very good. 

The course presents standard Jensen 
and Wirth Pascal. It is divided into 10 
modules. The tapes are approximately 30 
minutes in length, and the lessons take 
about two hours each to complete. 

A final examination is provided, and at 
the conclusion of the course you send it 
to Heath to be marked. Credits can be 
assigned upon successful completion of 
the course. These are Continuing Educa- 
tion Credits, and I believe they are recog- 
nized by some, if not all, colleges in 
Michigan. Now let's take a look at what 
the course offers. 

Module One is an introduction to the 
course and describes the structure of a 
simple Pascal program. Constants and 
variables are defined along with expres- 
sions. Input and Output statements are 
examined at the conclusion of this 
module. You learn the difference between 
write and writeln, for example. 

At the beginning of the module, the 
goals are clearly set forth, along with a 
list of the new words in that lesson. At the 

November 1982 ° Creative Computing 




How many times 



must 
come 



talk 
* printer? 



Your computer talks faster than 
your printer can listen. Expensive 
time is lost forever. SPOOL/64, a 
64k byte hardware print spooler, 
keeps your computer processing 
while your printer is printing. No 
more waiting. No more wasting. 

SPOOL/64 buffers your print 
output and transmits the 
information to your printer at the 
printer's specific print rate. It 
buffers up to 13 minutes of print 
output (at 80 characters per 
second). 

SPOOL/64 plugs directly into 
both your printer and 



routines. And SPOOL/64, used 
with your software spooler, can 
give you the highest performance 
spooling available. 




x&>. 



o^ir^cM 



&SSS2 



t:Pl 



1 



SPOOL/** 




1 



V 



PRIN IKR 



#&&+ 






-tffc 



? 9N ( 



(6 



computer, accepts input from 
parallel Centronics cables (serial 
RS-232 available soon), and its 
user programming feature allows 
you to download your own 
programs so SPOOL/64 can 
handle sophisticated print 



Apparent Inc. 



4401 So. Tamarac Parkway, Denver, CO 80237 (303) 741-1778 

ON GOING SUPPORT FOR MICROCOMPUTERS" 

CIRCLE 109 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SPOOL/64 utilizes 64k of dynamic RAM, a 
Z-80 CPU, a 27 16 ROM and a copy of the 
source program for the object coae in the 
ROM is included. A 

SPOOL/64, priced at just $Z99T 
is the most cost/effective print 
spooler on the market. Evaluate 
performance. Evaluate price. 
Then let SPOOL/64 get your 
computer back talking to you. 
Call or write Apparat today for a 
free brochure. Dealer inquiries 
invited. 




ws* 



Pascal, continued... 



conclusion of the module there are self- 
tests and exercises. 

If you have a Pascal language installed 
on your computer, you can follow along 
with the course using it. Because of the 
different types of editors available for the 
different systems, you will need to famil- 
iarize yourself with the one that works on 



Frame 2 



COALS 



V(M AHI'I.AKV 



Ktsl.irl t hi- l.ipi- 



IhAKMM. ()B|K(.I IVKS 

\\ tll'tl \ Mil l i mi |)| | -|f | JUS llll M llllr Mill Will I >• ' .1 1 ) 1 1 - III 

I Mrnlih .mil vxrilr pr ilnrrs with p.ir.imcli'rs 

Hi. it 

A Arr i iimplt'lr .mil i imtm t. and 
H IVrtnrm I hi - ilrsin-il teak* 

_' hlriilit\ ililtrri'iil p.ir.inicti'r-p.issiii^ 

II KM ll.llllSlllS 

I Appl\ si upiiin i uli's lii (li'lrrmmr hmx ind n h.il 
uli|i-i lives ,iri' Ii.i:kII,mI msnlr ,nid uulsiili- ot ,i 
prui riliirc 

■4 ( huiisr ihr nuhl p.ir.imiliT ivpc tor .1 givim pnili 

li'lll scillllliill 

") I 'sr .irr.n s ,is p.ir.iniilirs i urrn 1 1 v 
h I'mliTsl.iiitl .mil tisr ni iirsuui 



I'.ir.mirlir Villus' p.ir.iini'tiT variable |i.ir,mirlrr 
p.ir.iiiii'iiT lisi p.issin^ ,1 p.ir.iini'tiT arrayx .is 
p.ir.imt Irrs p. 11 kril ,irr.t\s. ri'i ursinn. rr< ursivi- 1 all. 
ti triii.it 1 1 11 n inslriii linns liiiiitniMs ,is p.ir.mii'liTs 
pmi I'lliiris .is p.ii.inii'liTs spri ilirr var. turn lion. 
prix riluri'. p.ii.iiiiiti'i spii iln .limns 



your system, before trying to write a pro- 
gram. 

Module Two introduces the concepts 
of procedures and functions, and 
describes the rules of scope as defined for 
standard Pascal. This lets you visualize 
the use of global and local variables and 
constants. It is one of the great strengths 
of Pascal that variable and constant values 
need not be passed through the whole 
program, unless desired. As with all the 
modules, self-tests and exercises enable 
you to determine if you have mastered 
the material. 

Module Three introduces the IF... 
THEN. ..ELSE statement, CASE state- 
ment, and Boolean objects. These are the 
decision making statements of Pascal. 
They are very similar to Basic and should 
present no difficulty to anyone with a 
knowledge of Basic, or, indeed, anyone 
who is learning Pascal as his first lan- 
guage. The authors make good use of 
flow charts in this module, and thus 
encourage their students to use them in 
their own programming. 

Module Four is entitled "Looping" and 
presents the three types of loops: 
REPEAT...UNTIL, WHILE...DO, and the 
familiar FOR. ..NEXT. Although similar, 
these three loops have definite jobs and 
different ways of testing for the end of 
the loop. 



!!!!! Frame 6 !liii!iiilililii!!i!i!l!iillli!!i!i!!!i!!li 

FROM DATA ITEMS TO ARRAY 



Data items 

student number test score 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

Exercises 

What is contained in 

1. score| 8 ] ? 

2 score|6| ? 

3. 8cor«|l] ? 

Check your answers in "Back-Up 3." 



Put in array called score 




-scora| 1 1 

■ score| 2 | 
-score|3 | 



■scor«|7 | 

• score| 9 | 
1 score | 10 | 



Module Five defines the various data 
types available in Pascal. Pascal provides 
for many different types of data as a 
function of the language, and even allows 
you to define your own. The language 
also has pre-defined functions that allow 
for quick and easy manipulation of the 
data. 




, EPSON 

I MX-80 AND MX-100 

OWNERS 

MXPLUS™ GIVES YOU 
CONTROL OF YOUR PRINTOUT 

• SELECT CONDENSED, BOLD, OR WIDE 
PRINT INSTANTLY USING THE PRINTER 

PANEL BUTTONS. (N0 COMPUTER CONTROL COOES REQUIRED) 

• ACTIVATE PERF-SKIP AND LEFT MARGIN 
INDENT TO AUTOMATICALLY FORMAT YOUR 
PRINTOUT INTO NEAT PAGES THAT CAN BE 
PUNCHED AND BOUND. 

MXPLUS™ INSTALLS IN MINUTES, NO SOLDERING! 

MXPLUS IS A PLUGHN MODULE FOR ALL EPSON MX-80/100 
PRINTERS AND IS COMPATIBLE WITH ALL INTERFACE BOARDS. 
MXPLUS HAS A 1 YEAR WARRANTY. 



ORDER TODAY 

ORDERS CALL 24 HR 800-835-2246x441 
INFORMATION CALL 213-969-2250 



ORESSELHAUS COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

BOX 929 

AZUSV CALIFORNIA 91702 



ONLY 



$49.95 

POSTPAID CALIF ADO 6% 

SAME DAY SHIPPING 
WITH MC/VISA 



CIRCLE 167 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



From Computer Plus to YOU . . . 
PLUS after PLUS after PLUS 




BUY DIRECT 



Here are just a few of our fine offers 
call TOLL FREE for full information. 



COMPUTERS 

Model II 64K 
Model III 4K LEV I 
MODEL III 16K 
MODEL III 32K 

•MODEL III 32K 
MODEL III 48K 

•MODEL III 48K 
Model III 48K 
2 Disk & RS232 c 

tModel III48K 
2 Disk NoRS232c 
Color Computer 16K 
Color Computer 16K 
w extended basic 
Color Computer 32K 
w extended basic 

(Color Computer 32K 64K 
w extended basic 
Pocket Computer 2 
Model 161DR128K 
Model 16 2DR128K 
DM Data Terminal 




S3100 
599 
799 
856 50 
831 50 
914 
864 

1949 

1749 
305 

399 

499 

510 

230 

4199 

4799 

599 



MODEMS 

Lynx Direct Connect Ml Mill 
Auto Ans Dial 
Telephone Intertace ll 
R S Modem I DC 
R S Modem II D C 
PRINTERS 
Daisy Wheel II 

Smith Corona TPI Daisy Wheel 
Epson MX80 
Epson MX80 FT 
Epson MX 100 
Line Printer VII 
Line Printer VIII 
Line Printer V 
Microlme 80 
Microline82A 
Microline83A 
Microlme 84 Parallel 
P C Plotter Printer 

"Compulei Plus New f quipment 
witri NEC BAM installed 
180 Day Compute' Plus Wouaniy 



235 

169 
130 
210 

1695 

599 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

249 

620 

1610 

325 

425 

699 

1090 

199 



DISK DRIVES 

R S Model III 1ST Drive 
Traxx Tandon 40 Track Ml 
Color Computer Drive 1 
Color Computer Drive 
Primary Hard Disk 
ETC. 
Verbatum 5 Double Density 32 
Verbatum 8 Data Lite 49 95 



679 
289 
315 
470 
3999 



Ctr 80A recorder 

C C Joysticks 

16K RAM NEC 200 N S chips 

64K Ram Chips 

Color Computer Flex DOS 

R S Sottware 10% oft list 

(Mill P S Dtive tondon Dfiv* 1 



tCoiot Computer 64K >equ"es 
Disk and Fiei DOS 



52 
22 
15 
75 

99 



We have the lowest possible 
Fully Warranteed Prices AND 
a full complement of Radio Shack 
Software. 



call toil FREE 1-80O- 345 8124 



com 



Pnc»» iub|»ct to chong* without notic* 
Not r»»poniiei» for typographical errors 
tIS-M it a legislated ttodemots oi Tandy Cotp 



^ ^ 




480 King Street 
Littleton. MA 01460 
617 466-3193 



for your 
free catalog 



CIRCLE 147 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Module Six deals with arrays. Basic 
provides, in most of its implementations, 
for extensive manipulation of arrays in 
much the same manner. The manner of 
declaring them is different, but accessing 
a given element is the same as in most 
Basics. If you know how to use the arrays 
in Microsoft Basic, this section should 
seem familiar to you. 

Module Seven explains how values are 
passed to procedures and recovered. It is 
similar to the way in which defined func- 
tions are used in Basic. The use of recur- 
sive procedures is also explained here. 
Recursion is a very powerful program- 
ming tool, and this part of the course will 
help you learn to use it to good advan- 
tage. 

Module Eight introduces records and 
sets. The visualization of sets was the 
most difficult part of the course for me to 
handle. I guess I couldn't believe that so 
much could be done with so little effort. 
By manipulating a single record, all the 
fields associated with it can also be 
manipulated. I don't know of any similar 
construction in Basic other than the 
INSTRING function. I plan to do a great 
deal of experimentation on this concept 
alone. 

Module Nine discusses pointers. The 
use of pointers in Pascal allows the rapid 
access of data from several storage areas. 



You can create trees, stacks, queues and 
linked lists with ease. There are several 
predefined functions to help you in 
Pascal. 

The use of pointers is another area that 
wasn't easy for me. I don't think I would 
have been able to master it at all just by 



SELF-TEST 



....,,.........••••••««■••••••*•**•••■•••••••••••*•••••**■ 

:::;; ^ m rs r 1 1 s S ;::::.... •••■• 



Mark items 1 through 6 True or False. 



1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 



Program names, procedure names, and function names are 

Pascal identifiers. 

Declarations in a Pascal program can appear in any order 

An identifier may be declared several times in the same block 

An identifier may be used only within the block where it is 



declared 



The scope of an identifier is determined by the smallest block 



enclosing its declaration statement. 

A program must have global variables if it is to pass data from 



one procedure to another. 

7. Pascal has no special operator for performing exponentiation. How 
would you write a subprogram that would do this? 

8. Identify what may be wrong with each one of the following program 
segments: 

A. FUNCTION HALP. B. PROCEDURE EVER . 
VAR X REAL. BECIN 

BECIN WRITELN; 

HALF ■ X/2 EVER 

END . END . 



Check your answers in "Back-Up 13." 



reading. The tape is what made it clear in 
the end. 

Module Ten presents files. Pascal, in 
its standard implementation, allows the 
use of only sequential files. This is not 
surprising since at the time it was written, 
the prevalent storage medium was mag- 
netic tape. Thus, the use of pre-defined 
procedures such as REWRITE reflect the 
naming conventions of an earlier age. 

This chapter deals only with the use of 
sequential files as implemented in stan- 
dard Pascal. UCSD Pascal allows the 
implementation of random access, and 
the student is referred to several texts at 
the end of the chapter. After completing 
the course, he should be able to pick up 
any book on the implementation of UCSD 
Pascal and have little difficulty with it. 

Programming in Pascal is written and 
presented as I wish my high school 
courses had been. It pays attention to 
instructional techniques, and while there 
may be some people who will not be able 
to absorb Pascal from this course, I think 
they are probably few and far between. 

I think the course is good value for the 
$159 price, especially given Heath's 
money back guarantee. I didn't check 
their guarantee provision, because I had 
no reason to return it; it worked for me. 

Heath/Zenith, Benton Harbor, MI 
49022. □ 






o* 



The Ultimate APPLE Utility Program 

COPY II PLUS 



Now you can back up your protected software. 
Copy II Plus is the most sophisticated bit copy pro- 
gram available. It handles synchronized tracks, half 
tracks, nibble counting, bit insertion and other pro- 
tection schemes. It also includes a comprehensive 
discussion of disk format and protection techniques, 
and instructions on how to back-up dozens of 
popular programs. A disk system and speed check 
assure your drives are running in top condition 
and a nibble editor will allow you to repair dam- 
aged diskettes, analyze protection schemes, etc. 



The last DOS utility disk you will need. Fully 
menu driven, the Copy II Plus utilities include a 
catalog display with binary file addresses and 
lengths, a disk usage map, and the ability to verify 
and compare files for differences. It can copy, 
lock, unlock and delete files and DOS can be 
copied, or removed from a disk to free up space. 
You can change the greeting program on a DOS 
disk, or initialize a disk from scratch. The Copy II 
Plus sector editor will allow you to view and 
modify data in either hex or ASCII format. 



For your convenience, Copy II Plus is not copy protected for backup. 
Available at fine computer and software stores or direct from: 



CmmAi mot 
Software, Inc. 



RO. Box 19730-203 
Portland, OR 97219 
(503) 244-5782 



39 



95 



Attention current Copy II Plus owners: Return your original disk with $19.95 for an update to Version 4.0. 



! 

! 

i 

! 



CIRCLE 131 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



COIK 




Alternative Languages 
for the Color Computer 



The Radio Shack TRS-80 Color 
Computer is something of a sleeper 
among personal computers. Although 
the manufacturer has promoted it 
primarily as a games machine and 
household computer, devotees know it 
to be much more powerful and flexible 
than this would indicate. 

The Motorola 6809 represents just 
about the last word in 8-bit micro- 
processor technology, for example, 
and Extended Color Basic is a potent, 
graphics-oriented language with all of 
the experience and expertise of Micro- 
soft behind it. 

Basic isn't the whole world, though. 
Its lack of speed is a problem for every 
writer of games or simulation pro- 
grams, and its syntax encourages the 
kind of unstructured programming 
against which computer scientists 
rebel. Fortunately, software develop- 
ers have begun to produce a variety of 
alternative languages from which 
Color Computer owners may choose. 

In this review I will describe the 
ones with which I am familiar. I am 
almost certain to miss one or more, if 
only because of the time lapse between 
the submission and publication of this 
piece. (See the review of EDTASM+ 
in this issue — Ed.) Still, I hope that at 
least some of this material will be news 
to you. 

First, a few words of warning. Space 
(and time) limitations restrict the 
amount of detail which I can present 
on any single language and while I 
hope to spark some interest among 
Color Computer users who are not 

Scott L. Norman, 8 Doris Road. Framingham, 
MA 01701. 



Scott L Norman 

computer science pros, this article is a 
long way from being a tutorial. 

It will probably become obvious 
that my interest lies in high level 
languages, although I will also try to 
summarize the assemblers available 
for the Color Computer. 



Where speed is 

important, such as 

in real-time handling 

of I/O or graphics, 

assembly language has 

a lot going for it 



Finally, I should point out that most 
of the new languages for the Color 
Computer actually available at the 
time this is being written are fairly 
restricted subsets of their parent 
languages. 

Since Extended Color Basic is a 
powerful, mature dialect, why should 
one bother with the alternatives at all? 

I can think of two reasons. First, 
programming languages can be 
intrinsically interesting. There is 
probably no better way to learn about 
a new language than to set your hands 
on your own copy of a compiler, 
interpreter, or whatever, and begin to 
experiment. 

124 



The second reason is a little more 
nebulous, but it goes something like 
this. The languages we use to describe 
problems influence the way we think 
about the problems themselves, and 
may even affect the solutions we are 
able to find. This holds for pro- 
gramming languages as well as for 
other formal systems. Therefore 
having several languages available is 
akin to having a variety of tools of any 
kind — it may help you do a particular 
job in a better, more efficient, or 
more illuminating manner. 

The Assemblers 

So much for the sermon. I'll begin 
this review of alternative languages 
with a tabulation of tools for a 
language which isn't really an "alterna- 
tive" at all, but which is instead closely 
related to the intrinsic structure of the 
6809: assembly language. 

Purists claim that only those who 
write in assembly are entitled to call 
themselves programmers; everyone 
else is just a coder, setting up data for 
a real program (i.e. an interpreter or 
compiler) to manipulate. 

Be that as it may, assembly language 
does allow one to gain really intimate 
control over a computer. The draw- 
back is that it requires a corresponding 
depth of knowledge about the struc- 
ture and operation of the machine. 

Let's get the nomenclature straight. 
Microprocessors execute only binary 
machine language instructions, but 
like all computers of interest, the 
Color Computer incorporates a 
loader routine which accepts hexa- 
decimal input. Thus it is common to 
speak of the hex representation as 

November 1982 ° Creative Computing 







The Wizardry Adventure Continues! Barbarians 

ck the city of Llylgamyn. News 
nighty staff of Gnilda has been reclaimed by 
}od creator has travelled fast. Protected for a 
s by the power of the wonderous arti 
;, and now defenseless, Llylgamyn is doomed, 
unless you help! 
What have people said about the first scenario? 

{Wizardry! has the potential to become a classic. 

David Lubar, Creative Computing 

The most eagerly awaited adventure . . . 

Computer Merchandising 

. . . perhaps the most advanced adventure program 
on the market. 



The amount of detail is fantastic. 

Neil Shapiro, Popular Mechanics 

Knight of Diamonds, a challenging scenario for experi 
enced Wizardry players (13th level characters will 
barely survive!). 

Proving Grounds of the Mad Overlord (shown at 
right) and Knight of Diamonds operate on any Apple 
Computer* with at least 48K, DOS 3.3, and 1 disk 
drive. 

Proumg Grounds of the Mad Overlord $49.95 

Knight of Diamonds $34.95 

Join over ten thousand adventurers exploring 




MasterCard 



COD 



Forest Johnson, The Space Gamer the ultimate fantasy experience. 



VtSA 

Shipping $2.00 in U.S.; $5.00 outside U.S. 



NOW AVAILABLE AT YOUR LOCAL COMPUTER AND HOBBY STORE 

•APPLE IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK OF APPLE COMPUTER, INC 



SOFTWARE, INC. 
Sir-tech I 6 MAIN STREET. OGDENSBURG. N.Y. 13669 

' (315) 393-6633 

CIRCLE 275 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



<• > 



There's something new under the sun. . . 

MicrocomputerTOeader's 
software fromfv^Digest 

Though our software is new, you know our name and our 
reputation for publishing excellence. The publication of software 
is a natural extension of our commitment to bringing information 
and entertainment to people around the world. So when 
you buy software from Reader's Digest, you know you'll be 
getting the best in clearly documented, truly user-friendly 
software from one of the most trusted names in publishing. 



Look for software from 
Reader's Digest at 
your software dealer. 



Reader's Digest Services, Inc. 
Microcomputer Software Division 
Pleasantville, NY 10570 



CIRCLE 260 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



THESUPERPLDTTER 



© 



•wroce nJViMb ■■• «(■ -• i«» t- 




—OM" tmn ut m» !•»■«- 






version 2.2 

TM 



General Purpose Plotting 




Statistics 


I Data Analy 


sis Forecast 


ng 


Tool 




«U -: ••«• ■ 


- 






•U'M - 




•a 






•—• 










■«* 


• 


■*« 







Decision Making Tool 



• ■ .»« . . . » i\ 



■ .* ■> 




«>0M .*t ■* 'Ik - - •« 



Extensive Overlay Capabilities 



For use with Apple 
Computer Systems 



The Superplotter is a highly versatile business, 
engineering, educational, math and graphics ap- 
plications package featuring: 

Standard Bar Graphs* Point and Line Graphs* 
Graphics Display of any Mathematical Function* 
Least Squares Polynomial Curvefit Generation* 
Keyboard Image Shape Tables and 
User Tutorial* Automatic Graphics Disk Storage 
and Recall* Data File Editor* Automatic Disk 
Storage and Recall of Editor Data Files-Overlay 
Modes-Graphics Screen Text Editor 

Data may be input directly or from previously 
generated data files Comprehensive documen- 
tation is provided including printer dump instruc- 
tions and directions for accessing data bases 
created by other programs Requires Applesoft 
and one DOS 3.3 disk drive 

$69.95 

See your local dealer for a demonstration 
or order direct from: 

□.chens Data Systems 

478 Engle Dr. / Tucker, Ga. 30084 / (404) 491-7905 

outside Georgia: 
(800) 241-6753 ext. 503 

COD, VISA, & MasterCard accepted 

Mail Orders: Add $2 50 for shipping and handling 

($5 00 outside the USA) 



tOW. ■« • :•«•« HIMUIM » 00u»s 





'►» f» » 90 cOST 



Visual Aid for Presentations 



ia»*c>r<$iM<x>. 'E>»<coS'x>>«cos<x>. 


I 


rH 


rH 


rM 


^ 


rh 


.. « 












*< 














• * 








• 


• r i" 1 >~* « 



Plot Anything 




Pli MITM r nuie 




C*. I4v. ^^m .*• 


IS'-. 




\\rti*. V 


n .. z\\ (Ill Lfj&v" 


j GO. r. 


"■ \^( ^^^ 


•\b. \r. 


*» MR 





Perfect for Professional Quality Reports 



'Mt ^U*f»f, ''|t 



«0»l.\»ltl« 'I • ' 

'•« t*%4-»: m>- i ■ i; :' > •*. n 



Plot Keyboard Characters on Any 
Graphics Display Simply 



Alternatives, continued... 

machine language. The hex version of 
a routine can be loaded directly into 
any specified portion of memory with 
a monitor program. Alternatively, the 
hex characters can be converted to 
decimal in the fashion appropriate to 
the Color Computer and read from 
DATA statements. 

Few people would care to do this for 
routines of any length, though, and 
fewer still would care to write pro- 
grams from scratch in machine 
language. The code simply isn't mean- 
ingful to read, and it becomes very 
difficult to keep track of such things as 
the assignment of memory locations. 

Assembly language comes to the 
rescue. It allows the programmer to 
use mnemonics to represent instruc- 
tions, memory locations, registers, 
and subroutines, while retaining de- 
tailed control over machine operation. 
It is far easier, for example, to use the 
mnemonic ADDA to add the contents 
of a specified memory location to 
Accumulator A than it is to remember 
that BB is the machine language in- 
struction which does this. 

The usual procedure is to use a text 
editor to prepare the assembly 
language "source program" in the 
familiar columnar format. The source 
code is usually saved on tape or disk 
and subsequently read by the 
assembler program and translated into 
machine language. The output of the 
assembler, the "object program," is 
in turn loaded and run to execute the 
program. 

Assemblers frequently require 
multiple passes (readings of the source 
code) to accomplish the translation. 
For example, the first pass might be 
used to construct a symbol table, a 
listing in RAM of user-defined names 
for special memory locations or para- 
meters. The second pass would then 
perform the actual source code trans- 
lation. Some assemblers permit 
"assembly direct to memory," which 
means that the object code could be 
executed at this stage. In other cases, 
the object code must be stored and 
subsequently loaded into RAM to be 
executed. 

Table 1 is a listing of assemblers 
for the Color Computer; the vendor 
codes are explained in Table 4. There 
are several interesting things about 
this tabulation. For one, there is con- 
siderable diversity in price and in the 
minimum system required to support 
the various packages. There is also a 
great diversity in the features offered, 
which I will discuss in a moment. 
Another point: all of these programs 
except EDTASM + , which was 
released too late to be included in 
this review, are the products of inde- 
pendent vendors. 



CIRCLE 164 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




f 



Master Cord 




Star MSke, a tour-de-force of hi-res animation and graphics. 
Yours is a desperate mission— to find and recover the power 
jewels hidden in the maze before your fuel runs out. 

Star Maze features animation effects never seen before on an 
Apple as well as the fine touches that mark it as a Sir-tech 

game M *M 

• huge 18 color multi-directional maze 

• 16 maze levels 

• playable by keyboard, paddles, joystick or joyport 

• high scores saved to disk 
and more . . . aUJorSKJ.95 



Programmed by Gordon Eastman from an original dei 

by Robert Woodhead 

NOW AVAILABLE AT YOUR LOCAL 
COMPUTER AND HOBBY STORE 




COD 



Shipping $2.00 in U.S.: $5.00 outside US 



FTWARE THAT COMPLIMENTS YOUR INTELLIGENCE 

f 6 MAIN STREET 
/ / OGDENSBURG, N.Y. 13669 
7 (315) 393-6633 



CIRCLE 276 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




. . . the PERSONA 
that mirrors yo 

yourow 



urn 



system 



SAWY is a miraculous new 
information handling system. 

SAWY is an automatic database 
management system. 

SAWY is a new level of 
machine intelligence. 

SAWY, part hardware, 
part software, is the 
beginning of truly 
Personal Computing". 



Trademark: SAWY, Robot Programmer: 
Excallbur Technologies Corporation. 

Personal Language: SAWY Marketing 
International. 



Through SAWY, you and your 
computer talk to each other in your 
own natural, conversational 
English (or Spanish, or 

—. ________ French, etc.). 

It learns from you 
what you want 
done in your own 
personal language. 

Once SAWY learns 
your language it 
can create any file 
you wish. Input, 
output, additions, 
changes and 
deletions are 
^ arranged for you. 
YV SAWY's Robot 
j( Programmer" 
„ has been trained 

to write 100% 
of the programs 
needed to manage your 
database information. 

SAWY runs on CP/M™ 
and Apple DOS. 



You II discover that SAWY 
recognizes your personal words, 
even if misspelled, or even if you use 
a phrase never used before! 

SAWY continues to grow through 
use to become better and better at 
understanding your commands. 

Eventually, you will see SAWY as a 
mirror to your own way of thinking 
and working. It is a re-definition of 
"user-friendly". 

SAWY, it's the first system that truly 
means personal computing". 

SAWY is like no other system on 
earth. 

SAWY cost $950. 

Seeing is believing. SAWY is on 
display at selected computer retail 
locations. Call for the name of your 
nearest dealer. 

CP/M is a trademark of Digital 
Research Corp. 

Apple is a Trademark of Apple Computer 
Inc. 

CIRCLE 270 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



100 South Ellsworth Street, 9th Floor, San Mateo, CA 94401 (415) 340-0335 



SAVVY 



Alternatives, continued... 

Let's take a closer look at the table. 
I have tried to indicate which 
assemblers need an additional editor 
for source code preparation, to give 
you a feeling for total system cost. If 
you plan to do a great deal of assembly 
language programming, you may well 
want to investigate those packages 
which include co-resident editors. 
They can save a great deal of tape or 
disk swapping during the early stages 
of program development, when you 
will probably be correcting syntax 
and logic errors. (Or are you in the 
habit of writing perfect code from 
the beginning?) 

As you can see, assemblers come in 
all three program configurations sup- 
ported by the Color Computer 
cassette, disk, and ROM pack. To my 
knowledge, all of them support the 
standard Motorola mnemonic set for 
the 6809. Some offer greater flexibility 
and additional features, however. 

Frequently mentioned in this regard 
are the ability to handle local labels 
and conditional assembly. The former 
refers to labels for variables, etc., 
which are defined only within a 
particular section of a program and 
which can be re-used elsewhere. Con- 
ditional assembly allows different 
versions of a program to be assembled 
starting from the same source code, 
the modifications being dependent on 
parameters defined at assembly time. 
This clearly encourages programmers 
to develop their own libraries of fre- 
quently-used subroutines which can be 
patched together to build complex 
programs. 

What about those entries for 64K 
systems? Conventional wisdom has it 
that Color Computers are limited to 
32K of RAM, but it is well known that 
the Radio Shack 32K modification is 
accomplished with 64K memories, 
jumpers selecting one bank of 32K 
from each chip. Provided that both 
banks are good, a simple wiring 
change allows a re-mapping of the 
memory address space. The Basic 
ROMs are switched out of the circuit, 
and the entire 64K of RAM is made 
available to the user (except for a few 
hundred bytes required for a loader 
program). At this point, other disk 
operating systems can be used, making 
a great deal of software available to 
Color Computer owners. Flex, from 
Technical Systems Consultants, is 
available now, with Microware Sys- 
tems' OS-9 promised for later in the 
year. 

Both assemblers and high level 
languages are available to run under 
these DOSes, which shouldn't hurt the 
popularity of the Color Computer one 
bit. These things don't come for free, 
though, so there should still be a 



market for other language packages 
running under Radio Shack's DOS. 

When should one use assembly 
language? It is frequently claimed that 
assembly programs are blindingly 
fast, perhaps 100 times or so faster 
than Basic. That is not strictly correct. 
It is the machine language output that 
is fast. The object code produced by, 
say, a Fortran compiler, can really zip 
along too. Still, this points us in the 
right direction. 

Where speed is important, such as 
in real-time handling of I/O or 
graphics, assembly language has a lot 

Table I. Color Computer Assemblers. 



going for it. It helps if you can write 
fairly small routines, too. Very long 
programs can be difficult to debug. 
Assembly language generally results in 
"tight" object code, so it can be very 
useful when memory is at a premium. 
It is also easiest to use in situations 
where number-crunching — at least of 
the floating-point variety — can be 
kept to a minimum. 

Now it is time to look at alternative 
high level languages. It also seems 
worthwhile to split up the tabulation: 
Table 2 for products which run on 
unmodified Color Computers, Table 3 



Name 


Minimum 








(and Vendor Code) 


System 


Form 


Price 


Remarks 


Programmers Tool 


16K 


ROM 


$179.95 


Includes monitor, editor, 


Kit (CW) 




+ 
Tape 




assembler, diagnostics, and 
RAM. 


Color assembler l (CW) 32K 


Tape 


29.95 




Color editor J 


32K 


Tape 


29.95 




Disk Macro 


32K 


Disk 


49.95 


Requires editor 


Assembler (CW) 










CO-RES9 (CC) 


16K 


Tape 


39.95 


Co-resident editor and 
assembler 


CCASM9 (CC) 


4K 


Disk 


34.95 


Requires vendor's CCMD+9 
disk operating system 
($159.95), and editor. 


CCEAD (ES) 


16K 


Tape 


6.95 


Editor, assembler, debugger 
(written in Basic). 


Flex Editor and 


64 K 


Disk 


150.00 


Flex operating system plus 


Assembler (HL) 








the editor and assembler. 


Assembler l (HL) 
Editor / 


64 K 


Disk 


50.00 


Require Flex. 


64 K 


Disk 


50.00 




OS-9 Interactive ] 










Assembler I (HL) 64K 


Disk 


125.00 


Require OS-9 operating system 


OS-9 Text Editor 1 


64 K 


Disk 


125.00 




SPS80C (MW) 


16K 


ROM 


89.95 


Editor, assembler, monitor 


Macro-80C (MW) 


16K 


Disk 


99.95 


Three utilities, as above. 


EDTASM (SA) 


16K 


Tape 


34.95 


Editor and assembler. 


EDTASM+ (RS) 


16K 


ROM 


44.95 


Editor, assembler and monitor 


Table 2. High Level Languages for 


Unmodified Color Computers. 


Name 


Minimum 








(and Vendor Code) 


System 


Form 


Price 


Remarks 


Tiny Compiler 


16K 


Disk 


$ 24.95 




Basic (AA) 




or 
Tape 






Color Pascal (CW) 


32K 


Tape 


49.95 


Includes supervisor, editor 


(actually Dynasoft 


32K 


Disk 


59.95 


Requires ASCII text editor 


vl.2) 










Small C Compiler 


I6K 


Disk 


59.95 


Requires assembler package 


(DG) 










Colorforth (AR) 


16k 


Tape 


49.95 


Cassette also contains program 
for use with disk systems 


CCForth (HL) 


— 


Disk 


99.95 




Colorforth (TM) 


4K 


ROM 


110.00 


Disk versions available 



November 1982° Creative Computing 



129 



Alternatives, continued... 

for those requiring 
alternative DOSes. 



one of the 



Other Basics 

Why would anyone want to invest in 
another Basic when such a good one 
comes with the Color Computer? 
Well, remember my recitation of the 
acknowledged sins of Basic: slow 
speed and incompatibility with the 
precepts of structured programming? 
Products which attack both are now 
available. 



Basic09 seems rich 

enough to keep 

anyone busy for 

quite a while. 



Conventional Basic is slow because 
it is an interpreted language; every 
instruction must be decoded anew 
each time it is encountered, even if 
this means decoding the same thing 
hundreds of times within a loop. Com- 
piled languages with machine lan- 
guage object code are much faster, and 
so it would seem worthwhile to pro- 
duce a compiler which accepts Basic 
syntax for the source code. 

What you give up is, of course, the 
immediacy of the programmer-com- 
puter interaction which makes Basic 
programs fairly easy to debug and 



modify. There is always the inter- 
mediate step of source code compila- 
tion to contend with. 

As you might guess from the price 
differentials, the three alternative 
Basics listed in Tables 2 and 3 differ 
considerably in capability. In addi- 
tion, none preserves the advanced 
graphics features of Extended Color 
Basic. 

Aardvark's Tiny Compiler for the 
Radio Shack DOS handles only a 
small subset of Basic commands, and 
restricts the labels which you can 
assign to variables. It produces 
relocatable object code; thus you can 
use it to compile several subroutines 
which can later be called from 
Extended Color Basic by the USRn 
command. The compiler itself is writ- 
ten in Extended Color Basic, and 
occupies about 7.2K of RAM. The 
documentation is very complete, com- 
prising a complete listing and several 
pages of descriptive comments. 

As far as the restrictions are con- 
cerned, I must admit that the Tiny 
Compiler took me back to my first 
encounter with Basic, nearly 15 years 
ago. The IBM version of those days 
(run from a Teletype machine) 
restricted one to a single arithmetic 
command per statement, as does the 
Tiny Compiler. Thus A=B+C+D 
becomes 

10 A=B+C 
20 A=A+D 

This is clearly not the vehicle for 
extensive computation. What might it 
be good for, then? My applications 
have stressed fast sorting routines. 



Table 3. High Level Languages for Alternative Operating Systems. 



r 



Name and Vendor Code 

A/ Basic (HL) 

Basic09 (HL) 

Dynasoft Pascal vl.3 (HL) 

Dynasoft Pascal vl.4 (HL) 

OS-9 Pascal Compiler (HL) 

TSC Pascal (HL) 

Omegasoft Pascal (OM) 

C Compiler (MR) 
C Compiler (WW) 
DGS Flex C V2.0 (DG) 
DGS OS9 CV1.0 (DG) 
X-Forth (HL) 
T-Forth (TM) 
T-Forth+ (TM) 
CIS Cobol Compiler (HL) 



Price Remarks 

$150.00 Flex, OS-9 Versions Available 

200.00 OS-9; from Microware 

59.95 Flex; $89.95 with source code 

69.95 OS-9; $99.95 with source code 

400.00 From Microware; produces assembly 
language source code plus p-code 

200.00 Flex; from Technical Systems 
Consultants 

425.00 Flex, OS-9 versions; assembly 
language output 

400.00 OS-9; Unix version 7 language 

52.50 Flex; upgrade program announced 

120.00 Flex; floating point math, etc. 

95.00 OS-9 

149.95 Flex 

100.00 Flex, Extended Fig-Forth 

250.00 as above, but enhanced 

895.00 OS-9; ANSI 1974 Level 1 Standard 



Even for nested FOR. ..NEXT loops 
(up to nine levels of nesting are 
allowed) the object code of Tiny Com- 
piler is 15-20 times faster than Basic; 
for a single loop, the speed advantage 
is close to 30 times. 

There are numerous syntax restric- 
tions, violations of which are claimed 
to account for most of the errors 
encountered upon compilation. For 
example, variable names are limited 
to a single letter; dimensioned vari- 
ables A(n)...Z(n) may have subscripts 
ranging from to 128, although if you 
use only one dimensioned variable in a 
routine its subscript may range up to 
999. 

Programs destined for compilation 
can first be run with the Basic inter- 

Table 4. 

Vendors of Alternative Languages. 



AA 



AR 



CC 



CW 



DG 



ES 



HL 



MR 



MW 



OM 



RS 



SA 



Aardvark-80 
2352 S. Commerce 
Walled Lake, Ml 48088 

Armadillo International Software 
P.O. Box 7661 
Austin, TX 78712 

Cer-Comp 

5566 Ricochet Ave. 

Las Vegas, NV 89110 

Computerware 
P.O. Box 668 
Encinitas, CA 92024 

Dugger's Growing Systems 

P.O. Box 305 

Solana Beach, CA 92075 

Eigen Systems 
P.O. Box 10234 
Austin, TX 78766 

Frank Hogg Laboratory 
130 Midtown Plaza 
Syracuse, NY 13210 

Microware Systems Corp. 

5835 Grand Ave. 

Des Moines, IA 50312 

Micro Works 
P.O. Box 1110 
Del Mar, CA 92014 

Omegasoft Industrial Products 

Group 

P.O. Box 70265 

Sunnyvale, CA 94086 

Radio Shack 
Tandy Center 
Ft. Worth, TX 



Spectral Associates 
141 Harvard Ave. 
Tacoma, WA 98466 

TM Talbot Microsystems 
1927 Curtis Ave. 
Redondo Beach, CA 90278 

WW Word's Worth 
P.O. Box 28954 
Dallas, TX 75228 



130 



November 1982 • Creative Computing 







1 J 


m 




k 1 ' 




uia3BBI 


1 1 

1 


Ml] 

1 ft 




T iTi| 


Uk 


23 


1 


J A 1 1 1 


SOFTWARE FOR CBM 64 




Hcommodore 

INTERFACES 

ADA-1450 Serial $149 

ADA-1600 Parallel 149 

RS232 cable for Vic or 64.6m ' 30 

Video Audio cable for 64 & monitor 2! 

MONITORS — Great resolution 
for the CBM 64 or VIC 

Panasonic. 16" Color $360 

Amdek Color I 360 

Panasonic. 9" b&w 1T 

BUSINESS SOFTWARE 

Spellmaster Dictionary (great for WordPro 1 ) S199 

OZZ Data Base System (8050) 240 

Silicon Office (database, wp) 995 

Wordcraft 80 289 

VisiCalc (new expanded) 199 

Dow Jones Portfolio Management System (RS232) 120 

WordPro 4 • or 5 • 299 

The Manager 199 

Galaxy One (games) 39 

Legal Time Accounting 425 

I.R.M.A 295 

BPI A R. G L. Job Cost. Inventory. Payroll 325 

SJB carries many other lines of equipment and 
products. Call us for our new fall catalogue. 

MasterCard, Visa, Money Order, Bank Check 

COD (add $5) accepted. 

Add 3% surcharge for credit cards 

In stock items shipped within 48 hours. FOB.. Dallas. TX 

All products shipped with manufacturers warranty 

TO ORDER CALL TOLL FREE 
800-527-4893 800-442-1048 w hn Texas) 



S199 
240 

995 (New) 
289 
199 
120 
299 
199 
39 
425 
295 
325 pkg 



SJB will meet any competitive price under 
similar in-stock conditions. > 

SJB DISTRIBUTORS, INC. a 

10520 Piano Road. Suite 206 ^ 
Dallas. Texas 75238 
(214) 343-1328 

Prices are subject to change without notice. 



Word Processing $80 

Computer Tutoring Game 50 

CBM EasyCalc (for the 64) call 

CBM EasyFinance call 

CBM EasyPlot call 

CBM EasyScan (appointment manager) call 

RS232 Interface, (modems, printers) 40 

VIC PRODUCTS 

VIC 20 Computer, 5K $239 

Vic Datasette Recorder 65 

Vic 1540 Disk Drive 467 

VIC MODEM (for CBM 64) 100 

VIC 1515 Graphic Printer (for CBM 64) 325 

8K Memory Expansion Cartridge 49 

16K RAM 95 

24K RAM 149 

IEEE Interface 80 

VIC Games 

Gorf (great arcade game) $39 

Omega Race 39 

Midnight Drive 23 

Avenger 23 

Super Alien 23 

Poker 23 

Superlander 23 

Vic Super Expander 55 

Vic Intro to Basic 21 

Vic Cassette Recreation Pack 46 

Vic Cassette Home Finance Pack 46 



buttons! Great for the VIC or 64 

SuperPET (5 languages. 2 processors) 

CBM 8032 Computer. 80 column 

CBM Memory Expansion. 64K 

PET 4032.40 Column 

CBM 8050. 1Mg Dual Drive 

CBM 8250. 2Mg. Dual Drive 

CBM D9060.5 Mg Hard Disk 

CBM D9090.7 5 Mg. Hard Disk 

CBM 4040. 340K Dual Drive 

CBM 2031. 170K Single Drive 

PRINTERS — LETTER QUALITY 

CBM 8300 40cps 

Diablo 620.25cps 

Nee Spmwnter 7700.55cps 

Nee Spmwnter 3500.35cps 

PRINTERS — DOT MATRIX 

CBM 4022. 80cps graphics 

CBM 8023.150 cps graphics 

Okidata 82A.120cps serial or par 

Nee 8023A(parallel) 



CIRCLE 271 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Alternatives, continued... 

preter and debugged in the usual way. 
When the source code is "clean," the 
Tiny Compiler can be invoked to 
generate object code. At this point the 
user may specify a choice of loading 
address, or use the compiler default. 
When compilation is complete the new 
code can be saved or run immediately. 

The Tiny Compiler provides an 
interesting, if specialized, tool for 
owners of stock Color Computers. 
Upgrading to Flex or OS-9 makes 
more versatile languages available. For 
example, A/ Basic features compre- 
hensive string-handling functions and 
is claimed to compile to very efficient 
machine code, while retaining familiar 
Basic source code syntax. It benefits 
from several years' worth of experi- 
ence with a similar language which 
runs on 6800 systems. 

Microware's Basic09 is a different 
sort of beast. It incorporates many 
structured programming concepts, 
and bears more than a superficial 
resemblance to Pascal. Like most ver- 
sions of Pascal, Basic09 compiles not 
to machine language, but to a stan- 
dardized intermediate language which 
is later run under its own interpreter. 
The general idea is that the interpreter 
for the intermediate version (called 
1-code for Basic09, P-code for Pascal) 
can be a relatively simple affair. The 
compiler which generates the inter- 
mediate code is fairly complex, but can 
be made to run on a variety of 
machines — i.e. it, and the source 
code, can be portable. 

In practice, portability is often com- 
promised to capitalize on particular 
features of a given computer. 

In any case, we are concerned with 
one language for one machine, and 
Basic09 seems rich enough to keep 




anyone busy for quite a while. While 
much of its syntax resembles that of 
other Basics, it features a wealth of 
modular programming features. 

For example, program modules 
called procedures replace subroutines. 
Procedures can call one another, by 
name, from libraries built by the 
individual user. The concept of data 
typing is emphasized; Besides integers 
and real (floating point) numbers 
and strings, Basic09 permits the pro- 
grammer to define Boolean and byte 
variables, as well as arbitrary com- 
binations of elementary types. 



With Pascal, as with 
the alternative Basic 

dialects, the color 

computer owner has 

options. 






"Our home computer has become just like one of 
the family!" 



Basic09 supports new looping struc- 
tures (WHILE— DO, REPEAT— 
UNTIL, and LOOP— ENDLOOP) in 
addition to FOR. ..NEXT. Coupled 
with the lack of line numbers and 
indented line format, these lend a 
definite Pascal-like look to Basic09 
source code. 

In addition to the I-code compiler 
and the run-time interpreter, the 
Basic09 package includes several fea- 
tures which speed the programming 
process. The source code editor is part 
of the compiler, for example, and the 
syntax of each source line is checked 
as it is entered. This means that 
"mechanical" errors can be found and 
corrected before time is wasted in 
attempting to compile an entire pro- 
gram. There is also a run-time debug- 
ger which helps in getting programs 
with more subtle logical flaws up and 
running properly. 

Pascal 

Basic09 may resemble Pascal, but 
don't think that is as close as the Color 
Computer can get. Several packages 
for the real thing are available for all 
Color Computer configurations. 

Pascal is, of course, the very success- 
ful block-structured language devel- 
oped in the late sixties by Professor 
Niklaus Wirth at the Swiss Federal 
Technical Institute. His stated purpose 
was to create a language suitable for 
teaching his concepts of disciplined, 
structured programming. He clearly 
succeeded. 

Pascal has been widely imple- 
mented, and has influenced much sub- 
sequent work in the study of pro- 

132 



gramming languages. It is not hard to 
learn, but don't be misled; to make 
the most effective use of Pascal, the 
average Basic programmer must 
change the way he approaches, and 
even thinks about, a programming 
task. This is well recognized, and 
several books specifically aimed at 
converting Basic programmers to 
Pascal have recently been published. 
Let me assume that you are suf- 
ficiently curious and motivated, then, 
and go on to discuss some of the soft- 
ware. 

I was introduced to Pascal by 
Computerware's old, l6K-Plus-Power 
Pack version of Color Pascal, which 
has now been replaced by a pair of 
packages for 32K machines. I under- 
stand that the new cassette version 
resembles the one from which I 
learned. It includes a general control 
program called the Supervisor, 
together with an Editor and some 
monitor routines. 

The Supervisor is used to control 
compilation and the loading and 
saving of both source and P-code 
programs. The disk system requires an 
external editor, capable of pro- 
ducing ASCII files, for source code 
preparation. It comprises a compiler 
and a run-time package which must be 
loaded separately at the appropriate 
times. 

A copy of the source program 
should be made before attempting 
compilation, since this destroys the 
source — the only thing that can be 
edited if errors are found. It is also 
worthwhile to generate a printer listing 
of the compilation to keep track of 
errors, since there is no way to scroW 
back through a long screen listing. 
Error messages are generated as 
compilation proceeds. It is character- 
istic of Pascal that a syntax error early 
in a program may generate a large 
number of apparent errors later on, 
which magically disappear when the 
original offender is repaired. 

I have gone on at some length about 
this to give you a feeling for the way 
you must be prepared to shuttle back 
and forth between programming tools 
(Editor, Supervisor, etc.) in a small 
system. 

Of course, memory size imposes 
other restrictions. In the old version, 
at least, Color Pascal was a fairly 
limited subset of the language. It 
incorporated most of the standard 
control and decision structures 
(BEGIN — UNTIL, IF— THEN — 
ELSE, CASE, REPEAT— WHILE— 
UNTIL), but omitted some advanced 
data structures and floating-point 
arithmetic. 

The 32K versions are somewhat 
more sophisticated in their handling 
of 1/ O, and the added memory lets the 

November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



NEW LOW-COST 



zd£ 



-TTTT 




*t<r*^ 




B 







3^-^LS^c 



fes* 







originals 



The Model DXY is an economical multi-pen, X-Y coordinate 
plotter that produces hard copy graphics in minutes for all 
types of business applications and technical disciplines. 
Priced at under $1 000, it's compatible with the IBM, Apple 
and other personal computers. It has built-in software 
(expandable ROM) to interpret "Basic" commands. Just 
call, or write for complete specifications on the Model DXY 
Plotter. Ideal for end-user or OEM applications. 



1 " x 1 4 " effective plotting range. 

Centronics interface for easy connection to 
your computer. 

Pens, penholders, chart hold-downs, and dust 
cover are included. 

Charts on popular graphics media including vellum 
and mylar. 



2201 Lively Blvd. • Elk Grove Village, IL 60007 
(312) 364-1 180 TLX: 25-4786 



Amdek . . . your guide to innovative computing! 

CIRCLE 107 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Alternatives, continued... 

user be more relaxed about having to 
write and store floating-point math 
packages and personalized library 
procedures. 

Dynasoft, the Nova Scotia firm 
which produced the original Color 
Pascal, has also created much more 
potent versions which run under Flex 
and OS-9. These feature advanced file- 
handling capabilities, floating-point 
math, and so on. Microware's OS-9 
Pascal Compiler can produce two 
forms of output: P-code, for execution 
in an interpretive mode, and 6809 
assembly language. The latter can then 
be compiled and run in the usual way, 
for maximum speed. 

This brings up a good point: Pascal 
itself is not exceptionally fast. Since 
most P-code is run as an interpreted 
language, it is not uncommon to see 
only modest speed improvements 
(three to five times) over Basic. Of 



course, the straightforward structure 
imposed by Pascal may result in addi- 
tional improvements because of the 
elimination of convoluted program 
branches. 

The Microware compiler also fea- 
tures a form of virtual memory man- 
agement, permitting the user to run 
larger programs that might seem 
feasible for a 48 K machine (remem- 
ber, 48 K is what is left when OS-9 or 
Flex is used with a 64K machine). 

Omegasoft's single-pass compiler 
also features assembly language out- 
put. It is part of a rather complete 
system of programming tools, includ- 
ing a symbolic debugger, run-time 
library, and file-handling utilities. 

With Pascal, as with the alternative 
Basic dialects, the Color Computer 
owner has options. You can get a fairly 
inexpensive package that allows you 
to try out another language on a stock 



computer, or you can take the plunge 
and modify your machine for one of 
the advanced operating systems. 

The C Language 

C is a structured high level language, 
developed at Bell Laboratories in the 
early seventies, which has received a 
great deal of attention as the Primary 
language of Bell's Unix operating sys- 
tem. Unix is probably most commonly 
used for text manipulation, but C 
should be thought of as a fairly com- 
pact, general purpose language. In its 
full implementations, it supports mpst 
of the data structures, control capa- 
bilities, and data typing which char- 
acterize modern thinking of language 
design. Once again, Color Computer 
people can choose among C packages 
of various prices and capabilities. 

Although there is a certain family 
resemblance between the source code 




80 Columns 

for the 
ATARI® 800 



The FULL-VIEW 80 

Display Card combines the best 
of two worlds — 80-column 
capability with normal ATARI 
40-column/graphics mode. 
80-column mode provides upper 
and lower case characters with 
full descenders. 



Add the 32K MEMORY PLUS 

with the FULL-VIEW 80 to 
achieve a 48K, 80-column 
system. The 32K 
MEMORY PLUS card 
operates with both the 
ATARI 400 and 
ATARI 800 



FULL-VIEW 80- 

80 x 24 display for the 
APPLE II and 
APPLE II PLUS 
supplies upper 
and lower case 
with full descenders, 
line drawing graphics, 
and shift key detector 
for typewriter-like 
operation. 





APPLE 



© 



Contact your 

ATARI or 

APPLE dealer 

orBiT3 

for more 

information. 



ATARI 



The ATARI 
FULL-VIEW 80 and 
32K MEMORY PLUS 
join the family of 
APPLE products 
currently available 
from BiT3 




DUAL-COMM PLUS 

Two independent serial I/O ports 
for the APPLE II combines 
features of APPLE High Speed 
Serial Card and APPLE Communi- 
cations Card in one card. 
Baud rates range from 
50 to 19 f 200. 
Great with the FULL- 
VIEW 80 and a modem. 



MEMORY PLUS- 

16K addition to increase 
your48K APPLE to 64K. 



ATARI PRODUCTS: 

Full-View 80 
32K Memory Plus 

APPLE PRODUCTS: 

Full-View 80 
Dual-Comm Plus 
Memory Plus 



$349.00 
$179.00 



$295.00 
$239.00 
$149.00 



ATARI is a registered trademark of ATARI, Inc.; 
FULL-VIEW 80 and MEMORY PLUS are registered 
trademarks of BIT 3; APPLE II is a registered trade- 
mark of Apple Computer, Inc. 



■IIBir3»M 




COMPUTER CORPORATION 



8120 Penn Avenue South, Suite 548 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55431 
(612)881-6955 

CIRCLE 123 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



VISA' 



THE BEST GETS 



Available NOW! 
ComboPlus with 
Real-Time-Clock 

as shown Model MR-128SP 




Fully field upgradeable 

64K-256K Parity Checked Memory 

Parallel Printer Port (IBM compatible) 

Real-Time-Clock (MS-DOS support standard, CPM/86 support available) 

Async Com. Port (IBM compatible) 

Other products available for IBM PC: 1) 2780/3780 Bisync Emulation package; 2) Advance Com. card - Async, Bisync, 
SDLC, HDLC; 3) Expansion parity memory - 64K-256K; 4) Disk++ (memory, Async & disk host adaptor; 5) Original Memory 
Combo; 6) Async Communication Card - (1 or 2 ports); 7) Wire Wrap Card (13.1" X 4"); 8) Extender Card. 
Ask for AST products at your local Computerland stores. 



^B 



Ses us at Comdex, Nov 29-Dec 2, Booth 584 & 586. 



R€S€RRCH INC. 

2691 Richter Ave., Suite 104, Irvine, CA 92714 (714) 540-1333 

CIRCLE 114 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



master charge 




Dealer inquires welcome. 



try out the in-stock selection of Heath/ 
Zenith microcomputers, peripherals, 
accessories and software. 

Now available at your nearby Heathkit 
Electronic Center, or through the Heathkit 
mail order catalog. 

You get more with a Heath/Zenith per- 
sonal microcomputer system! We offer: 

I.Proven high-performance hardware: 

Thousands of our microcomputers prove 
themselves daily, in the field. 



2. Vast software library: Three operating 
systems (including CP/M), languages, word 
processors, an electronic spreadsheet, ver- 
satile utilities and the 500-program Heath 
Users' Group software library. 

3. Self-instruction courses: Evaluation 
and programming courses from Heathkit/ 
Zenith Educational Systems. 

4. Service support: Before and after the 
sale - consultation by phone, carry-in 
service by trained technicians. 



Test run one of our microcomputers 
at any of the more than 60 convenient 
Heathkit Electronic Centers in the U.S. 



FSEff 




ELECTROMIC CENTERS 

See the white pages of your telephone book (*f\\\ 
for store locations and telephone numbers. LU-^-jr 



Units of Ventechnology Electronics Corporation in the U.S. 



ill 



CP-211 



I 






- Jtssm 



•/ *"• w f+'«t .*■// 



a 


*** 
t 


5' 


? 


H 


S 




i 


i. 


• 

1 


1 




A 


% 




• 


i 

• 


i 

• 
i 


» 




' 


1 




H 






/ 






J 



/ 




Alternatives, continued... 

listings of programs written in Pascal 
and those written in C, head-to-head 
comparisons between the two lan- 
guages are not easy to make. For 
example, the two differ as to which 
features are included in the languages 
themselves and which must be pro- 
vided by the programming environ- 
ment. 

The best-known example is input/ 
output. The original specification of 
Pascal includes I/O considerations, 
but; in C, I/O chores are handled by 
standard library routines. (Even the 

least expensive C package for the 
Color Computer includes some really 
useful routines, however, capable of 
handling either single characters or 
fully formatted strings.) 

In general, it is probably correct to 
say that Pascal is a relatively tightly- 
structured language designed to 
improve program reliability, while C 
has been made more "forgiving" to 
encourage a wider variety of applica- 
tions. A recent review paper in the 
professional literature concluded that 
C is the better of the two languages 
for writing operating systems and 
system utilities, while Pascal is some- 
what better suited for business pro- 
gramming. 

Now let's look at what is available 
for the Color Computer. Small C 
Compiler, from Dugger's Growing 
Systems, for stock machines (16K or 
larger) requires an ASCII editor to 
create source code and an assembler to 
handle its own output. Assembled C 
programs can be called from Basic. 
The package lacks floating point math 
and some of the advanced data typing 
features of full-fledged C, but then it is 
still evolving — Dugger's promises 
future program enhancements, with 
maintenance by newsletter as war- 
ranted. 

The manual is quite good, giving 
numerous illustrations of correct C 
syntax and pointing out the few sub- 
stitutions necessary to handle the 
language with the limited character 
set of the Color Computer. 

Dugger's Flex system, on the other 
hand, does include floating point and 
long (24-bit) numbers, as well as 
additional control features. The OS-9 
version seems to be similar to the 
Small C Compiler, but adapted to the 
creation of program modules which 
can be linked, loaded, and run in the 
multi-tasking environment for which 
the operating system was created. 

Microware's OS-9 version of C will 
be much more elaborate: a full 
implementation of the Unix Version 7 
standard. It is not available as of this 
writing, but release is promised for the 
near future. The final entry, Flex9 
from Word^s Worth, is modestly 



priced and seems to offer a subset of 
the language. A specific program of 
upgrades through Versions 2.0 and 3.0 
has been announced, although prices 
have not been set. 

You can see, then, that the C situa- 
tion is fairly fluid. Operators of each 
of the three Color Computer DOSes 
can obtain a limited-capability C, and 
Flex and OS-9 users, at least, can 



Forth requires a fair 
degree of attention 
to detail on the part 
of the programmer. 



look forward to a much more capable 
system in the near future. That is 
probably not too bad a situation for 
this relatively new kid on the block. 

Forth 

Forth is very different in appearance 
and intent from Basic, Pascal, and C. 
It is a relatively small language of 
surprising power and great flexibility. 
Although most versions start with a 
well standardized set of dictionary 
entries (analogous to commands), the 
programmer is encouraged to expand 
the language to fit his needs. 

Forth requires a fair degree of atten- 
tion to detail on the part of the pro- 
grammer — less than assembly lan- 
guage, but certainly more than the 
other high level languages I have been 
discussing. Its syntax can be rather 
involved, even comical. 

My favorite example of a perfectly 
legitimate Forth statement (definition, 
actually) is 

:?<§>.; 

Get the idea? Forth also has some of 
the most knowledgeable, enthusiastic, 
and opinionated adherents I have ever 
met — a characteristic it shares with 
APL, another language of consider- 
able power and non-obvious syntax. 
A final characteristic of Forth is that 
its literature is full of awful titles: one 
Sets Forth, Goes Forth, Starts Forth, 
Ventures Forth, and so on. 

What is the language all about? A 
few facts are easy to set down: Forth 
was invented by Charles Moore (who 
still heads a firm called Forth, Inc.), 
it has attracted quite a following 
among designers of computer- 
controlled instrumentation and 
machinery, and it can be used to sup- 
port most computer applications. 
Forth experts will tell you that it isn't 
just a language, but a complete 



environment — an integrated set of 
programming tools. 

Programming in Forth has its own 
flavor. You begin with a relatively 
standardized dictionary of approx- 
imately 150 high-level words. These 
are actually calls to lower-level sub- 
routines, which may themselves con- 
tain additional calls. 

Eventually the chain terminates 
with machine language code. How- 
ever, the programmer is usually con- 
cerned with building up, away from 
the primitive definitions. The process 
is one of using the dictionary to define 
additional words which perform part 
of the task at hand. The last word 
defined is usually of such scope that 
when called, it executes the entire pro- 
gram. Some or all of the words defined 
in the programming process may be 
added to the dictionary for future use. 
I will later give some examples of 
interest to Color Computer users. 

Forth is called a "threaded inter- 
pretive language," because of the 
"thread" of subroutine addresses lead- 
ing from final definition down to 
machine code. To confuse matters a 
bit, though, there are both interpreter 
and compiler aspects to the language. 

It relies heavily on manipulation of 
the parameter stack (a portion of 
RAM in which data are stored in last- 
in, first-out fashion) to pass operands 
and data from one word to another. 
Variables and constants can also be 
named, however, just as in other high 
level languages. 

The user is responsible for keeping 
careful track of where items are on 
the stack. The explicit use of the stack 
also makes it reasonable for Forth to 
employ Reverse Polish Notation, in 
which mathematical or logical opera- 
tions follow the operands to which 
they apply. The whole scheme is one 
which will be familiar to users of 
Hewlett-Packard Pocket calculators. 

For an elementary example, here 
is how one might define a new word, 
CLEAR, to clear the CRT screen to a 
blank green field — just like the CLS 
command in the Color Basics. The 
definition will employ FILL, a word in 
the stock dictionary. 

In accordance with Forth rules, the 
definition is begun with a colon and 
ends with a semicolon. 

: CLEAR 1024 512 143 FILL ; 

According to the syntax established 
for FILL, this instructs the computer 
to begin at address 1024 and load the 
next 512 locations with what Color 
Basic would call CHR$(13), a solid 
green block. Color Computer owners 
will, I hope, recognize 1024 as the 
address of the upper left corner of the 
low-resolution screen. Once CLEAR 
has been entered, it may be called by 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



137 



Alternatives, continued... 

name from any Forth program. 

Forth makes it easy to gain control 
over such things as I/O, for which 
the Color Computer requires the 
setting of specific bits in the data at 
particular locations. This is the 
technique used to control the A/D 
converter and the sound generator, for 
instance. 

At the same time, the language 
possesses a fair complement of con- 
trol and decision structures, such as 
DO loops and IF — THEN and 
BEGIN — UNTIL constructs. Some 
versions have fairly extensive facilities 
for handling strings, as well. In other 
cases these must be defined by the 
user and added to a customized 
dictionary. 

The nature of Forth is such that a 
16K or 32K computer can support a 
fairly powerful version its 

extensible nature helps a great deal, of 
course. Even the inexpensive Color- 
forth package from Armadillo Soft- 
ware gives you a generous slice to work 
with. Its main deficiencies seem to lie 
in the manipulation of double-length 
(32-bit) integers, a fairly standard 
feature of other Forths, and strings. 

What one gains with the more 
elaborate packages seems to be 
enhanced text-handling capability and 
a more elaborate set of editing and 



compilation tools, plus of course the 
ability to write larger programs. 

Cobol 

I came to computing by the scientific 
computation route (Fortran and all 
that), and was taught that Cobol was 
a big, wordy, clumsy language. The 
fact that it has been for many years 
the most widely-known of all high 
level languages wasn't supposed to 
count, I guess. Anyway, it, too, is 
available. 



/ want people to take 
the machine seriously. 



CIS Cobol Compiler from Micro- 
ware is a 6809 version said to be 
compatible with CP/M applications 
software and the ANSI 1974 Level 
One Standard. It carries a pretty stiff 
price, but may just make it possible to 
put together a Color Computer based 
system capable of handling the com- 
puting chores for a small business in a 
professional fashion. For applications 
like this, the total system price should 
be fairly attractive. 



Final Thoughts 

In this review, I have tried to present 
as complete a picture as possible of 
the alternatives to Color Basic. I hope 
that you don't conclude from this that 
I am anti-Radio Shack or anti- 
Microsoft. On the contrary, I think 
that the Color Computer represents 
a remarkable value, and I enjoy using 
Extended Color Basic for much of 
my own work. 

1 want people to take the machine 
seriously, however, and I think it is 
worthwhile to spread the word about 
products and tools which enhance its 
capabilities. Many of the language 
packages discussed here fall into this 
category. 

To be sure, some of the material 
for the stock machine cannot do much 
more than whet the appetite for a 
more elaborate version of a given 
language. That tends to be the result of 
limited memory si/e, although some of 
these products may also have suffered 
from an author's haste to get to the 
marketplace. 

In any event, the availability of 
the Flex and OS-9 operating systems, 
with the concomitant expansion of 
user RAM to 48K, certainly opens the 
way for even more powerful and flex- 
ible software for the Color Computer. 

□ 



INTRODUCING 



WATSON 

Teamed up inside 

your Apple, Watson 
adds new features 

that give you complete 

access to everything you eve? 

wanted to know about memory 

and disks. Recover blown disks, 
fix catalog entries, display and delete 
control characters, repair bad data files even 

on disks with non-normal DOS. Search forward and 



Now The Inspector 

HAS \U ASSISTANT 




Eprom or disk versions are alwaysat 
'"/ your fingertips Watson (requires The 
inspector). $49-95. The Inspector. 
$59. 95 At your local dealer or direct 
MasterCard and Visa holders order 
toll-free, or return the coupon 

1-800-835-2246 



OA/W> 



backwards in memory, edit in HEX, ASCII, NEGATIVE ASCII 
and LOWER CASE. Scan disks forward and backwards, follow files 
forward and backwards in track/ sector list on either 13- or 16-sector 
disks. Lockout sectors on Track Bit Map, reconstruct YTOC, find and display all 
Track/ Sector Lists, display map of Sectors used on disk, read Nibbles track-by-track. 
Disassemble with ASCII displayed, kill inverse and flashing characters, verify and compare disks and display 
differences, read and write directly to disks. Alter DOS to display control characters in inverse, and dump the 
screen to a printer with a CTRL-Z. even from within BASIC. There's more but we're running out of space. 
Oh well, you get the idea. 






Send me 
□ The Inspector @ $59 95 
Q Watson @ $49.95 
Check or money order enclosed. 
System description: 
Apple II □ Apple II + □ Integer Card □ 16K Ram Card □ 



OAAEGA AAJCROWARE, INC 

222 So. Riverside Plaza 

Chicago, IL 60606 

312-648-4844 



name 



t "B 



II 
II 
El 
I 



address 



cil\ 



c 
o. 



sutr /.ip 



CIRCLE 235 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Printer & Disk 



Dot Matrix Printers 



NEW EPSONS with GRAFTRAX-plus 

Epson has improved and upgraded their best selling line of 
printers to include their new GRAFTRAX-plus graphics 
package Features now include. 9x9 matrix, bi- 
directional/logic seeking, line spacing to n/216. 
programmable forms length and horizontal tabs, skip over 
pert, italics fonts, international symbols, 
superscript/subscript, normal, emphasized, double-strike, 
and double- emphasized print, underlining, line drawing 
graphics. 60 120 DPI bit image, software reset, adjustable 
right margin, and true back space 

MX-80 with GRAFTRAX-plus 80 132 column. 80 CPS. 

adjustable pm feed, parallel interface 

PRM-28080 MX-80 w GRAFTRAX-plus $479.95 

MX-80FT with GRAFTRAX-plus same as MX-80 with 

friction feed and pm feed 

PR M- 28082 MX-80FT w GRAFTRAX-plus $559.95 

MX- 100 with GRAFTRAX-plus 132 232 column, 
correspondence quality, up to 15" paper, friction feed & 
adjustable pm feed. 18 x 18 dot matrix. 80 CPS 
PRM-28100 MX-100 w GRAFTRAX-plus $754.95 

PRA-27084 Serial interface $54.95 

PRA-27088 Serial mtf & 2K buffer $99.95 

PRA-27081 Apple card $39.95 

PRA-27082 Apple cable $19.95 

PRA-27086 IEEE 488 card $59.95 

PRA-27087 TRS-80 cable $24.95 

PRA-27097 GRAFTRAX-plus MX-80. FT $59.95 

PRA-27197 GRAFTRAX-plus MX-100 $64.95 

PRA-27090 MX-80. FT print head $44.95 

PRA-27190 MX-100 print head $49.95 

PRA-27083 MX-80 ribbon cart $13.95 

PRA-27101 MX- 100 ribbon only $9.95 

BETTER THAN EPSON ! - Okidata 

Mlcrollne 82A 80 132 column. 120 CPS. 9 x 9 dot matrix, 
friction feed, pin feed, adjustable tractor feed (optional), 
handles 4 part forms up to 9 5" wide, rear & bottom feed, 
paper tear bar. 100% duty cycle/200.000.000 character print 
head, bi-directional logic seeking, both serial 6 parallel 
Interfaces Included, front panel switch & program control of 
10 different form lengths, uses inexpensive spool type 
ribbons, double width & condensed characters, true lower 
case descenders & graphics 
PRM-43082 Friction & pm feed $499.95 

Mlcrollne 83A 132 232 column. 120 CPS. forms up to 75" 
wide, removable tractor, plus all the features of the 82A 
PRM-43083 with FREE tractor $744.95 

Mlcrollne 84 132 232 column. Hi-speed 200 CPS. full dot 
graphics built in. plus all the features of the 83A 

PRM-43084 Centronics parallel $1149.95 

PRM-43085 Serial with 2K buffer $1249.95 

PRA-27081 Apple card $39.95 

PRA-27082 Apple cable $19.95 

PRA-27087 TRS-80 cable $24.95 

PRA-43081 2K hi speed serial card $99.95 

PRA-43082 Hi-res graphics ROMs 82A $49.95 

PRA-43083 Hi-graphics ROMs 83A $49.95 

PRA-43088 Tractor option for 82 A $49.95 

PRA-43080 Extra ribbons pkg of 2 $9.95 

8023 DOT MATRIX - NEC 

100 CPS. proportional spacing, hi-resolution graphics, 
correspondence quality printing, bi-directional tractor & 
friction feed 

NEC-8023A 8023 parallel $499.95 

NEC-8023-01 8023 ribbon $11.95 

PRINTER PALS - F.M.J. Inc. 

Desk top printer stand and continuous form paper holder 
PRA-99080 for MX-80. MX-80FT. Oki 82A. NEC . . $29.95 

PRA-99100 for MX- 100. Oki 83A & 84 $34.95 

PRA-99700 for letter quality printers $49.95 



Jade Bus Probe 



THE BUS PROBE - Jade 

Inexpensive S-100 Diagnostic Analyzer 

Double-high S-100 board which displays all 96 IEEE S-100 
signals without the expense of an ocilloscope or a front panel 

TSX-200B Bare board $59.95 

TSX-200K Kit $119.95 

TSX-200A A&T $149.95 



Dual Disk Sub-Systems 



Disk Sub-Systems - Jade 

Handsome metal cabinet with proportionally balanced air 
flow system, rugged dual drive power supply, power cable 
kit. power switch, line cord, fuse holder, cooling fan. never 
mar rubber feet, all necessary hardware to mount 2-8" disk 
drives, power supply, and fan. does not include signal cable 

Dual 8" Sub-Assembly Cabinet 

END-000420 Bare cabinet $59.95 

END 000421 Cabinet kit $225.00 

END-000431 A&T $359.95 

8 Sub-Systems • Single Sided, Double Density 

END-000423 Kit w/2 FD100-8Ds $975.00 

END-000424 A & T w/2 FD100-8Ds $1175.00 

END-000433 Kit w/2 SA-801Rs $999.95 

END-000434 A & T w/2 SA-801RS $1195.00 

8 Sub-Systems - Double Sided, Double Density 

END-000426 Kit w/2 DT-8s $1224.95 

END-000427 A & T w/2 DT-8s $1424.95 

END-000436 Kit w/2 SA-851Rs $1274.95 

END-000437 A & T w/2 SA-851Rs $1474.95 



5%" Disk Drives 



Tendon TM100-1 single-sided double-density 48 TPI 
MSM-551001 $248 95 ea 2 for $219.95 ea 

Shugert SA400L single-sided double-density 40 track 
MSM-104000 $234 95 ea 2 for $224.95 ea 

Shugert SA455 half-size double-sided 48 TPI 

MSM 104550 $349 95 ea 2 for $329.95 ea 

Shugert SA465 half-size doule-sided 96 TPI 
MSM-104650 $399 95 ea 2 for $379.95 ea 

Tendon TM100-2 double-sided double-density 48 TPI 
MSM-551002 $324 95 ea 2 for $298.95 •• 

Shugert SA450 double-sided double-density 35 track 
MSM 104500 $349 95 ea 2 for $329.95 ea 

Tendon TM100-3 single-sided double-density 96 TPI 
MSM-551003 $324 95 ea 2 for $298.95 ea 

Tendon TM100-4 double-sided double-density 96 TPI 
MSM-551004 $448 95 ea 2 for $419.95 ea 

MPI B-51 single-sided double-density 40 track 

MSM 155100 $234 95 ea 2 for $224.95 ea 

MPI B-52 double-sided double-density 40 track 

MSM 155200 $344 95 ea 2 for $334.95 ea 

MPI B-91 single-sided double-density 77 track 

MSM- 155300 $369 95 ea 2 for $359.95 ea 

MPI B-92 double-sided double-density 77 track 

MSM 155400 $469 95 ea 2 for $459.95 ea 

5%" Ceblnets with Power Supply 

END-000216 Single cab w I power supply $69.95 

END-000226 Dual cab w /power supply $94.95 



8" Disk 



Shugert SA810 half-size single-sided double-density 
MSF 108100 $424 95 ea 2 for $394.95 ea 

Shugert SA860 half-size double-sided double-density 
MSF 108600 $574 95 ea 2 for $549.95 ea 

Shugert SA801R single- sided double-density 
MSF-10801R $394 95 ea 2 for $389.95 ea 

Shugert SA8S1R double-sided double-density 

MSF 10851 R $554 95 ea 2 for $529.95 ea 

Tendon TM848-1 single-sided double-den thin-line 
MSF 558481 $424 95 ea 2 for $394.95 ea 

Tendon TM848-2 double-sided double-den thm-lme 
MSF 558482 $574 95 ea 2 for $549.95 ea 

Qume DT-8 double-sided double-density 

MSF 750080 $524 95 ea 2 for $498.95 ea 

Mitsubishi M2894-63 double-sided double-density 
MSF 289463 $549 95 ea 2 for $524.95 ea 

Siemens FDD 100-8 single-sided double-density 
MSF-201120 $334 95ea 2 for $349.95 ea 

Prices may be slightly higher at our retail locations. Please 
contact the store In your area tor exact pricing. 



Hard Disk Drives 



12 MEGABYTE SUB-SYSTEM - DayStar 

12 Megabyte Winchester sub-system for most CPM based 
microcomputers including Apple II. S-100. IBM PC. NEC. 
Xerox. TRS-80 II. Heath hi-89. and others. Sub-system 
includes interface, controller, cabinet, power supply. CP/M 
software patch. & cables - ready to iust plug in and run. A 1 
Megabyte back-up drive is also available 

MSH-531010 S-100 sub-system $2095.00 

MSH-531020 Apple II sub-system $2095.00 

MSH-531030 NEC sub-system $2095.00 

MSH-531040 Xerox sub-system $2095.00 

MSH-531050 TRS-80 II sub-system $2095.00 

MSH-531060 IBM PC sub-system $2095.00 

MSH-531099 1 Megabyte back-up $699.95 

12 MEGABYTE WINCHESTER - Tandon 

5y 4 " hard disk drive for hi-speed mass storage. 
MSH-550603 Bare 5%" drive $1094.95 



Letter Quality Printers 



TP-1 LETTER QUALITY - SCM 

10 CPS daisy wheel printer from Smith Corona 

PRD-45101 Centronics parallel $699.95 

PRD-45102 RS-232C serial $749.95 

LETTER QUALITY PRINTER - Jade 

Uses standard daisy wheels and ribbon cartridges. 16 CPS 
bi-directional printing, semi-automatic paper loader (single 
sheet or fan fold). 10/12/15 pitch, up to 16" paper, built-in 
noise suppression cover 

PRD-11001 Centronics parallel $959.95 

PRD-11002 RS-232C serial model $999.95 

STARWRITER F-10 - C. Hon 

New 40 CPS daisy wheel printer with full 15" carriage, uses 
standard Diablo print wheels and ribbons, both parallel and 
serial interfaces included 
PRO-22010 Starwriter F-10 $1495.95 

80 CPS LETTER QUALITY - Fujitsu 

High speed daisy wheel printer with both RS-232C serial & 
Centronics parallel interfaces, emulates NEC 5510. Diablo 
630. Qume. and will interface to the IBM Personal Computer, 
features include Z-80 CPU. 16K buffer (48K optional), bi- 
directional printing. & baud rates up to 192K 

PRD-86100 Fuiitsu with 16K $2895.00 

PRD-86200 Fu/itsu with 48K $3195.00 

PR A 86000 Adjustable tractor $190.00 



Software 



PLANNER CALC - Target Software 

Spread sheet (what if ?) program designed with the user in 
mind, user oriented (simple enghsh) commands allow you to 
quickly master this powerful software package, supplied on 
disk for most CP/M based systems 

SFA-12251052M Apple II 5%" CPM $49.95 

SFC-12251050F SS SD 8" CP/M $49.95 

SFC-12251053F Xerox 8" CP/M $49.95 

SFC-12251053M Xerox 5%" CP/M $49.95 

SFX-12251051M NEC 5V 4 " CPM $49.96 

PAC MAN - Atari 

Atari's best selling game for your 800 or 400 computer. 
SFI-31254022E Pac Man cartridge $37.95 



Place Orders Toll Free 

Continental U.S Inside California 

800-42 1 -5500 800-262- 1710 

For Technical Inauiren or Cu8i trier Sercia tnti 



For /' chmcal Inquire* c»r ( u»i me 

213-973-7707 



• > 



Computer Products 

4901 W Roeecrans, Hawthorne, Ca 90250 

TKKMS of SALE: Cash, checks, credit cards, m 
Purchase Orders from qualified firms and i 

Minimum Order $15. IN). ( alifornia residents add 6*JI 
tax Minimum shipping & handling charge I * <XJ 
Pricing & availibilitv subject to change 



CIRCLE 194 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Diskettes 



Single User System 



Single Board Computer 



PREMIUM DISKETTES - Jade 

We proudly put our name on these high quality diskettes - 

§%- Dlakettea. Box ot Ten 

MMD-5110103 SS. SD.01S $29.00 

MMD-51 11003 SS. SD. 10S $29.00 

MMD-5111603 SS. SD. 16S $29.00 

MMD-5120103 SS. DD. 01S $31.00 

MMD-5121003 SS. DD. 010 $31.00 

MMD-5121603 SS. DD. 16S $31.00 

8 Dltkettmt. Bom ot Ten 

MMD-8110103 SS. SD. 01S $31.00 

MMD-8120103 SS.DD.01S $39.00 

MMD-8220103 DS. DD. 01S $48.00 

BARGAIN DISKETTES 

MMD-51 10105 S%" SS. DD. 01 S $19.95 

MMD-5220105 5%" DS. DD. 01S $32.95 

MMD-8110105 8" SS. SD. 01S $24.95 

MMD 8120105 8" SS. DD. 01S $32.95 

MMD 8220105 8" SS. DD. 01S $35.95 



Video Monitors 



HI-RES 12 GREEN - Zenith 

15 MHz bandwith 700 lines/inch. P31 green phosphor, 
switchable 40 or 80 columns, small, light-weight A portable 
VDM-201201 List price $189 95 $129.95 

12 GREEN SCREEN - NEC 

20 MHz bandwidth. P31 phosphor ultra-high resolution 

video monitor with audio 

VDM-581200 List price $289 95 $199.95 

12 COLOR MONITOR - NEC 

High resolution color monitor with audio 

VDC-651212 Color monitor $389.95 

NEC-1202O RGB color monitor $999.95 

13 COLOR MONITORS - BMC 

18 MHz RGB A composite video color monitors 

VOC-421320 13" RGB Color $329.95 

VDC-421310 13" Composite video $299.95 

VOX-420090 RGB card tor Apple $149.95 

COLOR MONITORS - Amdek 

Reasonably priced color video monitors 

VOC-80130 13" Color I $379.95 

VDC-801320 13" Color II $894.95 

IOV-2300A DVM board for Apple $199.95 

AMBER or GREEN MONITORS - Jade 

High resolution 18 MHz compact video monitors 

VDM-751210 12" Amber phosphor $149.95 

VDM-751220 12" Green phosphor $139.95 

VDM-750910 9" Amber phosphor $149.95 

VDM 750920 9" Green phosphor $139.95 



Modems 



SIGNALMAN - Anchor 

Direct -connect automatic answer/originate selection. 300 
Baud lull duplex. Bell 103. includes RS-232 cable 
IOM-5600A Signalman $98.50 

SMARTMODEM - Hayes 

Sophisticated directconnect autoanswer/autodial 
modem, touch -tone or pulse dialing. RS-232C interface, 
programmable 

IOM-5400A Smartmodem $248.95 

IOK-1500A Hayes Chronograph $218.95 

IOM-2010A Micromodem II $328.95 

IOM-1100A Micromodem 100 $388.95 



EPROM Erasers 



ULTRA-VIOLET EPROM ERASERS 

Inexpensive erasers for industry or home 

XME-3100A Spectronics w/o timer $89.50 

XME-3101A Spectronics with timer $94.50 

XME-3200A Economy model $39.95 



THREE BOARD SET - SD Systems 

4 MHz Z-80 A CPU. 64 K RAM (optional 256 K). serial I/O port, 
parallel I/O port, double density disk controller. CP/M 2 2 A 
manual set. system monitor, control A diagnostic software 
Includes SBC-200. 64K ExpandoRAM II. Versafloppy II. A 
CP/M 2 2 - all boards are assembled A tested. 

Board set with 64K of RAM $1095.00 

Board set with 258K of RAM $1295.00 



Apple II Accessories 



16K RAM CARD - for Apple II 

Expand your Apple to 64K. 1 year warranty 
MEX-18700A Save $125 00 !!! $89.95 



ADD-ON DISK DRIVE - for Apple II 

Inexpensive direct replacement for Apple Disk II. works with 
Apple II controller as first or second drive 

MSM-123200 Add On Drive $319.95 

MSM-123100 Controller $94.95 



Z-80 CPU CARD - for Apple II 

Two computers in one. Z-80 A 6502. more than doubles the 
power and potential of your Apple, includes Z-80 CPU card 
CP/M and complete manual set 
CPX-82800A A & T with software $249.95 



8 DISK CONTROLLER - Vista 

New from Vista Computer, single or double sided, single or 
double density, compatible with DOS 32/3.3. Pascal. A 
CP/M 2 2. Shugart A Qume compatible 
IOD-2700A A & T $499.95 



2 MEGABYTES for Apple II 

Complete package includes Two 8" double-density disk 

drives. Vista double-density 8" disk controller, cabinet. 

power supply. A cables. DOS 3 2/3 3. CP/M 2 2. A Pascal 

compatible 

1 MegaByte Package Kit $1495.00 

1 MegaByte Package A & T $1895.00 

2 MegaByte Package Kit $1795.00 

2 MegaByte Package A & T $1995.95 



APPLE-CAT - Novation 

Software selectable 1200 or 300 baud, direct connect, auto- 
answer lauto-dial. auxiliary 3- wire RS232C serial port for 
printer 
IOM-5232A Save $50 00!!' $325.95 



VISION 80 - Vista Computer 

80 column x 24 line video card for Apple II. 128 ASCII 
characters, upper and lower case. 9x70 dot matrix with 3 dot 
descenders, standard data media terminal control codes. 
CP/M Pascal A Fortran compatible. 50/60 Hz 
IOV-2400A Vista Vision 80 $299.95 



CPS MULTICARD - Mtn. Computer 

Three cards in one! Real time clock/calendar, serial 
interface. A parallel interface - all on one card. 
IOX-2300A A A T $179.95 



HI-RES GRAPHICS CARD - Genie 

Intelligent printer interface and control card allows full high 
resolution graphics and screen dumps. 

IOP-2405A Genie for Epson $119.95 

IOP-2410A Genie for Okidata $119.95 

IOP-2415A Genie for NEC/C Itoh $119.95 



Power Strips 



ISOBAR - GSC 

Isolates A protects your valuable equipment from high 
voltage spikes A AC line noise, inductive isolated ground. 75 
amp circuit breaker. U L listed 

EME-115103 3 socket $39.50 

EME-115105 4 socket $49.50 

EME-115100 8 socket $54.50 

EME-115110 9 socket rackmount $74.50 



SUPERQUAD - Adv. Micro Digital 

Single board, standard size S 100 computer system. 4 MHz 
Z-80A, single or double density disk controller for 5'/ 4 " or 8" 
drives. 64K RAM. extended addressing, up to4K of EPROM. 
2 serial & 2 parallel I/O ports, real time interrupt clock. CP M 
compatible 

CPC-30800A A AT $724.95 

IOX-4232A Serial I O adapter $29.95 



Z-80 STARTER KIT - SD Systems 

Complete Z-80 microcomputer with RAM. ROM. I O. 
keyboard, display, kludge area, manual. A workbook 

CPS-30100K Kit with workbook $299.95 

CPS-30100A A A T with workbook $469.95 



AIM-65 - Rockwell International 

Complete 6502 microcomputer with alphanumeric display 
printer, keyboard. A instruction manual 

CPK-50165A 1K AIM-65 $424.95 

CPK-50465A 4K AIM-65 $474.95 

SFK 7460OO08E 8K Basic ROM $64.95 

SFK-64600004E 4K assembler ROM $43.95 

SFK 74600020E PL 65 ROM $84.95 

SFK-74600010E Forth ROM $64.95 

SFK 74600030E Instant Pascal $99.95 

PSX-030A Power supply $64.95 

ENX-000002 Enclosure $54.95 

SPECIAL PACKAGE 

4K AIM-65. 8K Basic, power supply. A enclosure 
Special Package Price $649.95 



S-100 EPROM Boards 



PROM-100 - SD Systems 

2708. 2716. 2732 EPROM programmer with software 

MEM-99520K Kit with software $189.95 

MEM-99520A A A T with software $249.95 

PB-1 - SSM Microcomputer 

2708. 2716 EPROM board with onboard programmer 

MEM-99510K Kit with manual $154.95 

MEM-99510A A A T with manual $219.95 

EPROM BOARD - Jade 

76K or 32K uses 2708 or 2716 EPROMs. 1K boundary 

MEM-16230K Kit w o EPROMs $79.95 

MEM-16230A A A T w/o EPROMs $119.95 



S-100 Video Boards 



SPECTRUM COLOR - CompuPro 

Full-function color graphics board, up to 8 colors 256 x 192 
graphics, parallel I O port. 8K RAM 

IOV-1870A A A T $348.95 

IOV-1870C CSC $398 95 

MICROANGELO - Scion 

Ultra-high-resolution 512 x 480. 256 color or black A white S- 

100 video board 

IOV-1500A A A T $999 95 



S-100 MotherBoards 



ISO-BUS - Jade 

Silent, simple, and on sale - a better motherboard 
6 Slot (SVa" m 8%") 

MBS 061 B Bare board $19.95 

MBS-061K Kit $39.95 

MBS 061 A A A T $59.95 

12 Slot (9*/ t m 8*/,") 

MBS-121B Bare board $29.95 

MBS -121K Kit $69.95 

MBS-121A A A T $99.95 

18 Slot (14V, m8*/,") 

MBS-181B Bare board $49.95 

MBS-181K Kit $99.95 

MBS-181A A A T $139.95 

ACTIVE TERMINATOR - CompuPro 

A true mother's helper 
TSX-100A A A T $59.45 



Prices may be slightly higher at our retail locations. Please call the store nearest you for local price and availability 



S-100 CPU Boards 



8086/8087 - CompuPro 

16 bit 8 or 10 MHz 8086 CPU with provisions for 8087 & 
80130 

CPU-70520A 8 ' iHz 8086 A & T $624.95 

CPU-70520C 8 MHz 8086 CSC $764.95 

CPU-70530A with 8087 A & T $1224.95 

CPU-70530C with 8087 CSC $1455.95 

8085/8086 - CompuPro 

Both 8 & 16 bit CPUs standard 8 bit S 100 bus. up to 8 MHz. 
accesses 16 Megabytes of memory 

CPU-20510A 6 MHz A & T $398.95 

CPU-20510C 6 8 MHz CSC $497.95 

CPU-Z - CompuPro 

2 4 MHz Z80A CPU. 24 bit addressing 

CPU-30500A 2 4 MHz A & T $279.95 

CPU-30500C 3 6 MHz CSC $374.95 

SBC-200 - SD Systems 

4 MHz Z 80A CPU with serial & parallel I O. 1K RAM. 8K 

ROM space monitor PROM included 

CPC-30200A A & T $399.95 

THE BIG Z - Jade 

2 or 4 MHz switchabie Z 80 CPU board with serial I O 
accomodates 2708 2716 or 2732 EPROM. baud rates from 
75 to 9600 

CPU-30201B Bare poard w manual $35.00 

CPU-30201K Kit with manual $149.95 

CPU-30210A A & 7 with manual $199.95 

CB-2 - SSM Microcomputer 

2 or 4 MHz Z 80 CPU board with provision for up to 8K of 
ROM or 4K of RAM on board extended addressing. IEEE S 
100 front panel compatible 

CPU-30300K Kit with manual $229.95 

CPU-30300A A & T with manual $274.95 

2810 Z-80 CPU - CCS. 

2 or 4 MHZ Z 80 CPU with serial I O port & onboard monitor 

PROM front panel compatible 

CPU-30400A A & T witn PROM $289.95 

2820 Z-80 DMA CPU - CCS. 

4 MHz Z 80 CPU board with 2 serial I O ports & Centronics 
parallel I O port separate data & status ports DMA daisy 
chain compatible 
CPU-30420A A & T with manual $569.95 



S-100 Disk Controllers 



DISK 1 - CompuPro 

8' or 5' 4 DMA disk controller, single or double density, 
single or double sided 10 MHz 

IOD-1810A A & T $449.95 

IOD-1810C CSC $554.95 

SFC 52506580F 8 CP M 2 2 for Z 80 $174.95 

SFC-52506586F 8 CP M 2 2 tor 8086 $299.95 

SFO-54158000F Oasis single user $499.95 

SFO-54158002F Oasis multi-user $849.95 

VERSAFLOPPY II - SD Systems 

Double density disk controller for any combination of 5 4 
and 8 single oi double sided analog phase locked loop 
data separator, vectored interrupts. CP M 2 2 & Oasis 
compatible, control diagnostic software PROM included 

IOD-1160A A & T with PROM $359.95 

SFC-55009047F CP M 2 2 with VF II $99.95 

2242 DISK CONTROLLER - CCS. 

5' 4 " or 8' double density disk controller with onboard boot 

loader ROM tree CP M 2 2 & manual set 

IOD-1300A A & T with CP M 2 2 $399.95 

DOUBLE D - Jade 

High reliablity double density disk controller with onboard 
Z 80A auxiliary printer port IEEE S 100. can function in 
multi-user interrupt driven bus 

IOD-1200B Bare board & hdwr man $59.95 

IOO-1200K Kit w hdwr & sftwr man $299.95 

IOD-1200A A & T w hdwr & sftwr man $359.95 

SFC-59002001F CP M 2 2 with Double D $99.95 



S-100 Memory Boards 



256K RAMDISK - SD Systems 

ExpandoRAM III expandable from 64K to 256K using 64Kx 1 
RAM chips, compatible with CP M. MP M. Oasis. 
Cromemco. & most other Z-80 based systems, functions as 
ultra-high speed disk drive when used with optional 
RAMDISK software 

MEM-65064A 64K A & T $474.95 

MEM-65128A 128K A & T $574.95 

MEM-65192A 192K A & T $674.95 

MEM-65256A 256K A & T $774.95 

SFC-55009000F RAMDISK sftwr CPM22 $44.95 

SFC 55009O00F RAMDISK with EXRAM III $24.95 

128K RAM 21 - CompuPro 

128K x 8 bit or 64K x 16 bit static RAM board. 12 MHz. 24 bit 

addressing 

MEM-12810A A & T $1609.95 

MEM-12810C CSC $1794.95 



64K RAM 17 - CompuPro 

64K CMOS static RAM board. 10 MHz. low power less than 4 
watts. DMA compatible. 24 bit addressing 

MEM-64180A 64K A & T $549.95 

MEM-64180C 64K CSC $698.95 



64K RAM 16 - CompuPro 

32K x 16 bit or 64K x 8 bit low power static RAM board. 10 
MHz. 24 bit addressing 

MEM-32180A RAM 16 A & T $598.95 

MEM-32180C RAM 16 CSC $698.95 



64K STATIC RAM - SSM 

IEEE 696 S-100standard.upto6MHz 8 Bit. 12MHz 16 Bit. 24 
Bit extended addressing, disable able in 2K increments 
MEM 64300A A & T $499.95 

64K STATIC RAM - Mem Merchant 

64K static S-100 RAM card. 4 to 16K banks up to 8 MHz 
MEM 64400 A 64K A & T $499.95 

2065 64K RAM - CCS. 

4 MHz bank port bank byte selectable, extended addressing. 
16K bank selectable, front panel compatible 
MEM-64565A 64K A & T $349.95 

2066 64K RAM - CCS. 

64K RAM board with bank and block select switching 
functions for Cromemeco Cromix & Alpha Micro 
MEM-64566A 64K A & T $424.95 

64K EXPANDORAM II - SD Systems 

Expandable RAM board from 16K to 64K using 4116 RAM 
chips 

MEM-16630A 16K A & T $344.95 

MEM-32631A 32K A & T $364.95 

MEM-48632A 48K A & T $384.95 

MEM-64633A 64K A & T $399.95 

MEMORY BANK - Jade 

4 MHz S-100 bank selectable expandable to 64K 

MEM-99730B Bare board w manual $49.95 

MEM-99730K Kit with no RAM $179.95 

MEM-32731K 32K kit $199.95 

MEM 64733K 64K kit $249.95 

Assembled A Tested add $50.00 

32K RAM 20 - CompuPro 

32K static RAM. up to 10 MHz. disable-able m4K banks, bank 
select or 24 bit addressing 

MEM-16180A 16K A & T $259.95 

MEM 16180C 16K CSC $324.95 

MEM 24180A 24K A & T $324.95 

MEM-24180C 24K CSC $384.95 

MEM-32185A 32K A & T $384.95 

MEM-32185C 32K CSC $449.95 

16K STATIC RAM - Mem Merchant 

4MHz lo-power static RAM board. IEEE S 100. bank 
selectable addressable in 4K blocks, disable-able in IK 
segments extended addressing 
MEM-16171A 16K A & T $149.95 



S-100 I/O Boards 



SYSTEM SUPPORT 1 - CompuPro 

Real time clock three 16 bit interval timers, dual interrupt 
controllers! 15 levels} up to 4K EPROM RAM RS232C 
serial channel, provision for 9511 A 9512 math chip 
IOX-1850A SS1 A & T $359 95 

IOX-1850C SS 1 CSC $459 95 

IOX-1855A with 9511 A & T $554.95 

IOX-1855C with 9511 CSC $654.95 

IOX-1860A with 9512 A & T $554.95 

IOX-1860C with 9512 CSC $654.95 

INTERFACER 1 - CompuPro 

2 serial I O ports 50-19 2K baud 

IOI-1810A A & T $218.95 

IOI-1810C CSC $288.95 

INTERFACER 2 - CompuPro 

3 parallel. 1 serial. & interrupt timer 

IOI-1820A A & T $218.95 

IOI-1820C CSC $288 95 



INTERFACER 3 - CompuPro 

5 or 8 channel serial I O board for interrupt driven multi-user 
systems up to 250K baud 

IOI-1835A 5 port A & T $558.95 

IOI-1835C 5 port CSC $628.95 

IOI-1838A 8 port A & T $628.95 

IOI-1838C 8 port CSC $749.95 

INTERFACER 4 - CompuPro 

3 serial. 1 parallel. 1 Centronics parallel 

IOI-1840A A & T $314.95 

IOI-1840C CSC $414.95 



MPX - CompuPro 

Multi-user I O multiplexer & interrupt controller with on- 
board 8085A-2 CPU & 4K or 16K of RAM 

IOI-1875A 4K MPX A & T $444.95 

IOI-1875C 4K MPX CSC $534.95 

IOI-1880A 16K MPX A & T $584.95 

IOI-1880C 16K MPX CSC $674.95 



I 0-8 - SSM Microcomputer 

Eight software programmable serial I O ports. 110 19 2K 

Baud, ideal for multi-user systems 

IOI-1018A A & T $469.95 



I/0-5 - SSM Microcomputer 

Two serial & 3 parallel I O ports. 110-19 2K Baud 
IOI-1015A A & T $289 95 



MPC-4 - SD Systems 

Intelligent 4-port serial I O card, onboard Z-80A. 2K RAM 
4K PROM area, onboard firmware, fully buffered, vectored 
interrupts, four CTC channels, add to SD Board set for 
powerful multi-user system 
IOI-1504A A & T w software $495.00 

I 0-4 - SSM Microcomputer 

2 serial I O ports plus 2 parallel I O ports 

IOI-1010B Bare board w manual $35.00 

IOI-1010K Kit with manual $179.95 

IOI-1010A A A T with manual $249.95 



2830 6 PORT SERIAL - CCS. 

Six asynchronous RS-232C serial I O ports with 

programmable baud rates 

IOI-1040A A 4 T with manual $529.95 

2710 4 PORT SERIAL - CCS. 

Four RS-232C serial I O ports with full handshaking 
IOI-1060A A A T with manual $319.95 

2719 2 SER & 2 PAR - CCS. 

Two RS-232C serial I O ports plus two 8 bit parallel I O ports 
IOI-1080A A & T with manual $349.95 



Prices may be slightly higher at our retail locations. Please call the store nearest you for local price and availability. 



EDTASM+ 



COIR 




An Editor-Assembler 
For the Color Computer 



Dennis Wilkins 



Although the Color Computer 
belongs to my kids, I occasionally get 
a chance to play with it. Radio Shack 
has been quite open about describing 
the technical features of the Color 
Computer, and the 6809 processor is a 
very capable CPU. But without a good 
monitor and editor-assembler it can't 
be fully utilized. EDTASM+ from 
Radio Shack is the editor-assembler 
we have been waiting for. 

I bought EDTASM+ when the kids 
weren't looking and managed to get it 
home without their realizing that Dad 
had bought a non-game program 
cartridge for their machine. That 
night, after the little critters were 
tucked away, I plugged in the new 
pack and powered up. The TV 
flickered to life, and the familiar green 
screen printed out EDTASM+ 1.0, 
COPYRIGHT 1981 BY MICRO- 
SOFT. Boot time for the 8K program 
is about one second. Loading such a 
large program from cassette would 
take nearly a minute. 

What is EDTASM+ 

EDTASM+ is an editor, an 
assembler, and a monitor (named 
ZBUG) for the TRS-80 Color Com- 
puter. It comes in a ROM cartridge, 
and is designed to be used with a tape 
based 16K or 32K unit. It does not 
require the Extended Color Basic. 
And it does not use up precious RAM 
(well, only about 500 bytes for pro- 
gram overhead). Presumably a disk- 
based editor will be available from 



Dennis J. Wilkins. 4000 Capitol Drive, Fort Collins, 
CO 80526. 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: EDTASM+ 

Type: Editor/assembler 

System: TRS-80 Color Computer 

Format: ROM cartridge 

Language: Machine 

Summary: Finally a ROM cartridge 
for Dad! 

Price: $49.95 

Manufacturer: 

Radio Shack 

1800 One Tandy Center 

Fort Worth, TX 76102 



Radio Shack some day (there are some 
being advertised from other firms 
already). 

So, what has Microsoft accom- 
plished with this new package? Quite a 
lot. The ZBUG monitor is a fine 
utility itself. It allows you to view any 
memory location in several modes. 

The byte mode displays the value of 
one memory location (one byte of 
memory) per line. Normally the bytes 
will be displayed in hexadecimal, but 
can also be set to decimal or octal 
representation. There is a word mode 
which displays two bytes of code per 
line. 

The ASCII mode displays the 
character representation of any byte 
between 21 and 7F (hexadecimal), 
which makes it easy to decipher text 
buried in a program. Code outside of 
this range is displayed as a blank. I 

142 



think it would have been better to 
revert to byte representation for non- 
ASCII code. 

ZBUG also has a mnemonic mode 
which automatically disassembles one 
to five bytes of memory into one line 
of assembly language. A built-in dis- 
assembler 1 certainly hadn't 
expected that from Radio Shack. 

When viewing memory on screen, 
ZBUG allows you to advance to the 
next memory location or back up to 
the previous one using the down/ up 
arrows, and to change the content of 
RAM in the byte, word, ASCII, or 
mnemonic modes (although in the 
mnemonic mode you must enter the 
OP codes, rather than assembly 
language). 

ZBUG also allows you to display a 
range of memory locations — even a 
whole program — with one command, 
and send the listing to the video screen 
or to a printer. Thus, you can produce 
a disassembled listing of any portion 
of the Color Computer memory. 
Times have changed since the days 
Radio Shack wouldn't admit there was 
any software in a TRS-80. 

ZBUG has some additional features 
which are most useful for debugging 
assembled programs. In addition to 
its byte, word, ASCII, and mnemonic 
modes, ZBUG has three sub-modes 
available: numeric mode, symbolic 
mode, and half-symbolic mode. When 
used with the mnemonic mode, the 
numeric mode will not show the labels 
used in your program, but will show 
the memory address indicated by any 
label. The symbolic mode shows the 
actual labels used in a program. Half- 
November 1982 ° Creative Computing 




SOFTWARE INC. 

CIRCLE 176 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

FOR INFORMATION ON A GREAT BUNCH OF GAMES, WRITE TO" 

GEBELLI SOFTWARE INC., 1787 TRIBUTE ROAD, SUITE G, 

SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA 95815 C91 6) 925-1432 



Red Baron. Home of the Nation's 



NEC 8023 

Outstanding Graphics, Print 
Quality & Performance 




144 x 160 dots/inch • Proportional Spacing 

• Lower case descenders • N x 9 dot matrix 

• 8 character sizes • 5 unique alphabets 

• Greek character set • Graphic symbols 

• 100 CPS print speed • Bi-directional logic- 
seeking • Adjustable tractors • Single-sheet 
friction feed • Vertical & horizontal tabbing 
NEC 8023 
Dot Matrix List $795 



IDS Prism 80/132 

Affordable Color, Speed 




SCall 



Smith Corona TP-1 

Daisy Wheel Printer For Under $900 




Letter quality • Standard serial or parallel data 
interface • Drop-in ribbon • 144 WPM • Various 
fonts available • Loads paper like typewriter • 
Handles single sheets for forms m± 

Smith Corona TP-1 List $895 QuSll 



Dot Resolution Graphics • 9-wire staggered 
printhead • Lowercase decenders • Over 
150 CPS • Bi-directional, logic-seeking 

• 8 character sizes • 80-132 columns 

• Proportional spacing • Optional Color 

• Text justifications 

Prism 80 Base List $999 C Pol 

Prism 132 Base List $1,299 VWII 



The Epson Series 

High-Quality Printers 
at a Low Price. 




Anadex Silent Scribe 

The Quiet Serial Matrix 
Impact Printer 




Up to 200 CPS • Dot addressable graphics • 
Parallel and serial interfaces standard • Switch 
selectable protocol • Cartridge ribbon • Foreign 
character sets • Underlining • 1.5K to 3.5K buffer 
• Correspondence quality print 

Anadex DP-9500A List $1,725 

Anadex DP-9620A List $1,845 CPol 

Anadex DP-6000 List $3,250 VWll 



Epson MX80 List $645 £* l**>ll 

Epson MX80FT List $745 p|#9l 

Epson MX-100 List $995 

Full Line of Epson Accessories 

Televideo CRT's 

Price, Performance & Reliability 




910 
925 
950 



.List $699 
.List $995 
.List $1195 



SCall 



For low 
Prices 



NEC Spinwriter 
7700 & 3500 

Daisy Wheel Quality Leader 




High speed, letter quality • 55/33 CPS 
• Typewriter quality • Bi-directional printing 
& proportional spacing • Quiet • OCR quality 
print • Hi-res plotting/graphing • Quick change 
ribbon • Optional cut-sheet feeder, horizontal 
or bidirectional tractors • Prints up to 8 copies. 

NEC Spinwriter RO 

Serial Parallel 77xx List $3055 $2500 

35xx List $2290 51900 



Brothers HR-1 Daisy Wheel 

Perfect for quality, 
quiet word processing. 



illllMIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIIIIIIIIIil'! 



i 



it 




It 




• 16 CPS • Prints up to 6 copies • Bidirectional • 
Cloth or carbon quick-change cassette ribbon • 
Quiet, efficient operation for word processing • 

Brothers HR-1 (Parallel) List $1 ,100 COoll 
Brothers HR-1 (Serial). . List $1 ,200 yWII 



Interface Equipment 

Complete Stock of Options, 
Cables and Accessories. 

CCS APPLE SERIAL Interlace & Cable . $150 
ORANGE INTERFACE tor Apple II 

Parallel Interlace Board & Cable $90 

NOVATION CAT Acoustic Coupler $175 

NOVATION D-CAT 

direct connect modem $180 

COMPLETE STOCK OF EPSON 

ACCESSORIES $Call 

CUSTOM PRINTER CABLES FOR Apple, 

Atari, IBM, TRS-80 (all models) $Call 

HAYES MICROMODEM II $300 

PRINTER STANDS: Large $99 

Small $25 

PRINTER RIBBONS— Most Types $Call 



■^^B 










Largest Computer Printer Inventory. 



TM 



The Grappler+ 

Apple® Graphics Interface 






• Graphic and text screen dumps • Dual Hi-Res 
Graphics • Printer Selector Dip Switch • Apple III 
compatible* • Inverse Graphics • Emphasized 
Graphics • Double Size Picture • 90° Rotation 

• Center Graphics • Works with Pascal and CPM* 

• No software needed £ -j ^ (- 

Grappler + yl/D 

' Requires software driver 
Apple is a registered Trademark of Apple, Inc. 



The Okidata Series 

Hi-Res or TRS 80 Block Graphics 




120 CPS • 9x9 Matrix • Bidirectional logic 
seeking printing • Lower case descenders 
• four print styles • Optional Hi-Res Graphics 

Okadata82A List $649 CPoll 

Okadata 83A (w/Tractor) . . List $995 Qlrtlll 



IDS Microprism 480 

Prints like a daisy, 
priced like a matrix! 




• Correspondence Quality in a Single Pass • 
Dual Speed 75, 110cps • Proportional Spacing * 
Bidirectional Logic Seeking Head • Platen pin or 
pressure feed • 24x9 dot matrix * 10, 12, 16.8 
Characters per inch • Double width Characters 



IDS Microprism 480 . . . List $799 



SCall 



Our People, Our Product: Both Are Specialized. 

Because our salespeople are printer specialists, they know the capabilities of 
each printer— and how to match one to your exact need. Red Baron's volume 
stocking assures a low, low price on a wide array of major brands. We're sure 
you'll like the product and services you get from Red Baron, and we know you'll 
love our Customer Benefit Package; an exclusive at Red Baron. 

Customer Benefit Package yj if 

1 . Free Expert Consultation. Before you buy, after you buy. 2. Technical Staff. Even your most involved 
questions get quick, helpful answers from our staff of printer technicians. 3. Free Catalog. Get your inform- 
ative catalog with printer comparison chart and print samples today! 4. Warranty. The manufacturer's war- 
ranty applies where applicable. 5. Same-Day Shipping. Your order is shipped the same day when you call 
before 11:00 a.m. 6. Free MasterCard and Visa. Call us toll-free and charge your printer to your credit card. 
7. We Stock What We Sell. No bait and switch, no hassle. We make every effort to keep a large stock of our 
advertised products. 8. APO/FPO Orders Welcome. 




Other Quality Printers 
at Red Baron 



Here's How To Order: 

Phone orders are welcome; same-day ship- 
ment on orders placed before 11:00 a.m. Free 
use of MasterCard and Visa. COD's accepted. 
Personal checks require 2 weeks clearance. 
Manufacturer's warranty included on all 
equipment. Prices subject to revision. 



Call Toll Free For Catalog: 

(800) 854-8275 

CA, AK, HI (714) 630-3322 



C. Itoh 8510 

Prowriter $845 $Call 

Diablo 630/6 . . . $2995 $2570 



MasterCard 




VISA 




cifon 

COMPUTER PRODUCTS 



1100 N. TUSTIN #207, ANAHEIM, CA 92807 
O i nOLE 9 6 8 O N nEADEf) SERV I CE CAflD 



© Red Baron Computer Products, 1982 



EDTASM, continued... 

symbolic mode shows all memory 
location identifiers in their symbolic 
form, but displays operands as 
addresses. 

ZBUG even understands symbols 
used in commands when an assembled 
program is in memory. For example, if 
you labeled the beginning of a pro- 
gram residing at 3F00 hex START, 
you could command ZBUG to display 
the first byte of the program by typing 
START/, or by typing 3F00/. And 
you could run the program with the 
command G START, rather than 
specifying the start address. 

There are other useful capabilities 
in ZBUG. Up to eight break points can 
be set to halt execution at specified 
points in a program run. The break- 
points can be individually reset, or all 
breakpoints cancelled, and the 
memory locations of all currently set 
breakpoints can be displayed. Pro- 
grams can be single stepped, for ease 
of debugging, and all register values 
and flag conditions can be observed 
after any step or after a breakpoint 
halt. 




"Actually, I'm not even sure if I want to know 
what 'Punk Fortran' is. " 



There is a transfer command in 
ZBUG to move code from one memory 
area to another. This command does 
not modify code to correct address 
references (as the Basic renumber does 
for GOTOs and GOSUBs), it simply 
copies the code from one location to 
another. ZBUG can save a specified 
block of memory to cassette, with 
loading and start addresses specified, 
and can read a tape into memory. This 
allows linking short routines into a 
longer program with the proper 
planning. 

ZBUG also has a calculator mode 
which can perform arithmetic, rela- 
tional, and logical operations using 
hexadecimal, decimal, or octal num- 
bers; ASCII characters; and symbols 
for logical operations. Logical opera- 
tors allowed are: equals, not equal, 
addition, subtraction, multiplication, 
division, modulus, positive, negative, 
logical shifts, complements, and 
logical AND, OR, and XOR. 

In the calculator mode ZBUG 
allows you to mix modes. For 
example, you can compute the sum of 
A3FE hexadecimal plus 1354 decimal. 
Or you can command the monitor to 
display the memory location described 
by the sum of 3471 octal plus 1A34 
hexadecimal. It is possible to control 
the number base of inputs and the 
number base of outputs separately, so 
that you can type commands in 
decimal, but have outputs displayed 
in hexadecimal. Note that since the 
calculator mode of ZBUG was 
intended as an aid during program 
writing, it will not display negative 
values and the maximum value it will 
display is FFFF hex (65535 decimal). 

The Editor 

The monitor is very useful, but what 
about the editor. The editor is quite 
similar to Radio Shack's editor- 
assembler for the TRS-80 Model I, 
except that you must use 6809 
mnemonics instead of Z80 mnemonics. 
The editor has the usual auto line 
numbering, insertion, replacement, 
and deletion of lines, a renumbercom- 
mand, an edit line command, save and 
load to cassette, screen print, and line 
printer commands. It also has a handy 
copy command to duplicate code, a 
move command to block move code, a 
find command to find occurrences of 
a specified string of characters, a 
ZBUG command to jump to ZBUG 
(without changing any of the text buf- 
fer), and a Basic command to jump to 
Basic (which destroys the text buffer). 
The ability to jump to ZBUG, make 
calculations or number/symbol con- 
versions, and return to the editor with 
all text intact is very convenient. 

The editor allows you to work in 



decimal or hexadecimal, but has a 
slight inconsistency with ZBUG: 
default is decimal in the editor and 
hexadecimal in ZBUG. ZBUG allows 
you to define the number base in 
which you wish to work, but the editor 
requires that you specify hex each time 
you mean hex. Otherwise it thinks you 
mean decimal. 

One useful feature of EDTASM+ is 
its ability to edit Basic programs. It has 
some useful commands which are not 
in the edit system of Extended Basic, 
such as the Find and Copy commands, 



Since EDTASM+ can 

be used with a 

non-Extended Color 

Basic machine, it is 

an inexpensive way 

to obtain some 

editing features. 



and the ability to scroll lines with the 
arrow keys. The manual states that 
Basic programs can be edited, but does 
not describe how. 

The Basic program must be saved in 
the ASCII mode (CSAVETRO- 
GRAM",A) from Basic, then loaded 
into the text buffer of the editor from 
tape. It must be saved again from the 
editor, and then CLOADed when you 
have returned to Basic. 

You cannot just call the editor from 
Basic to edit programs. For complex 
editing of long Basic programs it is 
worth the effort. For quick changes to 
short programs the normal Basic 
EDIT command is best. 

Since EDTASM+ can be used with 
a non-Extended Color Basic machine 
it is an inexpensive way to obtain some 
editing features. Also, the editor 
allows you to append text from a tape 
file onto the end of the current text 
buffer in memory. This can be used in 
both Basic and assembly language 
programming to link short routines 
into one long program. 

There's Even an Assembler 

Yes, they even remembered the 
assembler. The assembler is activated 
from the editor by typing A filename. 
This command assembles the text in 
the editor and writes it to a cassette file 
named "filename." If you want to 
assemble the code and test it before 
saving it to cassette, there is an in- 
memory switch (IM) available. 

Eight other switches for the 



146 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



assembler control error display mode, 
listing mode (short listing, no symbol 
table in listing, list to printer, and no 
listing), compilation, and method of 
specifying start location of assembled 
code (absolute origin and manual 
origin). 

A /NO command explained in the 
manual on page 13 is supposed to pre- 
vent object code from showing in the 
assembler listing. A /NO command 
explained on page 16 is supposed to 
prevent object code from being 
recorded to memory or to tape. My 
tests show that the function of /NO is 
as explained on page 1 6 (it can be used 
to test for compile errors without 
storing the object code). 

EDTASM+ seems to work well, and 
has an excellent interface between the 
monitor and editor. It certainly pro- 
vides more access to the TRS-80 Color 
Computer than has been available 
before. 

The Manual 

The EDTASM+ manual is, for the 
most part an example of clear writing 
style and completeness. There are, 
however, not many examples of how 
to write in assembly language. The 
manual states right at the beginning: 
"This manual demonstrates how to use 
the Editor-Assembler*. It will not 



teach you how to program in assembly 
language. Radio Shack has an excel- 
lent book devoted to the subject. It's 
Catalog Number is 62-2077. You can 
purchase it through any Radio Shack 
store." 

This statement is correct, up to the 
last line. At the time of this writing 
book 62-2077 was not available. It 
should be available by the time this is 
published. There are several other 
books available which discuss pro- 
gramming of the 6809, but not at 
Radio Shack. The Radio Shack book 
could be very useful if it has been 
specifically written for the Color Com- 
puter hardware/ firmware. 

The manual does describe how to 
use the monitor, the editor, and the 
assembler, and includes a list of ROM 
routine entry points (as do the Basic 
and Extended Basic manuals). The 
shack seems to be getting downright 
helpful. The manual even has a section 
on running machine code routines 
produced by EDTASM+ from Basic 
programs, including parameter 
passing. 

The manual devotes 26 pages to 
operating EDTASM+, has a 23 page- 
reference section on 6809 assembly 
language, and 1 1 pages of appendices 
(editor command set, assembler com- 
mands, ZBUG commands, error mes- 



sages, memory map, and ROM 
routine descriptions). The appendices 
on commands also reference the page 
on which the command is discussed, 
although I found a few errors in that 
regard. 

The only thing lacking in the 
manual is graphics. Several sections 
describe a video display without show- 
ing a graphic representation of it, 
although page 14 does show two 
examples of an assembly display list- 
ing. There are also a couple of editor 
commands which are not fully 
explained in the editor chapter (Find 
and Verify file), but are mentioned 
in the appendix. And I found a few 
types which were not difficult to 
decipher. On the whole, the manual is 
organized well and clearly written. 

Was It Worth the Wait? 

I must admit that I am impressed 
with this offering from Radio Shack. 
They are not just supporting the Color 
Computer with game packs these days. 
This offering allows the serious pro- 
grammer to produce some compact 
programs with very high speed 
graphics, and allows the beginner and 
hobbyist to explore the inner workings 
of his Color Computer. EDTASM+ is 
$49.95 at your local Radio Shack 
store. □ 



COMPUTER KITS- FROM $69.95 




LNW SEMI-KITS can save you hundreds of dollars. By obtaining your own parts at the lowest 
possible cost and assembling the LNW SEMI-KITS, you can have the most highly acclaimed 
microcomputer in the industry- the LNW80. The LNW SEMI-KITS are affordable modules. You 
can start with a modest cassette system and expand to a full 4Mhz TRS-80 compatible system with 
5 or 8 inch double density disks and color at any time. 

A. LNW80 CPU - Made of high quality FR4 glass epoxy double sided circuit material, with plated- 
through holes and gold edge connector. It is fully solder-masked and silk screened. Here are just 
some of the outstanding features you will have when your LLNW80 CPU board is fully assembled: 
• 1 6K RAM • Color and black and white video • 480 x 1 92 high resolution graphics • 64 and 80 
column video • 4 Mhz Z80A CPU • Upper and lower case display • 500 and 1 000 baud cassette 
I/O -$89.95 

B. SYSTEM EXPANSION- Expand the LNW80 computer board, TRS-80and PMC-80 computer 
with the following features: • 32K memory • Serial RS232C and 20Ma port • Real time clock • 
Parallel printer port • 5 inch single density disk controller • Expansion bus(screen printer port) • 
Onboard power supply • Solder- masked and silk screened legend -$69. 95 (tin plated contacts) - 
$84.95 (gold plated contacts) 

C. KEYBOARD- 74 key expanded professional keyboard- includes 1 2 key numeric keypad. Fully 
assembled and tested. - $99.95 

D. COMPUTER CASE - This stylish instrument-quality solid steel case and hardware kit gives your 
LNW80 that professional factory-built appearance. - $84.95 Add $1 2.00 for shipping. 

E. SYSTEM EXPANSION CASE- This stylish instrument-quality solid steel case and hardware kit 
gives your SYSTEM EXPANSION interface that professional factory-built appearance. -$59.95 
Add $10.00 for shipping. 

F. LNW80 CPU - HARD TO FIND PARTS KIT - $82.00 

G. LNW80 VIDEO - HARD TO FIND PARTS KIT - $31 .00 

H. SYSTEM EXPANSION - HARD TO FIND PARTS KIT- $27.50 
I. LEVEL II ROM set (6 chip set) - $1 20.00 

VISA and MasterCard accepted. Add $3.00 for shipping plus $1.00 for each additional item. All 
shipments via UPS surface. Add $2.00 for U.S. Mail. Shipments outside continental U.S.: funds must 
be U.S. dollars. Sufficient shipping costs must be included with payment. 

ORDERS & INFORMATION - (714) 544-5744 
SERVICE -(714) 641-8850 



LNW Research Corp. 

2620 WALNUT Tustin, CA. 92680 



CIRCLE 203 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



K-DOS 



COIR 




An Alternative to Atari 



in 



s 



Sheldon Leemon 



K-DOS from K-Byte is an alternative to 
the Atari Disk Operating System, DOS II. 
The file management system of K-DOS is 
compatible with Atari DOS, but offers a 
greater level of control over peripheral 
devices and memory. Although it offers 
many features which will be appreciated 
by every Atari user, K-DOS will be of 
most use to the serious programmer. 

Since the benefits to be gained by using 
K-DOS are the result of certain trade- 
offs, the potential buyer should think hard 
about how much a more convenient disk 
operating system is really worth. 

Chief among these trade-offs is the 
amount of memory that K-DOS leaves 
available to the user. K-DOS is memory 
resident, so most of its features are 
immediately accessible, but it also takes 
up a great deal of space. With a Basic 
cartridge inserted, the amount of free 
memory available in a 40K system is 
25,228 bytes. This is almost 7K less than 
the 32,274 bytes available with Atari DOS, 
or the 31,758 bytes available with 
OS/A+. 

Besides reducing the amount of mem- 
ory available for programming, the large 
size of K-DOS puts the start of low 
memory above $3000. (An optional pro- 
gram included with the package lets you 
remove the plain English error messages, 
which saves enough bytes to bring the 
end of K-DOS just below $3000). Machine 
language programs which are assembled 
to run just above the end of Atari DOS, 
may conflict with K-DOS, and may not 
run under it. 

If you have memory to spare, however, 
K-DOS offers many attractive features. It 
is, for example, a pleasure to use: all DOS 
functions are accessible from Basic, Pilot, 
the Assembler cartridge, or whatever 



If you have memory 

to spare, K-DOS offers 

many attractive 

features. 



program environment you happen to be 
in. 

Since K-DOS is command driven, you 
need not call up a menu to execute a 
DOS function. You simply precede the 
command by a comma (or some other 
character which you can define as signifi- 
cant to DOS), and the DOS function is 
executed without changing program 
environments. 

The syntax required for command lines 
is flexible, so commas can be replaced by 
spaces, lower case is acceptable, and the 
DOS environment automatically resets 
the inverse character shift. Device 



Sheldon Leemon, 14400 Elm, Oak Park, MI 

48237. 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: K-Dos 

Type: Operating system 
System: Atari 400/800, 48K 

preferable 
Format: Disk 

Language: Machine 

Summary: Versatile, but memory- 
hungry alternative to 
Atari DOS 

Price: $89.95 

Manufacturer: 

KByte 
P.O. Box 456 
1705 Austin 
Troy, MI 48099 



148 



defaults are supplied whenever possible, 
and short abbreviations are allowed, so a 
minimum of keystrokes is required to 
perform any function. Error messages 
appear in plain English, rather than a 
frustrating number code. 

Unlike OS/A+, which puts you back 
in the operating system every time you 
hit System Reset, K-DOS will only bypass 
Basic if you hit the Start key along with 
System Reset. And unlike Atari DOS, the 
device handler for the 850 interface unit 
boots automatically if it is turned on. 
There is no need for a separate 
AUTORUN.SYS file. 

The reason that K-DOS can let you use 
DOS command lines from Basic is that it 
re-routes all input to the line editor 
(although it gives you a command, KILL, 
which will take its "hooks" out of the 
handler table if desired). 

This greater level of control over the 
system is characteristic of K-DOS. For 
example, the 6502 BREAK instruction is 
vectored to get you back to DOS any 
time the instruction is encountered, rather 
than having the system hang up. You may 
get a little better idea of what this means 
if you slip in the Basic cartridge and type 
INPUT (RETURN). 

With Atari DOS II, the system locks 
up, and the only way to recover is to turn 
the computer off and reboot. With K- 
DOS, a BRK message appears, and you 
enter DOS. You should even be able to 
recover from the dreaded "editing lock- 
up," which occurs when Basic moves a 
block of exactly 256 bytes (You must still 
know enough about how Basic works to 
reset the statement pointers, however, as 
that particular bug tampers with your 
program code before it crashes the 
system). 

Another aspect of the system control 
offered by K-DOS is that it allows you to 
stop disk I/O just by hitting the BREAK 

November 1982 c Creative Computing 



BASF QUALIMETRIC m 

A TOTALLY NEW DIMENSION OF QUALITY. 




From BASF comes a totally new 
level of excellence in magnetic 
media-the Qualimetric stan- 
dard, a standard so advanced 
that BASF FlexyDisks® are confi- 
dently backed by the industry's 
only lifetime warranty. The 
Qualimetric standard is main- 
tained without compromise 
through every step of BASF 
design, production, inspection, 
and testing... reflecting an 
unwavering BASF commitment 
to media fidelity and durability. 

Our FlexyDisk jacket, for 
example, incorporates a unique 
two-piece liner that not only 
traps damaging debris away 
from the media surface, but also 
ensures precise media-to-head 
alignment. The result- certified 
100% error-free performance, 
backed by BASF's exclusive life- 
time warranty* 

For information security, 
tomorrow and beyond, look for 
the distinctive BASF package 
with the Qualimetric seal. Call 
800-343-4600 for the name of 
your nearest supplier. 



IS THIS LEVEL OF RELIABILITY 

REALLY NECESSARY? 







ASKS 




-Af* 









^ 












If you've ever lost data due to a 
faulty disk, you know how impor- 
tant reliability can be. 

That's why Accutrack disks are 
critically certified at 2-3 times the 
error threshold of your system. 
Why they're precision fabricated for 
higher signal quality, longer life and 
less head wear. And why we take 
such extra steps as testing single- 
density mini disks at double-density 
levels. So you don't have to worry 
about the reliability of your media. 



Accutrack disks. OEMs have 
specified them for years. You can 
trust them for your data. Call toll- 
free (800 225-8715) for your nearest 
dealer. 



ACCUTRACK 

Dennison KYBE Corporation 

82 Calvary Street, Waltham, Mass. 02254 
Tel. (617) 899-0012; Telex 94-0179 
Outside Mass. call toll free (800) 2253715 
Offices & representatives worldwide 



CIRCLE 197 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



K 


V 


ft 


e 



Dealers: Give your customers a 
choice— Accutrack's OEM perform- 
ance as well as your heavily adver- 
tised brand. We have the industry's 
only complete line of disks, cas- 
settes and mag cards, including 
virtually all special formats. 
If you want a quality line, small 
minimums, the ability to mix 
and match, private labeling, 
fast delivery and great price, call 
today. Find out how responsive a 
media supplier can be. 



K-DOS, continued... 

key, without destroying your data. It also 
tries very hard to read and write marginal 
sectors before bombing out, which is 
important, given the notorious speed 
fluctuation of older Atari disk drives. 

K-DOS puts some nice touches on some 
of the original DOS functions. For exam- 
ple, INIT combines formatting and 
writing DOS files to the new disk in one 
operation, although these functions are 
still available separately. The duplicate 
disk function offers the option of a 
straight sector copy for boot-disks that do 
not have file information on them, and 
also allows the faster write without verify 
and continuous retrying of bad sectors. 

There is a separate APPEND com- 
mand, which allows you to enter data at 
the end of a file directly from the key- 
board. The append function uses any 
space available in the last sector, rather 
than starting a new sector as Atari DOS 
does. The binary load command prints to 
the screen the location in memory into 
which the file is being loaded, if you so 
desire, which is much more convenient 
than reading the headers and calculating 
the addresses by yourself. 

But K-DOS doesn't take up all that 
memory for the sake of a few slight 
modifications. It also contains a complete 
machine language monitor which allows 
you to examine memory in hexadecimal 
and ASCII formats, alter memory by 
typing in either hex or ASCII values, and 
examine and alter the contents of the 
registers. K-DOS gives you two ways to 
execute a machine language program. GO 
runs the program after closing all devices, 
and does not preserve the registers. 
PROCEED continues a program after a 
breakpoint has been reached, without 
changing the contents of the registers or 
the status of any device, making it a very 
handy debugging tool. 

Similarly, the command XIT allows you 
to get back to a Basic program that calls 
DOS, and continues to run that program 
from the point at which DOS was called. 

A null device handler has been added, 
so that you can test I/O operations 
quickly by directing them to N:. LOMEM 
lets you examine and alter the bottom of 
memory available to a cartridge. This 
allows you to reserve space for machine 
language programs, or just to reduce the 
amount of memory available to see if a 
Basic program will run on the minimum 
16K system. UDC allows you to add your 
own user-defined commands to the 
system. 

In addition, K-DOS offers many com- 
mands which allow you to access certain 
routines used internally by DOS, just by 
giving a one-word command. For 
example, COLD and WARM provide an 
easy way to coldstart or warmstart a 
cartridge. RESET reboots the 850 handler 
when you have expanded the drive buffers 

November 1982 c Creative Computing 



—or just forgotten to turn it on when you 
booted up. 

TEXT corresponds to a GRAPHICS 
call in Basic, and opens the screen device, 
which is handy for moving the display list 
when you want to load a program into 
high memory. CLOSE closes all files, 
turns off the sound, resets VBLANK 
vectors, and turns off Player-Missile 
graphics. ER followed by a number will 
print the English error message for that 
error number, which is very handy when 
you want to interpret I/O errors that are 
generated by Basic. 



It is a convenient 

tool for the user who 

is serious about 

programming. 



None of these functions is earth- 
shaking, and all can be accomplished in 
other ways with a little effort, but the 
author's attitude was that as long as the 
routines for doing them were already in 
DOS, it made sense to allow them to be 
accessed easily. 

Unfortunately, the lack of depth in the 
documentation runs somewhat counter 
to this intention of allowing the program- 
mer easy access. The glossy K-DOS Hand- 
book is nicely bound, comes with a pocket 
summary card, is clearly written, gives 
examples of the proper syntax for each 
command, and covers most of the com- 
mands very well. 

However, it treats some of the more 
esoteric commands in a cursory manner. 
Take, for example, the explanation of the 
UNLOAD command: "Tries to erase area 
where cartridge is; unloads any RAM 
based cartridge and resets LOMEM back 
to end of DOS." The beginner will no 
doubt read this sentence, re-read it once 
to verify that all of the words are in 
English, and then press on, no better or 
worse for the experience. 

The experienced user, on the other 
hand, might gather from this explanation 
that it is possible to load a program into 
RAM, and fool the system into thinking 
that the program is cartridge-based, allow- 
ing an easy transition back and forth 
between that program environment and 
DOS. The inference would then be that 
the UNLOAD command erases this pro- 
gram, and lets the system know that no 
cartridge is present. But how do you set 
up this "RAM based cartridge" in the first 
place? No clue is given, leaving the 
experienced user perhaps more frustrated 
than the beginner. 

Another example of a similar sort is the 

151 



system equate files that are supposed to 
give the user access to system routines, 
such as the one to type text messages 
from a buffer. There are no detailed 
examples of how to use them, however, 
and the internal commenting is too scanty 
to allow most users to benefit from them. 
Features like these could be real selling 
points to the ambitious programmer if 
they were treated less superficially in the 
documentation. 

My impression of K-DOS is that aside 
from these omissions in the documen- 
tation, it is a convenient tool for the user 
who is serious about programming. 

As one who uses his computer mostly 
for programming, I have found K-DOS 
especially helpful in developing software 
that combines Basic with machine lan- 
guage subroutines. But I think that K- 
DOS will be of much less interest to the 
casual programmer who may have less 
than 40K of memory. 

While such a user might appreciate 
some of the features, he would probably 
never take advantage of the machine 
language monitor, the null device, or 
many of the other goodies which make K - 
DOS so big— and so expensive. If you fall 
into that category, you might be better 
off spending the money on something that 
will let you gobble dots, eradicate insects, 
or save the universe. □ 



® 



Offers Discounts on All 

TRS-80 

COMPUTERS 



We Have What You Are Looking For 

* Free Shipping Within United States 

* 26-1006 Mod III 48K $1955.00 

* 26-3004 16K Color 310.00 

* 26-3002 16K Color Ext. Basic 410.00 

* 26-3003 32K color 495.00 

* No Tax On Out of State Shipments 

For Additional Prices and 

Shipping Information 

Call Toll Free 

1-800-545-9019 

N.M. Residents Call 257-7865 
or write 

HAPPY HANDS 

P.O. DRAWER I 

RUIDOSO, NEW MEXICO 

88345 

CIRCLE 181 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Enhance your Apple II monitor 
this versatile product. 




MON+ by Microseeds 



David H. Ahl 



MON+ is an extension to the Apple II 
monitor, which enhances existing com- 
mands and adds some powerful new 
commands of its own. 

Four years ago, when the Apple was 
introduced, the supplied monitor was 
more than adequate. It contains tools to 
display memory, disassemble code, add 
and subtract numbers, and read and write 
cassettes. Today, however, people are 
pushing the Apple farther perhaps than 
even the original designers envisioned. 
The disk drive has replaced the cassette 
recorder as the common I/O device. 
There are excellent assemblers and scores 
of hi-res games. However, these sophisti- 
cated applications must be done with, or 
perhaps despite, the existing monitor. 

MON+ addresses many of the limita- 
tions of the existing Apple monitor with 
modified extensions of the existing com- 
mands as well as six new commands. All 
of these commands are shown in Table 1 . 

A particularly useful command for 
machine language programmers is the 
"single step and trace." For the most part, 
these commands are the same as the 
monitor's single step and trace commands, 
but were included mainly because the 
Auto-Start ROM lacks them. 

Another useful command is "memory 
dump," which displays the contents of 
memory as hex bytes and ASCII char- 
acters. Memory dump is activated simply 
by typing the beginning and ending 
address of the memory area you wish to 
examine. For each address, MON+ dis- 
plays the address and the contents of the 
next eight bytes. This format is the same 
as for a memory store, hence it is easy to 
change a displayed portion of memory 
using cursor moves and the forward arrow 
to re-enter the line. 

To prevent information from scrolling 
by too quickly when large portions of 
memory are displayed, a "key check 
routine" is automatically called. This 
routine periodically checks to see if a key 
has been pressed, and if it has, pauses the 
display until another key has been 
pressed. 



Among the commands not available in 
the Apple monitor at all, we found the 
"XB" the most useful. This is used to 
boot 3.2 disks on a 3.3 system. However, 
if a 3.2 boot fails, it will automatically try 
a 3.3 boot. Having accumulated over a 
four-year period a substantial library of 
Apple disks, many of which are 3.2 and 
most of which are not identified as to 
which DOS they contain, I find the com- 
mand most useful. For my use, XB, by 
itself, has justified purchase of the MON+ 
system several times over. 

Another nice feature of MON+, when 
used with the Auto-Start ROM is that 
hitting reset enters the monitor instead of 
Basic. 

Table 1. Commands of MON+ 



It should be noted that entering and 
exiting MON+ is done either from the 
Apple monitor or from Integer Basic. 
When Applesoft (ROM or language card 
version) is active, calls to MON+ are not 
possible. 

MON+ is available in one ROM chip 
which resides in the empty D8 socket 
along side Integer Basic; this version costs 
$49.95. It is also available on disk for the 
Apple II Plus with the language card or 
equivalent. This version updates the INT 
Basic file so that MON+ is loaded with 
Integer Basic when the system is booted. 
List price for this version is $39.95. 
MON+ is available from Microseeds, 
Lakeview Terr., Stafford, CT 06076. □ 

CIRCLE 353 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



command 

Memory dump 
Page dump 
Store string 

Addition 

Subtraction 

Single step 

Trace 

Move memory 

Zap memory 

Search (hex) 

(ASCII) 

(wildcard) 
Read from disk 
Write to disk 
Enter monitor 
Addresses of BLOAD 
Boot 3.2 disk 
Catalog 
Connect DOS 
Free disk space 
Exit MON + 



syntax 

addr . addr 
addr P 



char char 
char char 
addr 
addr 



»? 



addr : 

addr : 

addr ♦ 

addr - 

addr S 

addrT 

addr < addr . addr M 

byte < addr . addr Z 

addr . addr ? byte b byte 

addr . addr ? t4 char char 

wbyte < addr . addr ? byte b wbyte b byte 

addr < track . sector R 

addr < track . sector W 

• 

XA 

byte XB 

XC 

XD 

XF 

XX 



152 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 




Pf^w(^ 


7"J» V ^1 


\ \ 1 


! 


13 


•* wA 1 


^r ^B 









M 



.r- 




«•» «■» 



ev *"( #•» 



^ r 



I 







;. ~»i 



What some have called "the best kept 

secret in the game software industry". 

Unleashed here are six new software 

games blending advanced graphics with precise elements of 

playability, challenge and intense fun for every gamer's tastes 

Beyond these six new games are 26 more for you to consider 

all we believe are the best software values for your money! 



LEGIONNAIRE— Real-time simulation of 
tactical combat in Caesars time. YOU as Caesar 
command up to ten legions. Finest full-color 
graphics plus playability way beyond the state 
of the art! Cassette . . . $35.00 

V.C.— Faithfully recreates unconventional 
conflict in Viet Nam. YOU command chopper 
and artillery units, and face task of protecting 
civilian population where the enemy hides 
among the people. Cassette . . . $20.00 

Diskette . . . $25.00 



G.F.S. SORCERESS— Sci-Fi adventure game. 
YOU are Joe Justin trying to clear yourself of a 
false charge of mutiny and get back to the 
Galactic Federation Starship "Sorceress". 
Beautiful full-color manuals provide useful clues. 
Cassette ... $30.00 Diskette ... $35.00 

ANDROMEDA CONQUEST-Vast scale 
space strategy game of galactic colonizing and 
conquest among unique star systems with 
strange life forms and alien technologies that 
provide exciting exploration and battle. 
Cassette. . . $18.00 Diskette . . . $23.00 



* Trademarks for Tandy Corp.. Apple Computer. Warner Communications. 
International Business Machines and Commodore International Ltd. 

Available at finer 
computer stores everywhere! 




MOON PATROL-Arcade Pak™ game of 
lunar invasion. Beats any quarter-gobbling game 
around! Four levels of increasing difficulty 
present new attackers to battle. Fast, furious and 
fun! Cassette . . . $25.00 

TELENGARD— Dungeon adventure in a 
mysterious underworld with 50 levels of ever- 
more-complex mazes to explore. Real time 
fantasy and role-playing game. Using wits, 
magic and fast thinking, gamers fight monsters 
and reap valuable rewards. Cassette . . . $23.00 

Diskette . . . $28.00 

If your favorite dealer fails to have 
the games you want, call us toll free 

1-800-638-9292 



microcomputer games 

' REGISTERED TRADEMARK OF MICROCOMPUTER GAMES. INC. DIVISION OF 

The AVALON HILL Game Company CIRCLE 118 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Avalon Hill MICROCOMPUTER GAMES 

are compatible with the following computer systems 

TRS-80 Models I/III & Color® 

Apple II® 

Atari 4/800® 

IBM PC.® 

Commodore VIC-20, CBM PET & 2001® 



For specific information, such as 
machine compatibility, memory requirements. 

cassette or diskette availability and price, 

call us toll-free 1-800-638-9292 and ask for 

Operator 20, or write: 

Avalon Hill Microcomputer Games, Dept. M-20 

4517 Harford Road, Baltimore, MD 21214 



Midway 
Campaign, 




COIR 




Casino Games For The Apple 



Brian J. Murphy 



Name your poison! Is it craps? 
Baccarat? Roulette? Poker? Keno? 
Blackjack? You can place $500 bets on 
any of these games, all night if you like, 
and never risk anything more sub- 
stantial than the few cents of elec- 
tricity it takes to run your Apple II 
with re-creations of the great casino 
games from Soft ape and Datamost. 

Softape has four games currently on 
the market. They are Roulette and 
Craps, published in 1979; Apple 21, 
released in 1980; and Draw Poker, 
which came out last year. Softape was 
aiming for a detailed, highly realistic 
recreation of these games as played 
under casino rules, and they have 
succeeded quite well. 



Draw Poker 

Starting with the best of the lot, 
Draw Poker, you have a game which 
plays well with good graphics, screen 
action and sound effects. Author Ken 
LaBaw has devised for this solitaire 
game a computer opponent with two 
personalities. One is that ofa plodding, 
fairly predictable, conventional 
player. When the dealer discards three 
cards you can be fairly sure it is hold- 
ing only a pair. When it discards four, 
you have, more or less, a sure win. 

The second personality is not as 
predictable. From the way it bets you 
might think it was holding three ofa 
kind or a straight and fail to challenge 
it with a bet, only to find that it was 
holding a pair. In short, it will bluff. 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Draw Poker 

Type: Gambling simulation 

System: 48K Apple II, disk drive 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine language 

Summary: Great poker simulation 

Price: $24.95 

Manufacturer: 

Softape 

10432 Burbank Blvd. 

North Hollywood, C A 91601 




Brian .1. Mm ph\. 13.1 Posl Ro;id. \ 'airfield. (1 06430. 



Draw Poker 

Bets are $5 each and the ante is $20. 
Some of the nice features include the 
ability to cut the deck, an entertaining 
animated shuffle and a fine, hi-res 
shape table for the cards, designed by 
Bill DePew. Draw Poker is a fast- 
moving, amusing simulation which 
makes a good introductory level poker 
teacher. 



Apple 21 

DePew is the author of another 
Softape game, Apple 21, which 
realistically recreates blackjack as 
played in the casinos. As many as three 
players can challenge the computer 
dealer. The play begins with the 
ominous announcement that you are 
"tapped out." 

The computer offers a loan of up 
to $1000. It was only after reminding 
myself that my Apple 11 wouldn't be 
sending someone around to break my 
arm if 1 lost it all that I was able to take 
the money and get on with the game. 

In the computer "shoe" there is only 
one deck. It appears that the trigger 
for a reshuffle is the playing of the 
fourth ace. Once that ace appears there 
is a new shuffle, even if there is a hand 
in progress. 







creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Apple 21 

Type: Gambling simulation 

System: 48K Apple II, disk drive 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine language 

Summary: Good blackjack game 

Price: $24.95 

Manufacturer: 

Softape 

10432 Burbank Blvd. 

North Hollywood, CA 91601 



154 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 




I 



• 






- • • • 



«* JZSBte 









The Synetix Industries SSD Solid S 
Emulator provides complete PIucj In emulation 
of either a Single (147 K Byte) or Dual (294 K 
Byte) Disk Drive. The memory board will 
operate in any slot 1 through 7. Total software 
compatability is maintained for 'APPLE 
DOS 3.3, APPLE PASCAL XP/M. Up to 
seven SSD s may be used depending on other 
peripheral equipment in use. 

□ Software compatible with * APPLE DOS 3.3. 
•PASCAL. X *CP M operating systems 

D Automatic copying of Disks into SSD 
Memory 

□ Single Drive 147 K Byte 

□ Dual Drive 294 K Byte? 



$550i H) 

Single Disk-147 K Bytes 

$95(T 

Dual Disk 294 K Bytes 



I fnprgars& speed up to 1000% 

l.J Add up to 2 Megabytes of Solid State 
Memory to the APPLE 

□ Operates in any I/O slot 1 through 7 

I ] Increase reliability by reducing mechanical 
disk drive failures 

□ Requires no external power or 
modifications to the APPLE 

[ ] Price competitive 1 with mechanical drives 

[ ] Reduces space requirements 

Micro Computer 

Product Marketing 

Synetix Industries, Inc 

15050 NE 95th St., Redmond, WA 98052 

206-885-4215 



Creative Products by Synetix 

Call Toll Free 1-800-426-7412 



Apple .i 



iplc [ )( V . 



i .idi'iii.if k:; ot Apple Computer i T M is ,i If .idcm.w k ol [)i(|if.il Research 
CIRCLE 299 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Sirius" All Star Games 




SUPER FUN! 



All software represented in this advertisement are copyrighted products of Sirius Software, Inc., 10364 Rockingham Drive, Sacramento, 
California 95827, (916) 366*1 195. All rights reserved. Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer Inc. Atari is a trademark of Atari Inc. IBM is a 
trademark of International Business Machines Corp. VIC-20 is a trademark of Commodore Business Machines, Inc. Games of the Century 
is a trademark of Fox Video Games, Inc. 



CIRCLE 274 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Casino, continued... 




Apple 21. 

Play is much the same as in the casi- 
nos. The dealer will hit on 16 and stand 
on 17. If the dealer's first card showing 
is an ace, you can buy "insurance." No 
running total of the players' card 
counts is kept on screen; that com- 
puting must be done via biological 
processing, but it's good practice for 
real life. Play is swift and exciting. The 
only drawback to the game, so far as I 
can detect, is that there is only one 
deck in play. This means the program 
does not provide the kind of ex- 
perience aspiring card counters, who 
face three or five decks in the shoe at 
a real casino, would probably like. Of 
course there is a bright side: unlike a 
real casino, which will give you the 
bum's rush if they think you are count- 
ing, the Apple II doesn't seem to mind 
at all. 

Roulette and 
Casino Craps 

Roulette and Casino Craps, de- 
signed in 1979 by Roger Walker, are 
highly detailed and true to life simu- 
lations of the real thing. As in the 
actual casino games, there is very little 
strategy involved. What you need 
most to win is ESP. 

In Roulette one or two players can 
challenge the computer "house." Each 
player starts with a $100 bankroll and 
can bet as much as $9. Using the Apple 
II arrow keys or a Softape light pen, 
you can place bets on any of 162 loca- 
tions on the hi-res color playfield. 



^^^ 


^ 


^^^ 


! g LilT 


Ira B09 BBS 




■g Q QH 

m a Ural 
MP Hi 1 


Qc alia Ilia 1 


r 

I 


r i2 


2K3 U V 




111 i 


IBWilIIBi 


J 



u(HMI»; rtUf£tP IS < P»HD 

OFF *0 

.FRE: . oPKt BhR f0 CONTINUE. 

kit: 

BtiNK 1 bnHi; <• 

i r v. 



Roulette. 
November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



The rest of the game, of course, is 
sheer chance. The wheel spins and, 
depending on your gift for prophecy, 
you profit or crawl deeper into the 
hole. That is just one aspect of the 
realism of this game. With all the 
casino betting options available, even 
"system" players will find Roulette a 
good simulation of the real thing. 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Roulette 

Type: Gambling simulation 

System: 48K Apple II, disk drive, 
optional light pen 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine language 

Summary: Realistic roulette game 

Price: $24.95 

Manufacturer: 

Softape 

10432 Burbank Blvd. 

North Hollywood, CA 91601 



There is at least one 

heavy-hitting player 

who wont go to Vegas 

without his Apple II. 



Casino Craps offers the same high 
level of detailed realism. All of the 
usual casino betting options are 
available for the player to choose, 
using the keyboard arrows or a light 
pen. 

The one important area in which the 
program falters is its lack of docu- 
mentation. For a beginner in the great 
game of craps there are no rules or 
instructions in print or on the screen. 




r 



4 9 19 

3 11 

2 12 



'ass 



Player 1 



Press space to roll 
PLAYER 1 S298 PLAYER 



Casino Craps. 
157 




creative coiaptifciRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Casino Craps 

Type: Gambling simulation 

System: 48K Apple II, disk drive, 
optional light pen 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine language 

Summary: Realistic casino crap game 

Price: $24.95 

Manufacturer: 

Softape 

10432 Burbank Blvd. 

North Hollywood, CA 91601 



You must read Hoyle or Scarne for the 
rules and use your own common sense 
to figure out how to play the game. 
Once you get the hang of it the game 
moves along quickly like real crap 
shooting. 

The realism of Roulette and Casino 
Craps is so great that, according to a 
source at Softape, there is at least one 
heavy-hitting player who won't go to 
Vegas without his Apple II and disk 
drive so he can play the games and 
keep sharp between sessions at the 
real tables. 



Casino 

The level of realism is not as high in 
Bob Rosen's Casino, published in 1981 
by Datamost. Five games are offered, 
keno, poker, blackjack, roulette and 
baccarat. 

Of the five, the best simulation is 
the blackjack game, which plays as 
smoothly as Apple 21 although the 
hi-res graphics are not as attractive. 
The action moves swiftly and there is 
the added aid of a running count of 
your cards and the dealer's, to help 
speed up decision-making. The draw- 
back, as with the other programs on 
this disk; is that the game is solitaire 
against the computer, making this pro- 
gram less of a party attraction than 
Apple 21 and the other Softape 
casino games. 

Keno is a pick the numbers game in 
which you have the opportunity to 
choose as many as 15 of 80 available 
numbers. The computer picks 20. 
What you win (or lose) depends on 
how many of the picks coincide. This 
action moves right along as does your 
bankroll in an outward bound direc- 
tion. 



Casino, continued... 




Casino. 

The roulette game is a little more 
exciting. The choices for betting are 
more limited than in the Softape 
version, but the action is a little 
faster and there is an added element 
of entertainment in the "roulette 
square" feature, in which suspense is 
heightened by a little cursor which 
spins around the square until, 
gradually slowing, it comes to rest on a 
number. This feature enlivens the 
game greatly and adds a touch of 
realism missing from the otherwise 
more sophisticated Softape game. 

Realism is not the strong suit in the 
poker scenario. The screen shows five 
cards and the payoff begins with a pair 
of jacks or better. There is no strategy, 



other than choosing which three cards 
to discard, and no skill required, other 
than the ability to foretell the future. 
The game does move quickly, how- 
ever, and players of slot machines may 
find it quite appealing. 

Baccarat, the final scenario, re- 
quires even less skill than poker. The 
only decision you make is how much 
to bet. Once you have entered that 
information, the computer does the 
rest while you passively watch the fall 
of the cards. 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Casino 

Type: Gambling simulation 

System: 16K Apple II, disk drive, 
Applesoft 

Format: Disk 

Language: Applesoft 

Summary: Five entertaining 
casino games 

Price: $39.95 

Manufacturer: 

Datamost 

9748 Cozycroft Ave. 

Chatsworth, C A 91311 



Casino has several nice features 
which help to emphasize the enter- 
tainment value of the programs. There 
is abundant use of music, which you 
have the option of turning off if you 
like, and a "stats" option which lets 
you see how well you are doing vis-a-vis 
other players. Your bankroll (you start 
with $1000) at the end of the game is 
recorded on the disk and if you take up 
the game at a later date you can, if you 
use the same name, start just as deeply 
in the hole as when you quit. 

In all, Softape has the edge on 
realism. Roulette and Casino Craps 
are very detailed, realistic simulations 
but their entertainment value is not as 
high as Apple 21 or Draw Poker, 
which is the best game of all the ones 
we have seen. 

Casino is a good entertainment 
package, though with the exception of 
the blackjack scenario, it is not as 
realistic as the Softape games. All the 
games seem best suited for players 
with a prior interest in gambling. That 
audience should find these programs 
very satisfactory. 

For beginning gamblers they offer a 
painless and relatively cheap introduc- 
tion to games of chance and an oppor- 
tunity to sharpen basic skills and to be 
reminded how stacked the odds are 
against anyone who gambles for real. 

□ 



PC-6000 

Please call for details. 



PC 8001 A Microcomputer (32K) CAL 

PC 8031A Dual mini disk drives CAL 

PC8012AI/Ounit.32K. 7 slots 489" 

NEC B023 Printer 489 

32K Memory Add on card 1 79 

Ren Tec RS 232 card for NEC 155' 

RenTec Wedge Expansion w/32K 489 

NEC SOFTWARE 

NEC CP/M Operating System 125' 

General Accounting System 249* 

Accounts Receivable System 249* 

Inventory Control System 249 

Payroll System 249" 

Job Cost System 249* 

Select Word Processing w/SpeHer 349 

Report Manager 149" 

Games Pack 1 Alien. Space War 29 
Games Pack 2 UFO Galaxian Bomber 29 

Wordstar by Micropro 299 

Oatastar by Micropro 249 

Mailmerge for NEC Wordstar 109 

Supersort by Micropro 169 

Racel NECDOS CAL 
More software and accessories everyday. 



m. 



SANYO 

computer 



Please call for details 



Best terminal prices on. . . 



We are a full-line 
Commodore Dealer. 

Please Call for More Information 



COMPATIBLE 



ACCESSORIES 



64K memory card by microsoft 379" 

128K memory card by 499 M 

192K memory card by 659 M 

256K memory card by 799 M 

64K ram chip upgrade kit 169" 

Serial Async Comm card w/1 port 129" 

Serial Async card with 2 ports 249" 

Clock Calendar card 105°* 

Combo Card by Apparat 235 ,K ' 

Joystick for IBM 55 M 

Expansion Chassis CALL 

Baby Blue Z 80 w/64K & CP'M CALL 

Percom mini floppy drives (addon) CALL 

Tandon TM 100 mini floppy drives CALL 



THE FRANKLIN ACE FEATURES 

• Apple ll Compatible 

• 64K RAM User memory 

• Upper and lower case 

• Typewriter stylo Keyboard 

• Twelve key numeric pad 

• Alpha lock shift key 

• VisiCalc friendly 

• 50 watt power supply J$£ 

• Built in Fan 
Please call or write 
tor more details. 



T he BASIS 108 microcomputer features in 
elude both a Z 80 and 6502 processor RAM 
capacity of 128K 80 columns upper/lower 
case, detachable keyboard, function keys, 
numeric keypad and cursor block It is com 
pletely compatible with all APPLE II hard 
ware peripherals and software along with 
being compatible with all CP'M based soft 
ware 

PLEASE CALL US FOR MORE DETAILS 



Promethe'us VersaCard 

CPS Multifunction card 

Hayes Micromodem II 

Hayes Smartmodem 

Novation Apple Cat modem 

Videx VideoTerm 80 column card 

Z 80 SoftCard by Microsoft 

16K RamCard by Microsoft 

ThunderClock/Calendar card 

ALF 9 voice Music Card 

Music System (16 voices) Mountain 

Asychronous Serial card by CCS 

Grappier Printer Interfaces 

APPLE II COMPATIBLE DISK DRIVES 

A2 with controller 
A2 w/o controller 
A40 with controller 
A40 without controller 
A70 with controller 
A70 without controller 



• SOFTWARE 



VisiCalc 

VisiFile (Data Base Manager) 

VisiTrend/VisiPlot 

VisiSchedule (New 1 ) 

VisiTerm 

Tax Preparer by Howard Soft 

Real Estate Analyzer by 

PFS Personal Filing System 

DB Master 

Peachtree Accounting Software' 

Continental Accounting Pkgs 

WordStar by MicroPro' 

Microsoft Software: we carry it 
'Requires a Z 80 Soft Card 



The Friendly Computer 



16K Ram Board 

FOR APPLE II 



KIT 



ASSEMBLED & TESTED $69°° 



$239 

VIC 1540 Single Disk Drive 

Datasette Cassette I/O unit 

Joystick Controller (pair) 

VIC 1515 Graphic Printer 

VIC Super Expander 

8K Ram Cartridge 

16K Ram Cartridge 

VIC RS 232C Terminal interface 

ViCaic Viable Calculator (T) 

AMOK(C) 

The Alien (8K/T) 



MONITORS 



Amdek Video 300 12 Hi Res Green 
Amdek Color 113 Color w/audio 
Amdek Color II Hi Res RGB 
Amdek Apple II DVM RGB card 
NEC 12 Hi Res Green monitor 
NEC 12 Composite Color 
NEC 12 Hi Res RGB Color 
Sanyo 9 Green monitor 
Sanyo 12 B&W 
Sanvo 13 Color Monitor 
Zenith 12 Green monitor 



Atari 8OOO6K1 6 

Atari 800 W/32K 729" W/48K 769 0a 

Atari 400 (16K) 329~ 

Bit 3 80 Column Card for 800 299" 

410 Program Recorder 79" 

810 Disk Drive 439* 

850 Interface Module 169™ 

Atari Joysticks (pair) 20*° 

Axlon Ramcram 32K module 149°° 

Atari 16K Module by Microteck 69 00 

EDU PAKs Educational Tape Series CALL 

Pac Man (cartridge) 34 M 

Centipede icartndge) 34* 
We carry all ATARI software and hardware. 



PRINTERS 



C Itoh F 10 40 CPS (parallel) 1399 00 

C Itoh F 10 40 CPS (serial) 1450°° 

Epson MX 80 T Type III w/graph CALL 

Epson MX 80 F/T Type III w/graph CALL 

Epson MX 82 F/T Type III w/qraph CALL 

IDS Prism 132 with color 1589°° 

NEC Spinwnters (most models) CALL 

NEC 8032 Impact Dot Matrix 489 80 

Okidata82A w/tractor. 80 col 469°° 

Okidata83A s&84A s CALL 

Smith Corona Printer parallel 689"' 



DISKETTES 



Dysan5'« (Soft 10 or 16 sectored) 10/39™ 
Verbatim 5' 4 ;Soft 10 or 16 sect ) 10/29" 

Scotch 3M 5'. (Soft. 10 or 16 sect ) 10/26'° 
Same as above m quantity of 1 00 245*° 

Scotch 3M Dr Head Clean Kit (5 & 8 ) 29"° 



(3®DQSDaDua®[? CATALOG SALES 

G®[jDQr°)DD ir©[7§ 8338 c « n,er Dr,ve L ° M «* a - CA 92041 

Toll Free 800 -854 -6654 

Info & California 714 - 698- 8088 

We accept most major credit cards, bank wire transfer, money orders, cashiers or certified 
checks and personal checks (10 days to clear). Unless prepaid with cash please add 5% 
shipping, handling and insurance (min $5 00) CA residents add 6% sales tax Foreign 
customers please call tor ordering information. All equipment is subject to price change and 
availability without notice. All equipment is new and complete with manufacturer's warranty. 
We have a 15 day satisfaction policy — call tor details. 



CIRCLE 154 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




SIZZLING 



HOTS 



COMING 



^RagZfi 




BF VOU ! 





GAMES FROM SSI 










FUN. 



FAST. 



u.: 



W€RFUl 



CITING. 






mTZSOT 



ocm coMpu 




CIRCLE 291 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



■^■^■H 



■p 



ALL MERCHANDISE 100% GUARANTEED! 



CALL US FOR VOLUME QUOTES 



APPLE* II COMPUTER USERS 

DISK DRIVE S299 95 



. 




* Includes metal cabinet 

* Color matches Apple 

* 35 Tracks/single side 

* Includes cable 

* Use with Apple II Controller 

16K RAM CARD *69 95 

* Upgrade your 48K Apple II to full 64K of RAM. 

* Fully software and hardware compatible with the Apple 
language card and microsoft Z80 card. 

* Eliminates the need for the Applesoft or Integer Basic 
ROM card when used in conjunction with DOS 3.3. 

* Allows you to run Apple Fortran or Pascal with no 
difficulty. 

* Available as bare board, kit, or assembled and tested 
board. 

BARE PC CARD — $28.00 KIT — $59.95 

COOLING FAN $69 95 

* Easy installation. 

* No modification of Apple required. 

* Color matches Apple. 

* Switch on front controls fan, 
computer and monitor. 

* Ultra-quiet, reliable fan. ] 

* Completely eliminates problems 
caused by overheating. 

'Apple is a trademark of APPLE COMPUTER, INC. 



EXPAND YOUR MEMORY 

16 DYNAMIC RAMS 





SET OF 8 PCS. 
4116-200NS RAMS $ 1I3 95 



INSTRUCTIONS FOR 

Model I 

Model III 

Color Computer to 16K 

Color Computer to 32K 

$ 1 00 EACH 



DIP SHUNTS 
FOR TRS-80 

MODEL I 
KEYBOARD 

SET OF 2 

$2 9 5 



EPSON 
PRINTERS 

MX-80 

MX-80FT 

MX-100 

CALL FOR PRICE 

WE HA VE A PPL E AND TRS-80 
INTERFACE CARDS AND CABLES 



MONITORS 

JB-1201 M $ 169 

$ 119 



NITH 



ViSA 



ZVM-121 



00 



95 



MasterCard 



ORDER TOLL FREE 

800-538-5000 
800-662-6279 

(CALIFORNIA RESIDENTS) 

IF YOU CAN FIND A PRICE LOWER 
ELSEWHERE. LET US KNOW AND 
WE'LL MEET OR BE A T THEIR PRICE' 



DISKETTES 

5 1 /4" 

ATH AN A ss sd soft 24.95 

MEMOREXsssdsoft 26.95 

VERBATIM sssd soft 29.95 

VERBATIM 10 SECTION HARD . . 29.95 

8" 

VERBATIM sssd soft 44.95 



JDR MICRODEVICES, INC 

1224 S. Bascom Avenue 

San Jose, CA 95128 

800-538-5000 • 800-662-6279 (CA) 

(408) 995-5430 • Telex 171-110 

©1982 JDR MICRODEVICES, INC. 



VISIT OUR 
RETAIL STORE 



HOURS 
M-F. 9-5; Sat 11-3 



PLEASE USE YOUR CUSTOMER NUMBER WHEN ORDERING 

TERMS: For shipping include $2 for UPS Ground or S3 tor UPS Blue 
Label Air Items over 5 pounds require additional shipping charges 
Foreign orders, include sufficient amount for shipping There is a $ 10 
minimum order Bay Area and Los Angeles Counties add 6' tS Sales 
Tax Other California residents add 6 Sales Tai We reserve the 
right to substitute manufacturer Not responsible for typographical 
errors. Prices are subject to change without notice We will match or 
beat any competitor s price provided it is not below our cost. 



CIRCLE 195 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Colorsoft Flight Simulator 




Any Landing You Can 



Walk Away From Is OK 



r 



creative coraputiRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Colorsoft Flight Simulator 

Type: One-player simulation 

System: 16K or 32K TRS-80, Color 
Computer with joysticks 

Format: Cassette 

Language: Extended Color Basic 

Summary: For aviation fanatics only 

Price: $11.95 

Manufacturer: 

Color Software Services 
P.O. Box 1723 
Greenville, TX 75401 



I'm nuts about airplanes. Always have 
been. I am also interested in making the 
most of the considerable graphics capa- 
bilities of my TRS-80 Color Computer. 
That is why, ever since I acquired my 
machine, I have been eagerly anticipating 
a really terrific aircraft simulation 
game — one with a decent instrument 
panel, coupled with an interesting out-of- 
the-cockpit view. 

The view could be of a carrier, an 
airborne tanker, or enemy aircraft, if it 
were a war game, if it were a commercial 
aviation game, then it could be a view of 
a runway layout during a landing 
approach. 

I'm still waiting. Flight Simulator isn't 



Scott L. Norman, 8 Doris Rd., Framingham, MA 
01701. 

November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



Scott L Norman 



it. Flight Simulator is a representation of 
an instrument approach to an airport, all 
right, but the "instrument panel" consists 
of six little text boxes, and there is no 
view out of the cockpit — not even a 
representation of the cockpit. 

It is actually quite dumb. The only thing 
is, you can crank up the degree of diffi- 



Your control of the 
aircraft is limited 

to climbing, diving, 
and banking via 

commands from a 
single joystick. 



culty and give yourself a pretty fair 
workout, because after all you are trying 
to manage motion in three dimensions. 

It can become something of a challenge 
to monitor the few "instructions," too, 
because the layout of the panel is screwed 
up. Then there is the matter of the 
response of the aircraft. 

This is no F-15 you've got on your 
hands. It staggers through turns like a 



drunk finding his way out of the House of 
Mirrors, it drops alarmingly from high 
altitudes, and it floats when you want to 
lose the last few hundred feet before 
landing. I don't know what kind of aircraft 
it is supposed to simulate; I don't know if 
it obeys any control laws at all. 
Maddening. 

Surprisingly, it isn't all bad, however. 
Let me describe the game, and let you 
decide for yourself. In Flight Simulator, 
the single player is first asked to specify 
an altitude and distance within which he 
must approach the airport in order to 
win. Both figures must be given in miles, 
although the altimeter readout on the 
panel is in feet as it should be. You can 
start with nice fat tolerances (up to 10 
miles for an altitude specification, for 
instance!), but with a little practice you 
can be shooting for realistic goals. It is 
fairly reasonable to specify 0.1 miles for 
both dimensions; an altitude spec of 0.05 
miles makes things a little dicey. After 
setting up your degree of difficulty in this 
fashion, you are presented with your 
instrument panel view, and the game 
begins. 

The panel consists of three rows of 
data. The uppermost one gives you alti- 
tude and airspeed data and the compass 
heading; the next row gives the distance 
to the airport and something else, also 
called "heading," which is really the 
bearing to the airport from your Present 
Position. The third row consists of a fuel 
gauge. 

The information is updated every two 
seconds. (The game is written in Basic, 
remember?) Your control of the aircraft 



161 



FOR TRS-80 MODEL I OR III 
IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER 

* MORE SPEED 
10-20 time* fMter than Interpreted BASIC. 

* MORE ROOM 

Very compact compiled code plus VIRTUAL MEMORY 
mekee your RAM act larger. Varieble number of block 
buffers 31 -cher unique wordnemes use only 4 bytes In 
header! 

* MORE INSTRUCTIONS 
Add YOUR commands to Its 79-STANOARO-pius instruc- 
tion sat! 

Far mora complete than most Forth* single e. double 
precision, arrays, strtng-hendllng, clock, grsphlcs (IBM 
low-res. gives BAV and 16 color or 200 tint color display) 

* MORE EASE 

Excellent full-screen Editor, structured & modulsr 

programming 

Word search utility 

THE NOTEPAD letter writer 

Optimized for your TRS-80 or IBM with keyboard repeats 

upper/lower case display driver, full ASCII. 

* MORE POWER 

Forth operating system 

Concurrent Interpreter AND Compiler 

VIRTUAL I/O for video and printer, disk and tape 

(10-Megebyte hard disk available) 

Full 8080 or 8068 Assembler aboard 

(280 Assembler also available for TRS-80) 

Intermix 35- to 80 track disk drives 

IBM can read, write end run M 3 Disks 

M 3 can reed, write end run Ml disks 

AJiPfflrTW 

THE PROFESSIONAL FORTH SYSTEM 

FOR TRS 80 4 IBM PC 

(Thousands of systems m use) 

MMSFORTH Disk System (requires 1 disk drive. 32K RAM) 
V2 For Redio Shack TRS-80 Model I or III S1M.9S* 

V2 1 For IBM Personal Computer (80-coi screen) S249.9S* 

AND MMS GIVES IT PROFESSIONAL SUPPORT 

Source code provided 

MMSFORTH Newsletter 

Msny demo programs aboard 

MMSFORTH User Groups 

Inexpensive upgrades to latest version 

Programming staff can provide advice, modifications and 

custom programs, to fit YOUR needs 

MMSFORTH UTILITIES DISKETTE mcljdes FLOATING POINT 
MATH (BASIC ROM routines plus Complex numbers. P<ectan 
guiar Polar coordinate conversions. Degrees mode. more), s 
powerful CROSS REFERENCER to list Forth words by block 
end line, plus (TRS-80) e full Forth style Z80 assembler 
requires MMSFORTH V2 0. 1 drive & 32K RAM) S38.85* 

FORTHCOM communications package provides PS 232 
driver, dumb terminei mode, transfer of FORTH blocks, and 
host mode to operate a remote FORTHCOM systems (requires 
MMSFORTH V2 0. 1 drive & 32K RAM) S39.9S* 

THE DATAHANDLER s vry fast database management 
system operable by non-programmers (requires MMSFORTH 
V2 0. 1 drive & 32K RAM) IS9.95 # 

FORTHWRITE fast, powerful Word Processor w/sssy 
keystrokes. Help screens, manual & demo files Full propor 
tionai w/tabs. outdsnting Include other blocks, documents & 
keyboard inputs— ideal for form letters (requires MMSFORTH 
V2.0. 2 drives & 48K RAM) $175 00* 

MMSFORTH GAMES DISKETTE reel-time graphics & board 
games w/source code includes BREAKFORTH. CRASH 
FORTH. CRYPTOOUOTE. FREEWAY (TRS-80). OTHELLO & 
TICTACFORTH (requires MMSFORTH V2.0. 1 drive & 32K RAM) 

939.95* 

Other MMSFORTH products under development 

FORTH BOOKS AVAILABLE 

MMSFORTH USERS MANUAL w/o Appendices 917.50* 

STARTING FORTH best! 115.95* 

THREADED INTERPRETIVE LANGUAGES advanced, analysis 
of FORTH internals 918.95* 

PROGRAM DESIGN A CONSTRUCTION intro to structured 
programming, good lor Forth 916.00* 

FORTH 79 STANDARD MANUAL official reference to 79- 
STANDARD word set. etc 913.95* 

FORTH SPECIAL ISSUE. BYTE Magazine (Aug 1980) A codec 
tor's item tor Forth users and beginners 94.00* 

ORDERING INFORMATION Software prices include 
manuals and require signing of s single computer license for 
one-person support Describe your Hardware Add $2 00 S/H 
plus 9300 per MMSFORTH and 91 00 per additional book 
Mass orders add 5% tax Foreign orders add 20% UPS COO. 
VISA and M/C accepted, no unpaid purchase orders or refunds 

Send SASE tor tree MMSFORTH information 
Good dealers sought 

Get MMSFORTH products from your 
computer dealer or 

MILLER MICROCOMPUTER 

SERVICES (B9) 

61 Lake Shore Road. Natick. MA 01760 

(617)653-6136 



CIRCLE 225 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Landing, continued... 

is limited to climbing, diving, and banking 
via commands from a single joystick. 
Airspeed is controlled by the computer, 
and is reduced in two stages as you 
approach the airport. 

All games begin with the aircraft at 
30,000 feet and 220 mph, on a course of 
270 degrees (due west). The airport is 300 
miles to the north, and your fuel load is 
10,000 lbs. (that's the way jets specify it, 
sport). Now things get a little compli- 
cated. 

Your two-second updates actually rep- 
resent a minute's flying time each at this 
stage, which makes the sluggish response 
of the plane even stranger. At any rate, 
your first task is to turn onto a course 
which will point you toward the airport. 
The quickest route is to execute a right 
turn through a little more than 90 degrees, 
which can be done with a fuel expenditure 
of about 2500 lbs. You can also go around 
the long way, turning left for about 270 
degrees. This will still leave you with 
enough fuel, if you are careful. 

You should also begin your descent 
during the turn. Part of the fun is experi- 
menting with rates of descent during these 
early phases so as to leave yourself in a 
comfortable position for the rest of the 
flight. After all, you come out of your 
turn more than 200 miles from the airport, 
in general, and you don't want to fly it all 
at 500 feet. 

Once you have established your initial 
course for the airport, you must continue 
to manage your altitude and correct any 
heading deviations that may occur. Occur 
they will, too. You will generally be 
unable to roll out of that first big turn 
right on the money, thanks to the control 
characteristics of the program, so you 
can expect to see the heading of the 
aircraft and the bearing to the airport 
diverge as the flight progresses. With 
experience, you develop a sense of which 
way to nudge the joystick to respond to 
such changes. 

When you get to within 100 miles of 
the airport, airspeed is reduced to 180 
mph. At the same time, the simulation 
rules are changed so that each instrument 
update represents 30 seconds of flight 
time. 

Things change again when you are 20 
miles out; airspeed goes down to 100 mph, 
while the simulated interval diminishes to 
7 seconds. All of this is accompanied by 
additional audio tones at the two-second 
update intervals, together with some 
malarkey on the screen about being 
cleared to land on Runway 123. 

Ignore the latter. Real runways are 
designated by a system related to their 
compass headings, and in this game the 
direction in which you finally approach 
the airport doesn't matter; only the dis- 
tance and altitude count. 

162 



All of these changes in simulated time 
intervals make it difficult to develop a 
real feel for the flying characteristics of 
the aircraft, as I have stressed. The upshot 
is that in the latter stages of an approach, 
you must pay a penalty for any earlier 
mismanagement of the descent. 

It is very common to find yourself 
closing rapidly on the airport with more 
altitude than you can shed, even with full 
forward stick. 

Your only alternative at such moments 
is to overfly and go out on some course 
from which you can descend to a more 
appropriate altitude. The trick is to man- 
age things so that you can later turn back 
onto a direct course for the airport. You 
need a lot of room in which to turn 
around, which means that it is necessary 
to go a good way past the airport before 
beginning your turn. Otherwise, you can 
find yourself orbiting the field, unable to 
ever get onto a direct radial bearing. 

Nothing lasts forever, though, and your 
troubles will be over when you run out of 
either fuel or altitude (in contrast to the 
airman's classic trilogy of "airspeed, alti- 
tude, and ideas"). By the way, a crash for 
either reason is signified by a really 
annoying little tune. 

That's really all there is to it. I must 
admit that successful "landings" came as 
a shock for a while, because they usually 
occurred while I was concentrating very 
hard on simultaneously maintaining a 
finite altitude and a small course devia- 
tion. Flight Simulator rarely gives you the 
luxury of flaring out for a proper landing. 

So what's in it for the player? Not much, 
by objective standards. There are no 
graphics, you have no control over certain 
important parameters (ground-controlled 
airspeed?), and in my opinion the simu- 
lation as a whole is clumsy. 

Of course, since it is in Basic the 
enterprising enthusiast could use it as the 
jumping-off point for his own game, but 
that's not much of a recommendation. I 
can't even say whether I would play it at 
all, if the numbers didn't purport to relate 
to an airplane. 

Still, there is a certain satisfaction to be 
gained from flying a good pattern and 
glide path, even if there are no rewards 
within the game itself. In the end, such 
internal rewards are probably what attract 
people to any computer game. What can 
I say? 

Buy Flight Simulator if you are an 
aviation nut, and join me in hoping for a 
really good simulation. Who knows, may- 
be the people at Color Software Services 
will be able to improve this one 
dramatically. 

And if you do rework it, try to remem- 
ber that any aircraft with a fuel load 
measured in pounds ought to have its 
airspeed measured in knots. □ 

CIRCLE 347 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



It's hard to picture 

all of DYNACOMP's software 




GIN RUMMY 



FOURlf R ANAL Y/f R 




FOREST FIRE 




CHFCKE RS 3 



ItACHt R S AIDE- 



MAIL MASTE R 



ESCAPI f Ri >M 
VOLANTIUM 



SHAPE MAi.U.iAN 




RINuSC >\ 1 ME E MPIRE- 






OUINTUMINOE S 




DGi P( >l 




\y [ ! RAP 



VALDFZ 1MAP1 



HRE AKUP 




( ME SSMASfE R 




LFMlANDER 



ERIPl E biOCKARD 




STO< IK MA MM 
STOCK PLOT 



Bl ACK HOI E 



II KAID 




STOCK MASTFR 
STOCK PLOT 



( ;h< iMPI lo 



mn ®m 




MIDWAY 





f r-u 

I • •• i 



•>■_ » ».••« 



HACCARAT 



I WWW-, 



¥U 



(.IN RUMMY 



iDGI • 



NYINDEX 




SUPER SLJB CHASE 



INTRUDE R ALERT 




PI RSONAL FINANCE 
SYSTEM 




AC! t ANE S 




CRYSTAL S 



(c) 1982 PROMEDIA ASSOCIATES 



TURN TO NEXT PAGE. 



I 



UJ 

Z 



- 

z 



z 



z 



DYNACOMP 

Quality software for*: 

APPLE II Plus ALTAIR**** 

OSBORNE- 1 NEC PC-8000 

NORTH STAR*** TRS-80 (Level II)** 

ATARI SUPERBRAIN***** 

PET/CBM CP/M Disks/Diskettes 



(See Availabilil> box v 
MBASIC CBASIC ) 



CARD GAMES 

BRIDGE MASTER (Available for all computers) Price: $21.95 Diskette 

II you liked DYNACOMP'S BKIIX.I 2 v ., u will absolutely love BRUM. I MASH K BRIDGE MASTER is a 
comprehensive bridge program designed lo provide hour* of challenging competition Bidding feature* include the 
Rlatkwoird convention. Siayman convention, pre-emptive opening*, and recognition of demand bids and jump-shift 
letponses After playing a spec ific hand, you may replay the tame hand, with the option of switching cards svilh your 
computer opponents This leature allows you to compare your bidding and playing skills to BRIDGE MASTER. 
Bonuses for game < onirac is and slams are awarded as in duplic ate bridge Doubled contracts are scored based upon a 
c ompuler assigned vulnerability A si ore < ard is displayed at the conclusion of each hand The score card displays a 
summary of total hands played total points scored, number of contracts made and set. and % bids made BRIDGE 
MAS It K is clearly the best computer bridge program available 

UYNAC OMPS previous BKII M ,1 2 c usiomers may upgrade to BRIDGEMASTER for a nominal charge of $5 00 plus 
postage and handling (see ordering information bom Original cassette diskette mutt be returned. 

BACCARAT (Atari only) p r j ce: $18.95 Cassette $22.95 Diskette 

This is the European c ard game which is the favorite of the Monte C arlo )et set Imagine yourself at the gaming table 
with 007 lo your left and Goldfinger to your right Learn and play BACCARAT at your leisure on the Atari Contains full 
high resolution coloi graphics and matching sound Runs in IbK Requires one joystick 

GIN RUMMY (Apple diskette onl>) Price: $22.95 Diskette 

This is the best micro computer implementation of GIN RUMMY existing The computer plays exceptionally well, and 
the HIRr S graphics are superb What else can be said' 

POKfcR PARTY (Available for all computers) Price: $19.95 Cassette, $23.95 Diskette 

POKER PARTY is a draw poker simulation based on the book POKEH. by Oswald Jacoby This is the most 
comprehensive version available for microcomputers The party c (insists of yourself and six other (computer) players 
f ac h of these players (you will get to know them) has a different personality in the lorm of a varying propensity to bluff or 
fold under pressure Prac tic e with POKER PARTY before going to that expensive game tonight! Apple cassette and 
diskette versions require a 32K (or larger) Apple IE 

GO PISH (Available for all computers) Price: $14.95 Cassette $18.95 Diskette 

GO FISH fa at lassie c hildren's c ard game The opponent is a friendly computer with user inputs that are simple enough 
h>r small children to easily master The Apple and Atari versions employ high resolution graphics for the display of 
hands A must for children 1 Runs in I6K 

BLACKJACK COACH (32K IRS 8(1 only) Price: $29.95 Cassette $33.95 Diskette 

BIA( hJA( K ( OAC H leaches and evaluates professional playing methods This program will coach you using the 
Basic and the Complete C ardCounting Methods The BLACKJAC K C OAC H c an be used in automatic . unattended play 
to lest the playing and belling strategies you selec l f slensivr summary reports pinpoint the strengths and weaknesses 
irf various methods of play All the standard playei c hou es are included: Insurance, splitting pairs, double downs and 
surrender (optional) A line printer may be used lo collect data If you risk money at the tables, increase your skills with 
the BLACKJACK COACH' 



THOUGHT PROVOKERS 

MANAGEMENT SIMULATOR (Available for all computers) Price: $25.95 Cassette $29.95 Diskette 

This program is both an excellent teaching tool as well as a stimulating intellectual game Based upon similar games 
played at graduate business schools, each player or team controls a company which manufacturers three products 
I a. h player attempts lo outperform his competitors by setting selling prices, production volumes, marketing and 
design expenditures etc The most succ essful firm is the one with the highest stock price when the simulation ends 

FLIGHT SIMULATOR (Available for all computers) Price: $19.95 Cassette/S23.95 Diskette 

A realistic and extensive mathematical simulation of take-oH. flight and landing The program utilises aerodynamic 
equations and the characteristic s of a real airfoil You c an practice instrument approaches and navigation using radials 
and c ompass headings The more advanced flyer can also perform loops, half-rolls and similar acrobatic maneuvers 
Although this program does not employ graphics, it is exciting and very addictive See the software review in 
( OMPUTHONK S Runs in I6K Atari 

VALDEZ (Available for all computers) Price: $17.95 Cassette $21 .95 Diskette 

VALDI / is a i ompuler simulal ion of supertanker navigation in the Prince William Sound Valdez Narrows region of 
Alaska Inc luded in this simulation is a realistic and extensive 2S6 x 256 element map. portions of which may be viewed 
using the ship's alphanumeric radar display The motion of the ship itself is ac curately modelled mathematically The 
simulation also t ..mains a model lor the tidal patterns in the region as well as other traffic (outgoing tankers and 
drifting ic ebergsl C harl your c ouise from the Gulf of Alaska lo V alder Harbor' See Ihe software reviews in 80 Software 
Critique Personal Computing and Creative Computing 

BACKGAMMON 2.0 (Available for all computers) Price: $19.95 Cassette '$23.95 Diskette 

This program tests your backgammon skills and will also improve your game A human can compete against a 
e ompuler or against another human The c ompuler < an even play against itself Either the human or the computer can 
double or generate dice rolls Board positions can be created or saved for replay BACKGAMMON 2 plays in 
ace ordanc e with the ofhc lal rules of backgammon and is sure to provide many fascinating sessions of backgammon 
play 

FROG MASTER (Atari only) Price: $17.95 Cassette/$2I95 Diskette 

The Aun APLX firs! prize winner rR(X» MASK R contains exciting arcade features in addition to being a highly 
educ ational program It is a fast-moving high-c one entration game for 1 -4 players You score by making touchdowns on 
the opponents goal line - if his goalie doesn't get there first But your players (tadpoles and frogs) must be trained. This 
is accomplished by giving them a reward at )usl the right moment when they do something right This takes precise 
timing and judgement Your critters must penetrate barriers and avoid evil line backs if they are to score. Many will fall 
by Ihe wayside but some will gel through As they learn you can look inside their heads to see how they think As you 
reward them they reward you (the "thought processes" simulated demonstrate the basic type of animal learning • 
operant conditioning • widely studied in high school and college courses) As you teach them they teach you how 
learning lakes place' Great graphics' Runs in I6K Requires two joysticks 

FORfcST FIRF! (Atari only ) p r j ce: $14.95 Cassette/$I8.95 Diskette 

Using excellent graphic sand sound effects, this simulation puts you in the middle of a forest fire Your Job is to direct 
operations 10 put out ihe fire while c ompensaling for changes in wind, weather and terrain Not protecting valuable 
slruc lures c an result in startling penalities Life-like variables are provided to make FOREST FIRE! very suspenseful 
and challenging No two games have Ihe same setting and there are 3 levels of difficulty 

CRANSTON MANORADVENTUREtNorthStar.SuperBrainandCP Monly) Price:$l9.95 Diskette 

Al last' A comprehensive Adventure game lor North Star and CP M systems CHANSTON MANOR ADVENTURE 
lakes you into mysterious C RANSTON MANOR where you attempt to gather fabulous treasures Lurking in Ihe manor 
are wild animals and robots who will not give up the treasures without a fight The number of rooms is greater and the 
associated desc riptions are much more elaborate than the c urrenl popular series of Adventure programs, making this 
game the top in Us c lass Play can be slopped al any time and the status stored on diskette 

SPACE EVACUATION! (Available for all computers) Price: $15.95 Cassette $ 19.95 Diskette 

< an you colonize the galaxy and evacuate the Earth before the sun explodes' Your computer becomes the ship's 
1 ompuler as you explore Ihe universe to relocate millions of people This simulation is particularly interesting as it 
t ombines many of the exciting elements of < lassie space games with the mystery challenge of ADVENTURE 

MONARCH (Atari only) Price: $14.95 Cassette/$I8.95 Diskette 

MONARCH is a fas< mating ec onomu simulation requiring you to survive an 8-year term as your nation's leader You 
determine Ihe amount of acreage devoted to industrial and agricultural use. how much food lo distribute to the 
populac e and how muc h should be spent on pollution control You will find that all decisions involve a compromise and 
that 11 is not easy lo make everyone happy Runs in 16K Atari 

RU Bl K'S CU BE SOLVE R ( Available for all computers ) Price: $ 14.95 Cassette $ 1 8.95 Diskette $2 1 .45 Disk 

Solving ihe Rubik s cube puzzle is an exerc ise in algoruhimic logic . and is a "natural" for computer calculation The 
RUBIK S t UBE SOLVER permits you to input the starling slate of Ihe 24 facing elements of the cube It then solves the 
problem one step al a lime with rai h step shown as a unfolded view of the cube Can you solve the cube in fewer steps In 
any case. 11 sure beats disassembling the cube or peeling off and replacing the colors' Requires IbK 



AVAILABILITY 

DYNAC OMP software is supplied with complete documentation containing clear explanations and examples Unless 
otherwise spec ified all programs will run within I bk program memory space (ATARI requires 24K) Except where noted 
piograms are available on ATARI P» T T KS HO (Level III NEC and Apple I Applesoft) cassette and diskette as well as North 
Stai single density (double density c ompatiblel diskette Additionally most programs can be obtained on standard (IBM 
3740 single density double density compatible formal) H " ( P M floppy disks for systems running under MBASIC or 
CBASIC |f..r example Alios Xerox 820 Healh Zenith and many others) 5V." CP M diskettes are available for the North 
Star SuperBrain and Osborne computer systems 



ATAHI fH <HM HOHIIISTAK CP M (MM ttSHOHNt N(/Pr WflKA/N NH PC IUHM, an d XEROX are rruisrerrdrrodrnumr. 
and or itadt ntotk % 
"£»< 1 pi u her, anted all IHS HO Model I x.fru ur. i> ui atluhl. on ■ ussrrir (oniy) ft Ih, THSHII Mndrl III I .< epnon. VALDLZ 

< HIHHAI.I (,KAH\ ( HI S.SMA.S Tf H rmm *— ■»-* — T ritff " t nfl (Ifl fTtJf .. amc 

'"litr mo*! North Srur «J.kX -Du.rtJ systems 

for All.nr man .0, hui ...u Mo ......(l 8A.S/I 

'"' *»"*» HHHAIN ,v.l..... rumio w under MHAS/t ... (HASH tsiuir u hit nj 



UJ 

z 



UJ 

z 



UJ 

z 



UJ 

z 



DYNACOMP OFFERS THE FOLLOWING 

• Widest variety • Friendly service 

• Guaranteed quality • Free catalog* 

• Fastest delivery • Toll free order phone 



*$2 00 U S hind, lor forngn mailing 



AND MORE... 



STARBASE 3.2 (Available for all computers) Price: $13.93 Cassette $17.95 Diskette 

This is the classic spae e simulation, but with several new features for example, ihe C royhns now shoot al the Invincible 
without warning while also attacking starbases in other quadrants The C roylins also attack with both light and heavy 
cruisers and move when shot al! The situation is hectic when ihe Invincible is besieged by three heavy cruisers ana) a 
slarbase SO S is received! The C roylins get even! See the software reviews in AN A LOG . 80 Software t ruique and 
Game Merchandising 

LIL" MEN FROM MARS (Atari onlv ) Price: $19.95 Cassette $23.95 Diskette 

Defend yourself* The little men from Mars are out to get you if you don't gel ihem first This is a hilarious high resolution 
animated graphics (arcade) game which exercises much uf ihe Atari's power Hequires one joystick. 

ALVIN (Atari only) Price: $17.95 Cassette $21.95 Diskette 

ALVIN is a greal arcade game You are commanding a highly maneuverable ship seeking lo destroy several enemy 
cities You are attempting to bomb these cities while at the same lime trying to avoid their defensive fire (MISSIU 
COMMAND* in reverse') Also, your radar has been damaged so that you can only see downward* This would 
normally not be much of a problem except thai you also have to contend with high-flying enemy air • rah As long as you 
are above these aircraft you have Ihe advantage and are safe However, high level bombing takes considerable skill 
Therefore to achieve your goal the best strategy is to swoop down for a bombing run while the enemy craft is out ..I range, 
and quickly retreat to the skies A fun game Requires IbK 

ESCAPE FROM VOLANTIUM (Atari only) Price: $15.95 Cassette $19.95 Diskette 

Bring the action and excitement of an arcade into your home with I SC API T ROM VOLANTIUM! To escape you must 
maneuver your space ship around obstacles and laser blast the guardian (without being eaten) If he is killed with a 
direct shot (not |usi a leg lopped off), a door opens lo the outside However the door does not stay open indefinitely If 
you fail to escape in lime, ihe door closes and a new guardian appears Sometimes you can smash through Ihe door by 
repeatedly chipping away al it Other limes it is impervious At Ihe higher levels of play more obsi ac lev and guardians 
appear, adding lo ihe excitement Uses high resolution graphics and sound Huns in IbK 

ALPHA FIGHTER (Atari only) Price: $13.95 Cassette $17.95 Diskette 

Two excellent graphics and action programs in one' ALPHA FIGHTER requires you lo destroy the alien siarships 
passing through your sector of the galaxy ALPHA BASE is in the path of an alien UFO invasion, let five UFO's get by 
and ihe game ends Both games require ihe joystick and get progressively more difficult the higher you score' ALPHA 
FIGHTER will run on 16K systems 

THE RINGS OF THE EMPIRE (Atari only) Price: $14.95 Cassette $18.95 Diskette 

The empire has developed a new battle station protected by rotating rings of energy Each lime you blast through Ihe 
rings and destroy the station, the empire develops a new station with more protective rings This exciting game runs on 
I6K systems, employs extensive graphics and sound and tan be played by one or two players 

INTRUDER ALERT (Atari only) Price: $15.95 Cassette $19.95 Diskette 

This is a fast paced graphics game which places you in the middle of the "Dreadslar" having |ust stolen us plans The 
droids have been alerted and are directed to destroy you al all costs You must find and enter your ship lo esc ape wHh Ihe 
plans Five levels of difficulty are provided INTRUDER ALERT requires a joystick and will run on IbK systems. 

MIDWAY (Atari 32K only) Price: $14.95 Cassette $18.95 Diskette 

MIDWAY is an exc iting extension of the game of Battleship It mixes ihe challenges of strategy and chance Your 
opponent can be another human or the computer Color graphics and sound are both included Runs in IbK. 

GOLF PRO (Atari only) p r j C e: $17.95 Cassette $21.95 Diskette 

Both realism and beautiful graphics are joined together in GOLF PRO 10 produce the best golf simulation available To 
really appreciate this game, you should have a color TV so thai you can see ihe green of the fairway. Ihe blue uf the waler 
hazards, and the while sand of the traps You tee off with a wood use your wedge in Ihe sand trap, and pull on the green 
)usl as would be done on the course Show off the Alari to your friends with GOLE PRO Requires 1 bK and one tuyslu k 

GAMES PACK I (Available for all computers) Price: $14.95 Cassette $18.95 Diskette 

(.AMI S PACK I contains the classic computer games of BLACKJACK LUNAR LANDER. CRAPS. HOHSEKAC I 
SWITCH and more These games have been combined into one large program for ease in loading They are individually 
ac cessed by a convenient menu This c olleclion is worth the price just for the DYNACOMP version of BLAC KJACK 

GAMES PACK II (Available for all computers) Price: $14.95 Cassette $18.95 Diskette 

(.AMI S PACK II includes the games CRAZY EIGHTS. JOTTO.ACI Y 1)1 )C I Y LIU WUMPUS and others As with 
(.AMI S PACK I. all the games are loaded as one program and are called from a menu You will particularly ensuy 
DYNACOMP's version of CRAZY EIGHTS 
Why pay $9 95 or more per program when you can buy a DYNACOMP collection for ,usi $14. 9S? 

MOON PROBE (Available for all computers) Price: $12.95 Cassette $16.95 Diskette 

This is an extremely challenging "lunar lander" program The user must drop from orbit lo land al a predetermined 
target on the moon's surface You control the thrust and orientation of your 1 rah plus direct the rale of descent and 
approach angle Runs in I6K Atari 

SPACE TRAP (Atari only. I6K) Price: $14.95 Cassette $18.95 Diskette 

This galactic "shoot em up" arcade game places you near a black hole You t ontrol your spacecraft using the jnysiit k 
and attempt to blast as many of the alien ships as possible before the black hole closes about you 

SUPER SUB CHASE (Atari only) Price: $19.95 Cassette $23.95 Diskette 

SUP! K St IB C HASE simulates a search and destroy mission Set your course and keep an eye on the sonar readings as 
you hunt lor the hidden submarine Set the depth e harge explosion depth and walch ihem sink towards the sub. This is 
an addictive game which lakes advantage of the Alan's graphics and sound capabilities One or two players JoyxlicbU) 
required. 



TWO PLAYER GAMES 



TWO PLAYER GAMES (Available for all computers: 32K disk diskette only) 

DYNACOMP has acquired ihe <lisirit.ui ion rights to the best eight of Xiiron's war games These two-player games were 
originally written for ihe North Star computer, but have since been convened to play on all of the computers c urrenthy 
supported by DYNACOMP Because our licensing and development costs were so low. DYNACOMP offers these 
programs two to a disk(ette) for only $ 19 95, diskette. $23 95 disk If you like war games then this is a bargain you ran 
not pass up. 

Set -1 PANZER and BLITZKRIEG 
PANZER 

Date: 23 Nov 1943 Place: Several miles west of Kiev Russia The Russians have just liberated Kiev and are moving 
quickly to reach the German fortes which are preparing lor a last desperate attempt to hall the Russian advance 
BLITZKHIIG 

Date Spring 1940 Place: Northern France The German blitzkrieg in the east was complete Germany had turned us 
attention 10 the west: France The German forces has penetrated the Ardennes and Meuse The heroism of Dunkirk the 
defense of the Anne- Somme position, and the final collapse of the French armies in the south has all passed And. now. 
the drive on Paris . . . 

Set -2 STARSHIP TROOPERS and INVASION OF THE MUD PEOPLE 
STARSHIP TROOPERS 

Date: Fortieth Century Place Arachnid planet of Sheol The first all-out battle on the plane! Sheol which will match 
equal forces of Terran and alien units The outcome will set the course of the conflict, for the planet of Sheol is a key 
position in the solar war 
INVASION Of THE MUD PEOPI I 

A Peruvian army battalion has been dispatched lo a remote village area lo investigate the destruction id many local 
dwellings and ihe disappearance of most of ihe villagers Eye-wilnesses have reported strange creatures appearing 
from scores of slimy mud holes which have oddly begun forming across the terrain. 

Set .3 FALL OF THE THIRD REICH and ARMORCAR 

FALL OF THE THIRD HEICH 

Date March. 1945 Plate Remagen. Germany The allies under General Eisenhower had reached Ihe Rhine The 

Germans had tailed in destroying the I udendorff railroad bridge, allowing several allied divisions 10 cross before 11 

hnally collapsed on March 17 and so. ihe allies began their drive on Berlin 

ARMORCAR 

Dale 2 f eb 1944 Place Minsk. Russia A German front-line unit is hard pressed for radio equipment and medical 

supplies A relief convoy of armored cars must reach them through partisan-infested territory 

Set -4 MOUNT SURIBACHI and MIDDLE EARTH 
MOUNT SURIBACHI 

Dale Ih I eb 1945 Place Iwo Jima The Japanese opened fire from Mount Sunbachi as Ihe marines landed on the 
porkc hop-shaped island Gunfire from ihe hill could cover the entire island, thus it was a critical objective if ihe 
Americ ans were to capture and utilize ihe all-important air field Mount Sunbachi proved to be one ol ihe most strongly 
defended positions in the Japanese theatre of war 
MIDDLE EARTH 

Dale 1997 Place: MIDD1.I EARTH Through a maze of tunnels, crevices, and rocky passageways discovered leading 
from an inactive volcano in South America, a team of United Nations' researchers have undertaken a mission lo an 
unc haried frontier Ihe center of the Earth. After a perilous journey spanning a period of several months, the mission has 
arrived al the Earth's core, a land ol flames, sieam. oceans and unforeseen vegetation And then the creatures of 
MIDDLE EARTH appeared unmatched by the most frightening horror stories created by man 



MISCELLANEOUS 



CRYSTALS (Alari only) p r ; ce: $| 4 .95 Cassette $18.95 Diskette 

A unique algorithm randomly produces fascinating graphics displays accompanied wiih tones which vary as the 
patterns are built No two patterns are the same, and ihe combined effect of the sound and graphics are mesmerizing 
CRYSTALS has been used in local stores lo demonstrate the sound and colin- features of the Atari Runs in IbK 

NORTH STAR SOFTWARE EXCHANGE (NSSE) LIBRARY 

DYNACOMP now distributes the 23 volume NSSE library These diskettes each contain many programs and offer an 

outstanding value for the purchase price They should be part of every North Star ssser's 1 diet lion Call or write 

DYNACOMP for details regarding ihe contents of the NSSE collection 

Price $9 95 each $8 95 each (4 or more) 

The complete collection may be purchased for $159 45 

5V" DISKETTES (soft sectored ten sectored) Price: $39.95 20 Diskettes 

As you might imagine. DYNACOMP purchases diskettes >n laige quantities and at wholesale prices We want to 1 
Ihe savings along to you! 



- 
z 



- 
z 



LU 



_ 
Z 



LU 

z 



- 
z 



LU 

z 



DLjaiixnaa ana uiiLiiitb 

PORTFOLIO MANAGt Ml NT (Apple onl> ) p r i ce: ${,9.95 two Diskettes 

The POHTFOI IO MANAGEMI NT package was written by a Mac* broker to help manage portfolios (.ir individual 
customers With this program data files ran be easily created and kept up to date A variety ol reports ran be generated 
fcir i lients whie h are aitrae lively and professionally laid out The user may define his her osvn investment ralagoties 
PORT FOLIO MANAGI MINT is a top quality professional tool which will not only provide you with new < onvemem es 
but will also serve to enhanc e your appearance as an efficient and up to dale advisor M your < hems ( times i umplete on 
two diskettes along with a 30 page instruction manual. 

PtRSONAL FINANCE SYSTFM (Available for all computers! Price: $39.95 Diskette 

PT S is a single diskette, meiiu-nrienied system < (imposed of ten different programs Besides recording your expenses 
and tax deductible Hems. Pf Swill sort and summarnr expenses by payee, and display information on expenditures by 
any of 26 user defined codes by month or by payee PES will even produce monthly bar graphs of your expenses by 
< alt-gory' This powerful package inquires only one disk drive, minimal memory (24K Atari. 32K North Stall and will 
store up to 600 ree ..ids per disk (and over 1 000 re ( ords per disk by making a few simple changes to the programs) You 
can record checks plus ( ash expenses so that you can finally see where your money goes and eliminate guesswork and 
tedious hand calculations < ontains high speed machine language sort Pf S has been demonstrated on network « BS) 
TV 

FAMILY BL'DGF-T < Apple and Atari only) Price: $34.9? Diskette 

FAMII Y B( DGI T is a very convenient finan. lal re< ord-keeping program You will be able to keep Ml k of c ash and 
. redit expenditures as well as in. MM on a dally basis You can record lax deductible Hems and charitable donations 
FAMILY Bt ItXil T also provides a i onlinuous re< ord of all credit Iransai lions You can make daily cash and charge 
enli.es i.. any <>l 2 I different expense accounts as well as in 5 payroll and tax accounts I lata are easily retrieved giving 
the user . omplete control over an otherwise complicated (and unorganized') subjec i 

TEXT MASTER (Apple UK. diskette onl> ) Price: $49.95 Diskette 

TEXT MASTER is a general purpose text editor for the Apple II computer ll features powerful. I nghsh-orienled 
commands which permit the . omplete manipulation of texlural information The information treated may be 
correspondence, c omputer programs, data to be used by other programs, and more TEXT MASII H also interfaces 
with any printer connected to your Apple The minimum system requirements are 32K nf KAM. Applesoft on ROM. at 
least .me disk and a lowercase adapter TEXT MASTER can process any length file segment by segment Ihus it is 
possible m process files as large as a diskette ( omes complete with an effluent 16 page manual TEXT MASTI K is 
equivalent in c apability to many word ptot essinq systems c osting 3 x or more in price The commands available in 
TIVl MASII Rare (( )l li ( T USE .EX! CUTE . NONUM. INSERT. Ml R(. I SI< )P Rl Nl IM 1)1 1 1 Tl SAU 
COfY IRII Rl PLACE. WAIT MOV!. IENGTH. LIST. Rl SAVE CI EAR. AUTO Rl TRY APP! Nl) SI I 
MANUAI ( HANGI S( RAH H. SHOW CATALOG. MODIEY. COMPARE. NUM. DISPLAY HI I V 

INTEl.INK (Atari onl> I p rlce: $411 05 Diskette 

This software pac kage c ..mains a menu-driven 1 ollec lion of programs for facilitating effluent iwo-way communications 
through a full duplex modem (required for use) In one mode of operation you may connec 1 to a data service (e g . The 
SOURCE 01 Mic roNet) and quit kly load data such as stock quotations onto your diskette for later viewing T his greatly 
reduces "connect time" and ihus the servu e c harge You may also rec ord the complete contents of a 1 omnium, alums 
session Additionally, programs written in BASIC . FORTRAN, etc may be built off-line using the support text editor 
and later "uploaded" to another computer, making the Alan a rery smart terminal Even Atari BASIC programs may 
be uploaded Further a command lile may be built off-line and used later as controlling input for a lime-share system 
That is. you can set up your sequeni e of time-share commands and programs, and the Atari will transmit ihem as 
needed, batch processing All this adds up 10 saving both connect time and yout lime 

PAYFIVE (Apple II plus diskette. Ivso drives required) Price: $149.95 

This is an enormously flexible employee payroll system with extraordinarily good human engineering features 
PAYHVI prims checks and compiles the tequired federal, slate and local forms for up to 148 employees The pay 
methods may be hourly, salary, commission or any combination There are multiple options for pay periods, and they 
also . an be used in any combination PAYHVI inc ludes many other features and comes extremely well documented 
with a 200 page manual The manual may be purchased separately for $30. and thai payment later applied to the 
software purchase 

SHOPPING LIST (Atari only) p r j ce: $12.95 Cassette $16.95 Diskette 

SHOPPING I 1ST stores information on Hems you pur. hase at the supermarket Before going shopping, it will remind 
von of all the things you might need, and then display (or optionally print) your shopping list and the total 1 osl Addinq 
deleting, changing and storing data is very easy Runs with 16K 

TAX OPTIMIZER (Available lor all computers) Price: $59.95 Diskette 

The TAX OPTIMI7FR is an easy-to-use. menu-oriented software package which provides a convenient means lor 
analyzing various income lax strategies The program is designed to provide a quick and easy data entry Inc ome lax is 
computed by all lax methods (regular income averaging, maximum and alternate minimum tax) The user may 
immediately observe the tax effect of c rim al financ lal dec-slims TAX OPTIMIZER has been thoroughly field tested in 
(PA offices and comes complete with the current tax tables in its data files TAX OPTIMIZER is lax deductible' 

STJDCK MASTER STOCK PLOT (Apple 48K) Price: $59.95 Diskette 

This is a full-featured stock portfolio management and analysis system Ten years of records on up to thirty Macfca may 
be maintained You may record pric es. revenue, earnmqs share KOI . quarterly earnings anddividends. transactions 
long short term gams P I indexes (L»J. S & P NASDAO) and MORE' You may plot (HIRES) the price history of any 
st.« k against any other time or the indexes Portfolio value may be evaluated al any lime Comes complete with 
superbly written insirin lions and sample files on 4 second diskette 

TURNKEY AND MENU (Atari onlv) p r j C e: $17.95 Diskette 

TURNKEY is a utility program which allows you to create autoboot aulorun diskettes easily Simply load and run 
TURNKEY, load the program diskette to be modified, and answer the questions' The TURNKEY diskette also 1 omes 
with DOS 2 and includes another program MENU MENU lists the contents of your diskette alphabetically, and 
permits the running of any BASIC program on the diskette by typing a single key TURNKEY and MINI I provide yon 
with the ability to run any program on your diskette by simply turning on the computer and pressing a single key 

STOCKAID (Atari onlv) p r j ce: $29.1,5 Diskette 

sli K KAK) provides a powerful set of tools lor slock market analysis With STOC KAID you can display point and 
figure 1 harts, as well as bar charts with oscillators You t an also examine long term moving averages and on-balance 
volume features STO< KAII) allows you to input daily data with a single diskette storage capability of 239 days x lb 
stocks Included are slock dividend and split adjustment capabilities A very professional package' 

NYINDEX (Atari onlv) p rice: $29.95 Diskette 

NYIND! X is a comprehensive software package lor storing, retrieving and plotting New York Sloe k I xc hange 
information The daily data treated includes the composite index, advances, declines new highs and new lows 
Graphical displays include the above plus the index oscillator, cumulative advances declines and moving averages 
Data entry and editing is easy The diskette 1111 ludes more than two years of daily data NYIND! X is an exc .lie. 11 
companion to SKK KAID 

PLAYER MISSILE GRAPHICS TABLET (Atari onlv) Price: $19.95 Diskette 

The PIA Yl K-MISSII I GRAPHIC S I ABLET was designed lo lake the drudgery oul of developing four color displays in 
GRAPHIC S MODI 7 No longer will you have 10 read the loc alums of those liny blocks on voui graph paper and 
calculate PLOTs and DRAWTOs With PMG you will be able to easily design c olorful graphic displays with your joysiit k 
and save Ihem on diskette for later recall 

LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS AND DEPRECIATION (Apple diskette onlv ) Price: $39.95 Diskette 

This software package creates a data file of business expenses for equipment whit h can later be used lo calculate and 
display a variety of reports You may project annual c osts. find the present worth, create deprec lalion si hedules and 
justify tax deductions The evaluation techniques conform to standards sei by federal agencies. This is an invaluable 
package lor any businessman who has invested in equipment LIFE CYCLE ANAI YSIS featuresan easy to use dala file 
c rearinn section and provides formatted hardcopy reports for use in presentations or for lax record keeping purposes 
When used for generating lax information, this package is lax deductible' Requires 4HK C omes on two diskettes. 

MICROMAGIC (Apple diskette only) Price: $39.95 Diskette 

The emphasis ol this program is clearly the MAGIC I MIC KOMAGIC offers outstanding versatility in its ability to 
function as a stand alone entertainment pai kaqe 01 as a utility program to create stunning ammalrd graphics for use in 
..ihei progiams The secret lies in MIC ROMAGIC s special on screen graphics editor You c ontrol a graphu s cursor 
directly from the keyboard, creating high revolution images using all 16 available c olors When you are done with a 
picture, it can be saved on disk with a single key command Up in 24 images can be saved as "frames" of a movie, and 
then played back at high speed to 1 real short animated sequences The effects are truly stunning 
Ib.s pac kage comes complete with demonstration programs so that even novice users can gel immediate results No 
programming skills are i.e. essary lo use MIC ROMAGIC If you have been frustrated by the effort required lo create 
graphic s imag. with your computer. MICROMAGIC will delight you 

SHAPE MAOK'IA. (Apple II. 48K. diskette onl>) Price: $29.95 

Al last' An utility for p. nlessly creating graphic s shapes (or the Apple C reate. edit and save up in 30 shapes which can 
then be used 10 develop arcade games or to simply enhance your programs Add thai professional touch' 



ORDERING INFORMATION 

All orders are processed and shipped within 4H hours Please enclose payment wilh order and include the appropriate 
computer information If paying by VISA or Master C ard. include all numbers on card Purchase orders accepted 

Shipping and Handling Charges Delivers 

Within North America Add $2 00 All orders (excluding books) are sent First (lass 

Outside North America Add 15% (Air Mail) 

Ouanlilv Discounts 

Deduct 10% when ordering 3 at more programs: 20% when ordering 5 or more Dealer discount schedules available 

upon request 

H" C P M Disks 

Add $2 SO 10 the listed diskette price lor each 8" floppy disk (IBM soft sectored CP M formal) Programs run under 

Microsoft MBASK or BASK HO 

V. ' C P M Disks 

All software available on 8" C P M disks is also available on 5'/t" disks. North Slar. Osborne. Superbram and NEC 

formal 

Astc lot DYNA4 (IMP programs al youi In al software dealer Write for detailed descriptions of these and other programs 
from DYNACOMP 

DYNACOMP, Inc. (Dept. o 

1427 Monroe Avenue 
Rochester, New York 14618 

24 hour message and order phone: (716) 442-8731 
Toll free order phones: (800) 828 6772 

(800) 828-6773 
Office phone (9AM 5PM EST): (716) 442-8960 

S.vv V..fk Slur residents plcasr add 7 < SYS sales tat 



- 

z 

— 

z 



— 

z 



HODGE PODGE (Apple 48K only) Price: $14.95 Cassette $18.95 Diskette 

Let HOIK. I PODG! be your child's teacher Pressing any key on your Apple will result in a different and intriguing 
"happening" related to the letter 01 iiumbei of the chosen key The program's graphic s. color and sound are a delight for 
children from ages IHta)7 HODGE PODGE is a non-inlimidating teaching device which brings a new dimension lo the 
use ol computers in education See the excellent reviews ol this very popular program in INF OW( )Rl I) and S( )FT Al K 

TEACHER'S AIDE (Atari and PET only) Price: $13.95 Cassette $17.95 Diskette 

TEAC HERS AID! consists of three basic modules contained in one program The first module provides addition and 
subtraction exercises of varying levels ol difficulty The second module consists of multiplication problems in which the 
student may be tested both on the linal answer and or on the subtotal answers in the long hand procedure Several 
levels of c omplexity are provided here as well The third module consists of division problems, one particularly nice 
feature of the division module is that the long hand division steps can be displayed along with the remainder in order to 
. learly demonstrate the procedure by which the remainder is derived ( )smg TEACH! R S Al Dl is not meiely a drill, but 
lather a learning experience 



STATISTICS and ENGINEERING 

DIGITAL FILTER (Available for all computers) Price: $39.95 Cassette $43.95 Diskette 

DIGITAI Fll TFR is a c omprehensive data processing program which permits the user to design his own filter func Hon 
or choose from a menu of fillet loims In the explicit design mode the shape of Ihe frequent y transfer fum Hon is specified 
by direc tly entering points along ihe desired filler curve In the menu mode idrsl low pass, high pass and bandpass 
fillers may he approximated to varying degrees according to Ihe number of points used in the calculation These fillers 
may optionally also he smoothed with a (fanning lunc lion In addition multi-stage Butletworih filters may be selected 
Features of DIGITAI I II If R inc lude plotting o( the dala before and after tillering, as well as display of the chosen filter 
tunc nons Also included are convenient data storage, retrieval and editing procedures 

DATA SMOOTHER (Not available lor Atari) Price: $19.95 Cassette $23.95 Diskette 

This spec lal dala smoothing program may be used lo rapidly derive useful information from noisy business and 
engineering dala which are equally spaced The software features c hoice in degree and range of fit. as well as smoothed 
first and second dens alive talc illation Also included is automatic plotting of Ihe input dala and smoothed results 

FOURIER ANALYZER (Available for all computers) Price: $19.95 Cassette $23.95 Diskette 

I Ise this program to examine Ihe frequency spectra of limned duration signals The program features automatic scaling 
and plotting of the input dala and results Practical applications include the analysis of complicated patterns in such 
fields as electronics, communications and business 

TFA (Transfer Function Analyzer) Price: $19.95 $23.95 Diskette 

This is a special software package which may be used lo evaluate the transfer functions of systems such as hi-fi 
amplifiers and filters by examining their response lo pulsed inputs TEA is a major modification of FOURIER 
ANAI YZI R and contains an engineering-oriented decibel versus log-frequenc y plot as well as data editing features 
Whereas F ( )( JRIF R ANAI YZER is designed for educ ahonal and scientific use. TEA isan engineering tool Available lo- 
ad computets 

HARMONIC ANALYZER (Available for all computers) Price: $24.95 Cassette $28.95 Diskette 

HARM( )NIC ANAI . Y/l R was designed for the spec irum analysis of repetitive waveforms I eatures include data file 
generation, editing and storage retrieval as well as data and spec Irum plotting ( )ne particularly unique facility is that 
Ihe input dala need not be equally spat ed or in order The original data is sorted and a e ubic spline interpolation is used 
lo c teate Ihe data file required by ihe EFT algorithm 

I OURIER ANAI YZ! R TEA and HARMONIC ANAI YZI R may be purchased together lor a combined price of $5 195 
(three cassettes) and $b3 95 (three diskettes) 

REGRESSION I (Available for all computers) Price: $19.95 Cassette $23.95 Diskette 

Kl (iHI SSION I is a unique and exceptionally versatile one-dimensional least squares polynomial curve fitting 
program f ealures include very high ac c uracy an automatic degree determination option, an extensive internal library 
..( fitting functions, data editing, automatic dala. curve and residual plotting, a sialism al analysis (eg standard 
deviation c correlation, coefficient, etc ) and much more In addition, new fits may he tried without reentering Ihe dala 
Rf (.Rt SSION I is certainly Ihe cornerstone program in any dala analysis software library 

REGRESSION II (Available for all computers) Price: $19.95 Cassette $23.95 Diskette 

PARAFIT is designed lo handle those cases in which the parameters a imbedded (possibly nonlinearly) in Ihe filling 
function Theusei simply inserts the functional form, including ihe parameters (Al I ). A(2). etc ) as one or more BASIC 
statement lines Data, results and residuals may be manipulated and plotted as wilh REGHI SSION I Use 
HI GRI SSION I lot polynomial lining, and PARAFIT for those compile ated func lions 

MULTILINEAR REGRESSION ( MLR) (Availablefor all computers) Price: $24.95 Cassette $28.95 Diskette 
Ml R is a professional software package for analyzing dala sets c oiitaining two or more linearly indepei.dV.il variables 
Besides performing the basic regression c ale illation this program also provides easy to use data entry, storage, 
reineval and editing functions In addition, the usei may interrogate the solution by supplying values lor Ihe 
independent variables The number of variables and dala si/e is limited only by the available memory 

REGRESSION I. II and MULTILINEAR Rl (.HI SSION may he purchased together for $51 95 (three cassettes) or 
$63 95 (three diskettes) 

ANOVA (Not available on Atari cassette or for PET CBMi Price: $39.95 Cassette $43.95 Diskette 

In Ihe past the ANOVA (analysis of variance) procedure has been limited lo ihe large mainframe computers Nosv 
DYNACOMP has brought the power of this method to small systems lor those conversant with ANOVA. Ihe 
DYNACOMP software package includes the l-wav. 2-way and N-way procedures Also provided are the Yates 2*'^ 
factorial designs I m those unfamiliar wilh ANOVA. do not worry The accompanying documentation was written in a 
tutorial fashion (by a professor in Ihe subject) and serves as an excellent tntroduc lion lo the subject Accompanying 
ANOVA is a support program for building the dala base Included are several . onvenienl features including dala 
editing, deleting and appending 

BASK SCIENTIFIC SUBROUTINES. Volumes I and 2 (Not available for Atari) 

l>t NAC OMPislheexi liisivedislrihuioi for ihe softwaie keyed lolhe|>opiilai texts HAS/! M II NlaTM M IWMHITINtS. 
v'odimr* / emef 2 by I Ruckdeschel (see advertisements in BYT! magazine) These subroutines have been assembled 
according to chapter Included wilh each collection is a menu program which selects and demonstrates each 
subi. inline 

Volume I 

C ollec lion »l ( hapters 2 and 3 - Dala and function plotting, complex variables and lunc lions 

( ollec lion "2 ( hapler 4 - Extended matrix and vector operations 

( ollertion «3 C haplers 5 and 6 - Random number generators IHoiss.m Gaussian, etc ): series approximations 

Price per collection $16 95 Cassette $20 95 Diskette 

All three collections are available for $44 95 (three c assetles) and $53 95 (three diskettes) 

Volume ? 

( ollec lion »l Chapter I - Linear, polynomial, multidimensional parametric least squares 

( ..llec lion '2 C haplet 2 • Series approximation tec hniques lee .nu.m. ration inversion, teveision. shifting, etc.) 

( ollec lion »3 ( hapter 3 - Functional approximations by iteration and tec utsion 

( ollec lion «4 C hapter 4 - ( ORDIC approximations lo trigonometric hyperbolic . exponential and logarithmic 
functions 

( ollec lion »5 Chapter 5 - Table interpolation, differentiation and integration (Newton. LaGrange splines) 

( ollec lion »6: Chapter 6 - Methods for finding the real roots of func turns 

( ollec lion • 7 C hapter 7 - Methods for finding the complex roots of func lions 

(ollec tu.n »B C hapler N - Optimization by steepest descent 
Price pet c ollec lion $14 95 C assette $18 95 Diskette 
All eight collections are available for $99 95 (eight cassettes! and $129 95 (eighl diskettes) 

Bee ause ihe lexis are a vital part of the dot umenlalion BASK SCIf.NT/F H SIIHKOIJTINt S. Volumes / and 2 are 
available from DYNACOMP: 

BASIC SCIENTIIIC SUBROUTINES. Vol 1 (319 pages) $19 95 + 75C postage 
BASIC SCIKNTIrK' SUBROUTINES. Vol 2 (790 pages) $23 95 ♦ $1 50 postage 
Seeteviews in KILOBAUD. Dr Dobbs. and AC ( I SS 

SOETNET (Apple II and TRS 80 48K diskette onlv ) Price: $129.95 

sol TNET may be used to create models of liquid pipeline systems lo evaluate their flow performanc e Up to 1 50 nodes 
with up to I 50 connecting elements may be simulated, and models may be combined lo form yet larger models If you 
are involved in water distribution systems, chemical fluid flow problems, building plumbing, or similar situations this 
is an ideal analysis tool 

FILTER ANALYSIS (Apple only) Price: $19.95 Cassette $23.95 Diskette 

I ILTT.R ANALYSIS is ihe ideal program for determining Ihe frequency response of passive fillers Any number of Rl ( 
. ...op. .i.e. its may be included, and any numbet of poles treated FILTER ANALYSIS features its own mini-language 
which makes c ircuit desc ripimn simple Results may be printed in tabular form or plotted in HIRES graphics (decibels 
versus log-frequenc vl 

ACTIVE CIRCUIT ANALYSIS ( Availablefor allcomputers) Price: $35.95 Cassette $39.95 Diskette 

With AC AP you may analyze ihe response of an active or passive component cut uii The c in ml may be probed al equal 
steps in frequency, and the resulting c . implex voltages al each c omponeni juncture examined. Ihe frequency response of 
a (iller or amplifier may be completely determined with respect to both amplitude and phase In addition. AC AP prints a 
statistical analysis of the range nf voltage responses which result from tolerance variations in Ihe c omponenis At AP is 
easy lo learn and use C ire uit desc upturns may be saved onto cassette or diskette to be recalled at a later lime for 
execution or editing AC AP should be part of every circuit designer's program library Requires 4HK 

LOGIC SIMULATOR (Available for all computers) Price: $35.95 C assette $39.95 Diskette 

Test your complicated digital logic design with respect to given set of inputs to determine how well the cm uit will 
operate The elements which may be simulated include multiple input AND. OR. NOR I XOR I XNOR and NAND 
gates, as well as inverieis. J-K and D flip-flops, and one-shots Inputs may he clocked in wilh varying clock cycle 
lengths tlisplac .-me ..is and delays may be inlroduc ed lo probe for glm hes and rac e « ondilions A liming diagram for 
any given set of nodes maybe plotted Save your breadhoardtng until ihe cm uit is checked by I OCR SIM( HA IOR 
Kequires 4HK 

BEAM l» I I I C I ION I Availablefor all computers) (disk diskelteonly I Price: $29.95 Diskette $32.45 Disk 
BEAM Dl I LLC TION Is the first in DV NA( OMP's new series of structural analysis software packages It consists ol 
two programs The first program permits Ihe development of dala files which describe Ihe problem I or example Ihe 
ends of ihe beam may be pinned, clamped or free The beam may be uniformly supported hy an elastic bed . or held up by 
springs variously placed and having differing spring c onslants The elasticity and cross sec Hon of Ihe beam may vary 
ale.ng its length The load may he uniformly distributed or it may include disc rele fort es The beam may be pinned al 
various points along its length And so on All this information may be easily entered and edited using ihe dala input 
program 

I ollowtng this the analysis program is railed The call ulated results are the stress and deflections of the beam, bolh in 
numerical and graphical form since Ihe input dala is saved, cases may be easily re-run with modification thereby 
permitting iterative design 

The documentation which entries with BEAM Df Fl I ( TION clearly shows how to use Ihe software In addition, three 
text problems are desc rtbed and demonstrated to ensure thai you understand how to use ihe program Also helpful 
theoretic al information is supplied in Ihe appendix 

STATTEST( Not available on Ataricassetteor for PET CBM) Price: $19.95 Cassette $23.95 Diskette 

This is a statistic al inferenc e pac kage which helps you make wise dec isions in Ihe fat e of uncertainly In an inter ac live 
fashion you c an build and edit data files and lesl Ihe differences in means, valine es and proportions STAT Tl ST will 
also perform dala analysis as well as do linear e orrelatton and regression This menu-due. led statistical workhorse is 
rounded oul wilh a c hi-square contingency lest and a luniltum and normal) random sample generator The 
doc umenlalion is written by a college professor who guides you through the various tests 



ABOUT DYNACOMP 



DYNA( OMP is a leading distributor of small system software with sales spanning Ihe world (currently in excess o( 50 
. oiinines) During the past three years we have greatly enlarged the DYNAC OMP produc I line but have maintained and 
improved our high level of quality and customer support The achievement in quality is apparent from our many repeal 
. iisiomers and Ihe software reviews in such publications as ( OMPUTRONIC S. 80 Software C ritique. ANALOG. 
Softalk. C reative C omputing and Kilobaud DYNAC OMP software has also been . hosen for demonstration on network 
television ( )ur c usiomer support is as c lose as your phone It is always friendly T he staff is highly trained and always willing 
to disc iiss produc is or give advie e 



CIRCLE 168 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Gamma Hockey 




Getting Iced 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Hockey 

Type: Two player sports 
action game 

System: Atari 400/800 16K 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine 

Summary: Achieves its goal 

Price: $29.95 

Manufacturer: 

Gamma Software 

P.O. Box 25625 

Los Angeles, CA 90025 



Hockey, by Gamma Software, is almost 
fast, never furious, and generally fun. 
That's what we — Witold, Norman, Roman 
and Jason— discovered one Stanley Cup 
weekend. 

We loaded the game (which, by the 
way, requires 16K), powered up, and the 
screen beckoned with a menu of 
options— nine in all. (Game durations are 
three, five or eight minutes and two, three 
or four people can funnel their hostile 
energy into knocking a puck across the 
ice.) 

Each game begins with the last tones of 
the "Star Spangled Banner," followed 
immediately by the roar of the crowd. It's 
four on four as one goalie and three free- 
skating forwards go against each other. 

Using joysticks the human opponents 
manage the teams. With the three-player 

Norman Schreiber and Witold Urbanowicz, 135 
Eastern Parkway. Brooklyn, NY 11238 



Norman Schreiber 
and Witold Urbanowicz 



option two (one controlling the goalie) 
gang up on the third. Four-player play 
brings both goalies under joystick control. 
A scoreboard and clock sit at the top of 
the screen. 

We first selected a two-player, three- 
minute game. The puck was dropped and 
the two center forwards, under joystick 
control, went into action. Each goalie's 
movement in front of the net correspond- 
ed with up and down movements of the 
joystick. The other four forwards moved 
as "smart" players. 

The action was intense. The hockey 
puck slid and caromed across the hori- 
zontal ice, and the players scrambled to 
dominate the puck. Joystick control 
remained with the original two until the 
puck struck another player's stick. And 
voila, the joystick managed that player. 
When the puck was free, the joysticks 
controlled the original center forwards. 
This created opportunities for some fancy 
passing, a neat way to outsmart the 
opponent or even oneself. 

Inevitably, the action brought the play- 
ers, in one Gamma glut, directly in front 
of a net. A shot was taken. The goalie 
edged sidewards and successfully 
blocked. Another head-on shot brought 
another block. The next try started from 
the corner and homed in at a sharp angle. 
It whizzed past the goalie and the crowd 
roared. Players reassembled at center-ice 
for a new face-off. And so on. 

At game's end, the score was tied, so 
we were thrown into sudden death over- 

166 




time and given an additional three min- 
utes. Unfortunately neither glorious team 
could score. There was no additional 
overtime, so we settled for a tie and 
celebrated with a rematch. 

Gamma Hockey arouses competition. 
The four of us scarcely kept our tails 
upon our seats as we played the game at 
various angles of leanforwardness. The 
value of the three- and four-player options 
was that we adults could also get into the 
game, rather than just hover. Actually, 
the four-hand participation did make the 
game that much more exciting. It is 
unfortunate, however, that no solitaire 
option exists. One would like to get one's 
chops together in the quiet of one's own 
fantasies. 

The two teams are blue and green; 
except on a black-and-white monitor in 
which case they are grey and grey. You 
can tell who is on first by the direction in 
which the hockey stick points. The 
thoughtful designer(s) made joystick- 
controlled players flash when the puck 
was free. However, the "smart" players 
tend to flicker as they move. Consequent- 
ly, there was a certain amount of con- 
fusion at certain points. 

November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



APPLE • ALTOS • ATARI • MAXELL • DYSAN • EPSOM • CCS • SHARP • CASIO • HP • VERBATIM • MEMOREX • SOROC • CORVUS • ADDS 



MICRO 



HEWLETT 
PACKARD 



BUSINESS WORLD INC. 
Information Line (213) 996-2252 
TOLL FREE MAIL ORDER LINES 
(800) 423-5886 Outside Calif 



[VI 

HP41 CV 

OUR PRICE 

$239.00 

MSL 345.00 5** 106.00 



SPECIAL OF THE MONTH ^ 

Put o Genie In Vour Computer Intelligent Printer 

Interface Cord H|H| nilRDPIPP 

WorksWIth f uun r«iuc 

■ Integer Basic |j§| J $119.00 

■ Applesoft- MSL 15 g 00 

■ Pascal 1.0 & 1.1 ■ CP/M 

•Applesoft is a registered Trademark of Apple Computar, Inc. 




•CP/M la a registered trademark of Digital Research 



40.00, 




W/ CONTROLLER 

MSL OUR PRICE 
I4900 429.00 



, Ctf* COMPARE TO 
216.00 APPLE DRIVE 
[aPPLE IS A REG TRADE MARK OF APPLE COMPUTER 



WICR0-SC1 

APPLE 11+ 
C0MPATIBLE 
DRIVE 

W/0 CONTROLLER 
MSL OUR PRICE 



COMPARE TO 
APPLE DRIVE 



y 



LE MONITOR 




METAL 
CABINET 



9" GRN. PHS. MONITOR 
12" GRN PHS. MONITOR 

1 Yr. Warranty 

MSL OUR PRICE ♦>** 

189 00 $119.00 70.00 



AXIOM 

DOT MATRIX 
GP100 




8ft" wide paper 



MSL OUR PRICE $0* 
389.00 $269.00 120.00 



HEWLETT 
PACKARD 




MSL OUR PRICE S*-* 
,2495.00 $1899.00 »* 00 

r RADIO SHACK 
TRS 80 MOD III 




1 



48K 
DRIVE 



MSL OUR PRICES*" 

L 2495 00 $1733.00 762.00 



IBM 





PERSONAL 
COMPUTER 

INCLUDES: 

2 Drives OS/DD 
Color Graphic Board 
64K Memory 

* 12" BMC 
GRN PHS 



OUR PRICE s^ 

oJnl L nn $2895 °0 "0.00 

OoUj.UU 'Subject to availability 

APPLE II 
PLUS 

48K 




'Subject to 
availability 

MSL ' ^&vt 

1530 00 $1095.00 435.00 

APPLE IS A REG TRADEMARK OF APPLE COMPUTER , 




MSL 2750.00 



OUR PRICE 

$1975.00 
5<u* 775.00 



DUAL MASTER DRIVE 

MSL OUR PRICE c** 
2500.00 1595.00 *>5.00 

' Qeommodore ' 

COMPLETE llla^^nn 

COMMODORE UI^^C 
LINE AVAILABLE 




VicTVModual $19.00 

Vic Cassette $65.00 

Vic Disk Drive $ Call 

Vic 6 Pak program $44.00 

MSL OUR PRICE $^ 

299.00 $189.00 11000 



VIC 20 

I EXPANSION 
CHASSIS 





OUR PRICE 

MSL 229.00 

FEATURES: 

• 7 expansion slots • 
All aluminum construction 

• Large power supply 
with torodial trans- 
former • 5 volt supply 
direct ot the VIC 20 for 
cooler operation • 24 
.volt supply for the Arfon 



189.00 

Sou* 40.00 

Micro VIC Printer • 
Detachable cover protects 
cartridges • Houses VIC 
and Expansion in one 
portable unit • Holder 
for RF modulator • Sup- 
ports all VIC 20 cartrid 
Ses from Arton Micro, 
ommodore and others 



SMITH CORONA 



TPI 

DAISY WHEEL 

PRINTER 



Latter 
Quality 

SERIAL 

OR 

PARALLEL 






jour price $599.00 

L 895.00 5m* 296.00^ 

r THE APPLE COMPATIBLE^ 
ALTERNATIVE 

FRANKLIN 
BUSINESS 
SYSTEM 

Franklin Ace 1000 system • 64K • 
Disk Drive with controller card • 12" 
green phs. video monitor. 
Color optional $49.00 

$1695.00 

^ SAVE $1000 COMPARED TO APPLE SYSTEM^ 

tefol XEROX 820 

WORD PROCESSING SYSTEM 
(INCLUDES SOFTWARE) 




MSL OUR PRICE £«* 
349500 $2749.00 746.00 

EPSON 

INCLUDES 

GRAFTRAX 




OUR 
MSL PRICE 
MX 80 UI 645.00 429.00 
MX 80FTHI 745.00 535.00 
MX 100 JIT 995.00 669.00 



"216.00 
210.00 
326.00 



CASIO FX9000P 

PERSONAL COMPUTER 

POWERFUL 
CA-BASIC 




NEW 



AND C/M0S-RAM 

MSL OUR PRICE 5^ 
99 5.00 $599.00 396.00 

OSBORNE 

PERSONAL COMPUTER 



•8 j 



INCLUDES 
SOFTWARE 



•CPM • MAIL MERGE 

• WORDSTAR • CB BASIC 

• SUPERCALC • M BASIC 



OUR PRICE 5<u* 



,1795.00 1 595.00 «fl»*J \ 



NEC 

STUDENT 
SYSTEM 




•NEC PC 80001 

•NEC PC 8012 

•NEC PC 8031 

12" Grn Phs Video Monitor 



MSL OUR PRICES** 
L 2839.0O $2095.00 744 M A 




STUDENT 
SYSTEM 



■ ».VN«{.\ 




4032 - 32K 40 COL CRT 
4940 - DUAL DISK DRIVE 

MSL OUR PRICED 
2590.00 $1978.00 612.00 



WE RESERVE THE RIGHT TO CORRECT TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS 
THIS AD SUPERCEDES ALL PREVIOUS ADS. 



#m JUli^riJ^fc BUSINESS WORLD 
Lf, PJ 'VIH-#m»-J WAREHOUSE 

tiltaoL mm zii°r c r^ e 

OUTSIDE CA CALL TOLL FREE 1 (800) 423 5886 IN CA (213) 996 2252 

Name (Please print) 

Address 

City State Zip 



Description 



Telex: 182852 
Answer: MICKO TZNA 

'California residents add 6% sales tax 

"Add 3% Shipping & Handling - Add 
3% surcharge tor credit cards Orders 
cannot be shipped unless accompanied 
by payment, including shipping handl 
ing and tax where applicable 

TOTAL ORDERS 

TAX IF APPLICABLE* 



SHIPPING & HANDLING** 
TOTAL ENCLOSED! 



Certified Check or MO. 
Bank Wire Transfer 

CREDIT CARD # 

Exp Date 



Allow 2 weeks clearance for 
personal check 




Signature 



MAXELL • DYSAN • EPSON • CCS • SHARP • CASIO • HP • VERBATIM • MEMOREX • SOROC • CORVUS • PERSONAL SOFTWARE • CCS 



CIRCLE 208 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 

J\DUi 






Calculates 



Series I 



Time Weighted Rates of Return 

Dollar Weighted Rates of Return 

Portfolio Yields 

Traditional 1 10 year time spans plus 
User Defined Specific Periods 

Evaluates 

Your Investment Decisions 
In Terms of Alternatives 

Your Investment Recommendations 
& Decisions 

Keeps Records of All 

Investments 

Cash Additions & Withdrawals 
Quarterly Portfolio Valuations 
Dividends & Interest 
Brokerage Commissions 
Margin Expenses 

Tells You 

Who Made More from Your Account 
— You or Your Stockbroker 



IS 



Error-Tolerant and Trouble Free 
for Use by the Computer Novice 

User Friendly - Menu Driven 



Utility 



All investment Media — Stocks. 
Bonds Real Estate. Commodities. 
Options. Etc 

• Tax Deductible 

Consult Your Accountant for 
Requirements 

$75 
ft ft * ft ft 

AVAILABLE FOR: 

APPLE III & APPLE II (APPLESOFT) 

TRS-80 

IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER 

NEC PC 8000 



$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 



$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 

$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 

Telephone Orders Accepted on $ 
Visa or Mastercharge $ 

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 

CIRCLE 191 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



C RPBERT QENTRY 
CSi (Associates, Ltd. 

810 Camelview Plaza 

6900 East Camelback Road 

Scottsdale, Arizona 85251 

(602) 941-5212 

PLEASE ADO S3 00 SHIPPING & HANDLING 



SOFTWARE GALORE 

Best Prices Anyway. 

Member, Better Business Bureau 

IBM 



Home Accountant LIST 

Plus 150.00 

Write On 129.95 

Zork II 39.95 

T.I.M. Ill 495.00 

Easywriter II 350.00 

Wordstar 495.00 

IBM Joysticks 64.95 

Visicalc256K 250.00 

HARDWARE 

Rana Disk Drives 449.00 

Micro Modem II 379.00 

Nee Printer 3510 2,290.00 

Apple Cat II 389.00 

Super Fan II 79.95 

Vision 80 Column Card 395.00 

Nee Green Screen .... 285.00 

Amdek Color 695.00 

EsponMX80FT 745.00 

Espon MX100 995.00 

APPLE 

Microsoft Prem. Sys. . . 775.00 

Visicalc3.3 250.00 

Videoterm80col 345.00 

Systems Plus 

(ALL MODS) 1.395.00 

D.B. Master 229.00 

Wordstar 375.00 

Microsoft Softcard ... 395.00 

d Base II 700.00 

Screenwriter II 129.95 

Supertext 40/80 150.00 

Visitrend/Plot 300.00 

Bandits 34.95 



LIST SALE 

150.00 120.00 

129.95 103.96 

39.95 31.96 

495.00 396.00 

350.00 280.00 

495.00 396.00 

64.95 51.96 

250.00 199.00 

RE 

449.00 359.20 

379.00 285.00 

2,290.00 1,832.00 

389.00 330.65 



65.56 
316.00 
185.00 
560.00 
595.00 
865.00 

520.00 
185.00 
270.00 

995.00 
183.00 
275.00 
270.00 
499.00 
103.00 
120.00 
225.00 
27.96 



ORDERS rn-M^iil 

800-423-6326 

Calif./memberships 213-827-1851 

We are a membership buying service. 

Member. Better Business Bureau. 

(School PO welcomed) 

P.O. Box 10005 • Marina del Rey, CA 90291 



CIRCLE 280 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SRA Educational 
Courseware: 
"Because learning 
matters" 



Micro Discovery™ (Grade \ and up) 

For your Apple*, IBM*, or Radio Shack* 
personal computers. 

A complete introduction to the personal 
computer for grades \ and up. Gives prac- 
tical, hands-on experience with computers 
and presents the basics of 

• theory 

• operation 

• programming 

• the computer and society 

2 Diskettes, 20 copies of Student Work- 
hook, and Instructor's Guide, $190.00. 

*Rrjfistrrr<l trademark*. 

O Yes! I want Micro Discovery! 
Please contact me immediately. 
\Z\ Send me literature about Micro 
Discovery. 



\ 



ame. 



School. 



Address. 



City, State. Zip. 
Telephone 



For faster service, call SRA toll-free: 

(800) 621-0476 
Or mail this coupon to: 

I® 



SRA 



SCIENCE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES. INC. 
155 \. Wacker Drive. Chicsfto. 11.60606 

CIRCLE 287 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Hockey, continued... 

Perhaps the most intriguing, at least to 
reviewers, aspect of Gamma Hockey is 
the slow rate at which the players move 
speedily. Said nine-year-old Roman, 
"Can't you make them go faster?" 

Said 35-year-old Witold, "It might have 
something to do with the horizontal 
movement of the game in what is basically 
a vertically-structured medium." 

Norman, 41 -years-old, observed that 
there was no way for players on one team 
to maim, destroy or righteously punish 
players on the other team. (This happens 
to be his favorite feature in the Activision 
VCS cartridge.) And 14-year-old Jason 
kept on scoring goals. 

Something should be said for and 
against the sound. It keeps the game going 
and provides some pleasant texture for 
the ongoing battle. However, after playing 
12 games, one gets to feel a bit unpatriotic 
at wishing the familiar notes of the 
national anthem would speed up radically 
(pardon the expression). Perhaps if there 
were a Kate Smith voice chip things 
would be different. Perhaps not. 

The crowd noise, though useful, sounds 
suspiciously like our television sets at four 
in the morning when there's nothing to 
pick up but noise, and made us wish for a 
Dolby override. 

We also should note that during one of 
our many games, four players suddenly 
disappeared. They could not be found. 
They certainly weren't in the penalty box. 
They just as mysteriously reappeared in a 
few seconds. We tried to render the 
hockey players invisible again; and failed. 
We haven't the foggiest notion why this 
happened. Not even Witold has a theory. 
Final note: The documentation is clear, 
concise, easy -to-read, and offers some 
useful tips. 

Postscript: We had to go through all 
the options. After all, we decided, we 
really had to explore the game. We owed 
that much to our readers. We would have 
ended the tests sooner, but regardless of 
which time option we played, the final 
buzzer always went off too soon. D 

CIRCLE 348 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




'My son, the console operator." 




After you experience Data Communications with A.E. PRO, 
you'll never settle for being earthbound again! 

SOUTHWESTERN DATA SYSTEMS. . . ERROR FREE transfers 

A wide range of send modes is provided Everything from the simplest blind 

• pir^t tr» rroato terminal cnftuuaro fr»r tho block dump, to a packet-oriented error checking mode ensures quick and easy 

A ,,, Iermmai SOHWare TOr me error-free transfer of all sorts of data to practically any host computer Even 

Apple I the slowest or most awkward systems are easily accommodated 

_. . When two A E PRO'S are used, you can SEND OR RECEIVE FILES OF ANY 

• rirSl tO USe MaCrOS in a data COmmuniCa- TYPE OR SIZE with complete error checking 

tions package powerful macro system 

• Pirct #/\ nrnuiHo torminal omiih*inn in Annlo AE PRO supports up to 26 complete macro libraries (remember. SOS 
r ii 01 10 pruviut? iermmai emuidlion in Mppie pioneered communications macros) Each library contains all macro strings 

Communications SOftWare and configuration parameters (baud rate, duplex, parity, etc ) unique to a 

specific host 

With A.E. PRO s macro facilities you can. with simple keystrokes, direct it to 
Once again. SOUTHWESTERN DATA SYSTEMS creates a software package automatically call another computer, connect, and perform complete log-on 

so far advanced, so innovative, that there are no comparisons. sequences, virtually instantaneously 

A.E. PRO (ASCII Express "The Professional"™) truly sets new standards! SOPHISTICATED TERMINAL EMULATION 

Literally thousands of man-hours of work and study have produced the first with A E PRO, your Apple can "mimic the display characteristics of many 

data communications package that fully utilizes the potential of your Apple popular terminals, including ADDS. Data General. DEC. Hazeltme. HP. IBM. 

Computer System. What does this mean to you? I_ ear Siegler. Soroc. Televideo. and many others 

COMPLETE HARDWARE COMPATIBILITY BUILT-IN TEXT EDITOR 

Only A.E. PRO takes full advantage of ALL current modem devices available ^ r=. PRO contains a versatile built-in text editor that can easily create or 

for the Apple II. manipulate text In fact, this editor is more flexible in many respects than some 

Only A E PRO supports ALL 80 column boards for the Apple II. being touted as "word processors" It provides the ease of use of a line oriented 

« . a p- «r>^ a. a editor, with the line editing power of many screen oriented editors, and will 

Only A.E. PRO supports ALL printer cards for the Apple II. process files of up to 35K in size' 

This means ALL communications interfaces, ALL printer interfaces, and ALL DBI . AQI - , lkJ ATT cwnpn hdcdatiow 

display interfaces including 80 column cards and external terminals. It HEUAbLt UNAI itNUtu ukcmaiiuw 

couldn't be simpler. A.E. PRO allows completely unattended answer mode with password 

Speeds of upto 9600Baudaresupported. including 110. 300. 1200and Baudot. Z r °l e ? e<i lo9_on ln this mode ' ,he ca,,er can remote, Y send or receive fS,es of 

r ANY type or size. 

EASY DATA TRANSFER ^ g ppo can also function as an answerback DDD or TWX node to forwarding 

Data transfer is what communications software is all about A.E PRO lets you mail systems such as Telenet's Telemail, and many others. 

send and receive with equal ease A E PRO is a member of a family of programs, which include P-TERM "The 

A simple dual key stroke will direct incoming data to its large, up to 28K Professional " " for Apple Pascal and Z-TERM "The Professional'" for Apple 

"capture-buffer", your printer, (with no character loss), or both simul- CP/M". All three packages share manyof these powerful features and operate 

taneously The buffer can then be written to disk, printed or edited with A E nearly identically. 

PRO'S versatile built-in editor p or more information write or call us for your free copy of our product catalog 

Data larger than the capacity of the buffer can be saved in buffer-sized and software comparison guide, which include detailed information on all 

"chunks by use of the auto-save feature, an extension of the popular "The Professional '"" series software. 

XON/XOFF protocol used by rhost main frame computers As your Apple s A E PR0 and other The Professional " series packages are now in stock at 

memory fills up. A.E PRO signals the host to pause (XOFF), writes the buffer , QCa | d ea | ers everywhere 

to disk, and then directs the host to resume sending (XON) _ " ,[" 

Suggested Retail Price: 

ASCII Express $129.95 

P-Term $129.95 

Prices and specifications subject to change without notice Z-Term $149.95 




10761 Woodside Avenue, Santee, California 92071 

CIRCLE 285 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



(714) 562-3670 



The Programmer's Guide 
to Programmer's Guides 



A major portion of any pro- 
grammer's time is spent searching 
for information, trying to discover 
how something works, or even 
developing routines that are readily 
available elsewhere. A properly 
organized collection of the right 
reference manuals can increase his 
productivity substantially. 

Some of the contents of the refer- 
ence shelf are obvious. The pro- 
grammer will want to organize the 
user's manuals that came with his 
equipment and systems software in 
order to have them within reach while 
programming. Space limitations will 
insure that the material that is seldom 
used will be moved to less valuable 
locations. 

The most valuable reference guide I 
have is my own notebook. Whenever 
I write a subroutine, work out a pro- 
cedure, or do any complex program, I 
write out the instructions, dump a 
listing, and file them in a notebook. 
Many of my programming friends do 
the same thing. 

After that, there is a whole series of 
reference books that I consult. Many 
of them are incidental references, such 
as a programming text with some use- 
ful charts. Others are designed spe- 
cifically to be used as reference hand- 
books. Since there are hundreds of 
references available, I will limit this 
review to software handbooks for pop- 
ular systems. 

George Blank, 239 Fox Hill Rd\, Denville, NJ 
07834. 




George Blank 



The Basic Language 

For most people, the best reference 
guide to Basic is the one that comes 
with their computer, or if Basic is not 
included, with their Basic. No general 
guide offers complete syntax for each 
computer. In my personal opinion, 



The most valuable 

reference guide I 

have Is my 

own notebook. 



the built-in HELP command in 
TRS-80 Model III TRS-DOS from 
Radio Shack is better than a book. It 
gives clear and complete syntax. Other 
disk operating systems have offered 
help features for a long time, but I 
consider Radio Shack's the easiest to 
use and most complete. 

The best selling reference guide for 
Basic is David Lien's The Basic Hand- 



170 



book. The newly revised 2nd edition is 
greatly expanded, and now covers 
more than 250 dialects of Basic. The 
book describes Basic operators, com- 
mands, and functions one at a time, 
giving the purpose of the word, a test 
program and a sample run to see if it is 
implemented on your computer, 
variations in usage and alternate 
spellings on different computers, sub- 
routines that you can use if you do not 
have the function in your Basic, and 
cross references to related functions. 
This 480-page book is most useful to 
programmers who are converting pro- 
grams from another computer dialect 
to their own. It is also helpful for 
people who want a general reference to 
Basic, or who work in several different 

Basic dialects. The most serious limita- 
tion of the book is that it does not give 
enough information on the graphics 
features of different Basics to help in 
converting programs that use graphics. 

Pascal 

Pascal is less fragmented into dif- 
ferent versions than Basic, so a hand- 
book can serve a broader purpose. The 
Pascal Handbook by Jacques Tiber- 
ghien describes every symbol, reserved 
word, identifier, and operator for 
seven different versions of Pascal, 
including UCSD Pascal. The 180 
entries, in alphabetical order like The 
Basic Handbook, give a definition, a 
syntax diagram, a semantic descrip- 
tion, implementation details, and 
program examples. This book is 

November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



C ALSO FT 

Personal— Entertainment— Business 

SOFTWARE 

Low Discount Prices / 15 to 25% Discount off List Price 
Fas! Convenient Service / We ship same or next day 
Large Selection of Software / Call or Write for our FREE Catalog! 




We have all the latest 
software-ASK US! 



Call Toll Free: (800) 423-5290 In California: (213) 991-9641 



ATARI, IBM PC, CP/M: 

send for 

FREE catalog! 



AVANT-GARDE Te 

Hi-Res Secrets 1 25.00 

Hi-Res Computer Golf 29.95 

Zero Gravity Pinbell 29.95 

BRODERBUND 

Apple Panic 29.95 

* Genetic Drift 29.BS 

David's Midnight Magic 34.95 

The Arcade Machine 44.95 

Track Attack 29.95 

* Star Blazer 31 .95 

Labyrinth 29.95 

* Chopllfter NEW 34.95 

Deadly Secrets NEW 34.95 

Serpentine NEW 34.95 

CAVALIER 

The Asteroid Field 24.95 

Star Thief ( 29.95 

Bug Attack 29.95 

* Microwave 34.95 

CONTINENTAL 

*• Home Accountant 74.95 

Home Money Minder 34.95 

* CPA Modules #1 -4 (each) 250.00 

First Class Mail NEW 74 95 



DATA MOST 



Snack Attack 29.95 

Thief 29.95 

County Fair 29.95 

* Swashbuckler 34.95 

Casino 39.95 

Expand-a-Port 69.95 

World Series Baseball NEW 29 95 

Missing Ring NEW 29.95 



EDU-WARE 



Empire I World Builders 32.95 

Empire II Interstellar Sharks 32.95 

Rendezvous NEW 39.95 



GEBELLI 



Firebird 29.95 

Russki Duck 34.95 

* Horizon V 34.95 

Neptune NEW 29.95 

Lazer Silk NEW 29 95 

Zenith NEW 34.95 

Phaser Fire NEW 29.95 

HAYDEN 

Sargon II 34 95 

Applesoft Compiler 3.3 1 75.00 

• Pie Writer 1 49.95 



INFOCOM 



21.20 
25.45 
25.45 
26.20 



56.20 

29.70 

187.50 

63.70 



Zork I 39.95 

Zork II 39.95 

• Deadline 49.95 



28.00 
28.00 
33.95 



25.45 
29.70 
26.20 
25.45 
25.45 
29.70 
25.45 



29.70 
148.75 
112.45 



33.95 
33.95 
37.45 



MICROSOFT Tee 

Adventure 29.95 

Typing Tutor II 24.95 

Olympic Decathlon 29.95 

it TASC Compiler 1 75.00 

MUSE 

Super Text 40/80 1 75.00 

Castle Wolfenstein 29.95 

Frazzle NEW 24.95 

Firebug NEW 24.95 

ON-LINE SYSTEMS 

HI-RES Adventures 0-5 

• Cross Fire 29.95 

LISA 79.95 

LISA Educational System 11 9.95 

it General Manager 21 9.95 

Threshold 39.95 

Screen Writer 1 29.95 

Screen Writer Professional 1 99.95 

The Dictionary 99.95 

Expediter II+ 1 34.95 

Jawbreaker 29.95 

• Mouskattack 34.95 

Marauder 34.95 

Ultima II 59.95 

EPFIV 79 95 

Frogger 34.95 

Cannonball Blitz 34.95 

The Artist 79.95 

• Laf-Pak 34.95 

Pest Patrol 29.95 



Our 

Price 

25.45 

21.20 

25.45 

131.25 



148.75 
25.45 
21.20 
21.20 



VISICORP 



Visiplot 200.00 

it Vlaltrend/Visiplot 300.00 

ViskJex 250.00 

Visiterm 1 00.00 

* Vislcalc 3.3 250.00 

Visifile 250.00 

SENSIBLE 

Super Disk Copy III 30.00 

Multi-Disk Catalog 25.00 

it Senaible Speller 1 25.00 

Image Printer NEW 40.00 

SIR-TECH 

• Wizardry 49.95 

Knight of Diamonds 34.95 

SOFTWARE PUBLISHING 

PFS 1 25.00 

PFS: Report 95.00 

it PFS: Graph NEW 1 25. OO 



1 5% OFF 

22.45 

67.95 

101.95 

164.95 

33.95 

110.45 

169.95 

84.95 

114.70 

25.45 

26.20 

29.70 

50.95 

67.95 

29.70 

29.70 

67.95 

26.20 

25.45 



170.00 
23O.O0 
212.50 

85 OO 
193.75 

212.50 



25.50 
21.25 
93.75 
34.00 



STONEWARE 



DB Master 229.00 

it DB Maater Utility Pak #1 99.00 

DB Master Utility Pak #2 99.00 

DB Master Stat Pak 99.00 

Graphics Processing System 59.95 



37.45 
29.70 



106.25 
80.75 
93.75 



195.45 
74.25 
84.15 
84.15 
50.95 



SIR I US SOFTWARE ££' °"L 

Gorgon 39.95 33.95 

Sneakers 29.95 25.45 

• Epoch 34.95 26.20 

Copts & Robbers 34.95 29.70 

Beer Run 29.95 25.45 

Hadron 34.95 29.70 

The Joyport 74.95 63.70 

• Twerpa 29.95 22.45 

Snake Byte 29.95 25.45 

Audex 29.95 25.45 

Kabul Spy 34.95 29.70 

Minotaur 34.95 29.70 

• Bandits 34.95 26.20 

Escape from Rungistan NEW 29.95 25.45 

Lemmings NEW 29.95 25.45 

Jellyfish NEW 29.95 25.45 

Cyclod NEW 29.95 25.45 

Fly Wars NEW 29.95 25.45 

STRATEGIC SIMULATIONS 

Cartels & Cutthroats 39.95 33.95 

Computer Quarterback (2nd Ed.) 39.95 33.95 

The Shattered Alliance 59.95 SO. 95 

Computer Baseball 39.95 33.95 

it Operation Apocalypse 59.95 44.95 

Southern Command 59.95 50.95 

it Napoleon s Campaigns 59.95 44.95 

Road to Gettysburg 59.95 50.95 

it Pursuit of the Graf Spee 59.95 44.95 

Guadalcanal Campaign NEW 59.95 50.95 

Cytron Masters NEW 39.95 33.95 

Galactic Gladiators NEW 39.95 33.95 

SEUIS NEW 39.95 33.95 

The Cosmic Balance NEW 39.95 33.95 

TG PRODUCTS 

Game Paddles 39.95 33.95 

Joystick 59.95 50.95 

• Select e-Port 59.95 44.95 

IrVe also carry complete lines from the follow- 
ing companies: 

ADVENTURE INTERNATIONAL 
ARTSCI • ASHTONTATE 
AUTOMATED • BEAGLE 
BUDGECO • CAL PACIFIC 
HOWARD • INNOVATIVE 
MICROLAB • MICROPRO 

PENGUIN • PHOENIX 

PICCADILLY • QUALITY 

SENTIENT • SIERRA 

SOUTHEASTERN • SUBLOGIC 

SOUTHWESTERN • VIDEX 
SYNERGISTIC • SYSTEMS PLUS 

If you don't see it, Ask Us! 



CALSOFT 

346 N. Kanan Rd. #103 
Agoura, CA 91301 



Call Toll Free: (800) 423-5290 In California: (2 13)991 -964 1 

We accept Mastercard^ Visa (include # and Expiration Date), check, COD ($1.50 extra), orMoney 
Order. California residents add 6% sales tax. Include $2.00 for shipping (UPS Blue Label $3.00, 
Canada $6.00, other foreign countries $10.00). 
* Sale prices are through October only! Prices subject to change without notice. 



CIRCLE 130 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Guides, continued... 

particularly useful for beginners in 
Pascal programming. 

The Beginner's Guide for the UCSD 
Pascal System by Kenneth Bowles is 
more of a teaching manual than a 
reference guide. However, the chapters 
are logically organized, the headings 
allow the reader to find topics easily, 
there is a good index, and the examples 
are clear and adequate. 

Fourteen appendices describe the 
implementation of UCSD Pascal on 
different systems and terminals, sum- 
marize system commands, list error 
messages, and describe the differences 
between UCSD and standard Pascal. 
Anyone starting to use UCSD Pascal 
will find this book worthwhile. 

CP/M 

The popular CP/M operating sys- 
tem has a large number of commands 
and instructions. An excellent refer- 
ence card is available free from Micro- 
systems, a journal for CP/M and 
S-100 systems users. The CP/M Pro- 
grammer's Reference Guide is a fold- 
out card that lists commands, PIP 
commands, parameters and keywords, 
control characters, assembler con- 
ventions and error codes, file types. 
DDT and Editor commands, lOByte 
functions, BIOS entry points. File 
control block, memory allocation, 
disk format, and BDOS function calls. 
Microsystems also offers similar free 
reference cards for Wordstar and Elec- 
tric Pencil. 

The Osborne CP/M User Guide by 
Thorn Hogan and The CP/M Hand- 
hook with MP/ M by Rodnay Zaks 
both combine material designed to 
teach the use of CP/ M with reference 
material. I like the Hogan book better. 
It is more complete, uses less technical 
language, gives better explanations, 
and includes a good section on using 



popular high level languages and 
application programs with CP/M. 

The Zaks book does have some 
advantages. It has a better layout, 
making it easier on the eyes and easier 
to find what you are looking for, and 
has a good set of appendices. Both 
books have decent indexes. 

Apple II 

Probably the handiest program- 
mer's reference available is Computer 
Station's Programmer's Handhook 
for the Apple. This looseleaf binder 
has brief reference guides to Integer 
and Applesoft Basic, Pascal, Basic 80, 
Apple CP/M, 6502 Assembly Lan- 
guage, DOS 3. 1 , 3.2, and 3.3, the DOS 
Tool Kit, Applewriter, VisiCalc, 



An eccentric but useful 

reference guide for 

Apple II owners 

is Wozpak II. 



Macro-Seed, Apple Plot, various 
printers, the Apple System Monitor, 
and hi-res graphics. Each reference is 
condensed to a few pages, and handy 
index tabs make the section you want 
easy to find. The binder is sturdy, and 
has plenty of room for your own notes. 
Since this book, unlike Apple's 
spiral bound notebooks, is labeled on 
the edge and easy to find, most of the 
time I can find the information I need 
here in seconds instead of spending 
minutes to figure out which manual I 
need, trying to find the right manual. 




"Waddaya wanna do now— Trolls and Wizards, Fun with Math, Space Invader, Amalgamated Industries' 
profit and loss statement for 4th quarter FY '80... ?" 

172 



then trying to find the information I 
need. The material is condensed, and 
does not replace all other Apple refer- 
ence manuals, but it is the first place to 
look for most questions about the 
Apple. 

The Apple II User's Guide by Lon 
Poole and others is primarily tutorial, 
giving instruction in operating the 
Apple II, Basic programming, using 
the disk, Apple graphics, and using 
the machine language monitor and 
mini assembler. This is followed by 
100 pages of reference material. There 
is a list of Basic statements and func- 
tions, a list of formulas for derived 
numeric functions, lists of editing 
commands, error messages, intrinsic 
subroutines in the ROM, useful PEEK 
and POKE locations, reserved words, 
and character codes. Memory usage 
and disk formatting is explained, and 
extensive conversion tables are in- 
cluded for hexadecimal/decimal num- 
ber base conversion. 

While the Apple II User's Guide is 
not laid out to give information at a 
glance, it does have a good index, and 
a great deal of good information, pre- 
sented in a form that is easy to under- 
stand. Although there are a few 
technical errors, it is practically a 
must for Apple programmers. 1 con- 
sider this and its PET/CBM com- 
panion the most useful of all the books 
in this review. 

Programmers working with DOS 
routines will find Beneath Apple DOS 
by Don Worth and Pieter Lechner, a 
valuable reference. It offers clear 
explanations, well illustrated, with 
detailed comments, on how Apple 
DOS works, how the diskette is 
organized and formatted, using DOS 
from assembly language programs, 
customizing DOS, and a breakdown 
of the logic of DOS by memory 
address in detail. There are several 
handy program listings, including 
utility programs for dumping tracks, 
updating diskettes, reformatting a 
single track, and binary file to text file 
conversion. 

An eccentric but useful reference 
guide for Apple II owners is Wozpak 
II from the Apple Puget Sound user 
group. The primary limitation of this 
material is that it applies to Integer 
Basic only, and is of little use to Apple 
II Plus owners. 

It contains a large number of useful 
assembly language routines to renum- 
ber, append, relocate, cross reference, 
and recover programs and pack, load, 
generate, and edit graphics. The Apple 
floating point arithmetic routines and 
the TED editor are explained, along 
with several other articles. Serious 
Apple assembly language program- 
mers should have this book. The user 

November 1982 c Creative Computing 





The Aliens 
are on the way! 

The aliens are i estless fhey've broken 
out of their own solar systems and are 
heading toward Earth . . at faster than 
light speeds rhese war happy aliens 
.)ii; diabolically clever, inhuman fighters 
whu give in) (|u,irt.i.'r to man, ship or 
planet 

Iu preserve the peace of the galaxy 
Earth needs .1 superior brood of 
spaceship pilots fearless, yes, but 
more importantly each moot, have an 
intuitive sense of battle tactics as woll 
as superquick reaction; 

fa identify these superior humans, 
Earth's master computer designed an 
ingenious battle simulator. And you are 
one 10 a million chosen to be tested 

As <i Space Kadet, your training is 
intense rigorous, professional nod 
takes piooo on the sophisticated spai 
battle simulator. It. tests you in various 
battle skills Instantaneous 
identification of the strengths and 
weaknesses of alien spacecraft The 
proper construction and maintenance of 
force shields during attacks Quick 
reactions and strategic planning under 
actual battle condition! . 

Do you have the agility nod 
intelligence to moot, and dofo.it. the 
cunning aliens? ( »an you graduate from 
Space Kodot, to toll fledged officer in the 
J Ipace Patrol? 

\ lorry f ho aliens are coming, And the 
simulator awaits 

For 1 or 2 players. (Keyboard). 

Another sensational Hi Res game by 
Dan "Snack Attack' lllowsky. Holy 
$34.95 for the Apple II At. your 
dealer, or: 

<G DATAMOSTI 

!)748 Cozycroft Ave., 

Chatsworth, r,A 9131 1 

1213) 709 1202. 

CIRCLE 162 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



A|i|,l. 



A|i|il( 




J 








for the Artist 




for the Designer 

THE COMPLETE 



h\ David Lubarand Mark Pdczarski 

Paint on your computer in over 100 
colors with 96 different brushes! 
Magnify mode for precision touch- 
ups; mirror image; color reverses; move 
any part of picture anywhere; packing 
routine for increased disk storage of 
any standard graphics screen. Can I 
used by anyone. Paddle/joystick $39.95. 
Apple Graphics Tablet $69.95. 



system n 



bv Mark Pelczarski 



penguin 
* software 



Everything needed for computer-aided 
design. Easily draw and design in two 
or three dimensions, mix text and 
graphics freely, define shapes and 
create typefaces with unique character 
generator. Great for presentations, 
videotape displays, storing designs on 
disks, graphics for other programs, or 
just for experimentation. Paddle/joystick 
>9.95, Apple Graphics Tablet $1 19.95. 
50 additional fonts, si 9.95. 



8 30 4th Avenue, Geneva, Illinois 601 34 (312) 232-1984 



or the rrogrammer 

^"Graphics 
magician 

b\ Mark Pelczaraki, David I.ubar. and Chris Jochumson 

Add fast, smooth animation and hund- 
reds of pictures to your programs. 
Create animated shapes and draw 
paths; have up to 32 independently 
controlled figures on screen. Use a 
special palette of over 100 colors to 
create pictures and objects in highly 
compressed format. Easy to use, and 
includes ;i special programming tu- 
torial. Has saved months in develop- 
ment time for several games already on 
the market. Paddle/joystick S59.95, 
Apple Graphics Tablet $69.95. 



All Perif >r«.- now on unprotected disks N>r four convenieni Apple 

CIRCLE 244 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Apple II i*- .i trademark <>t Apple < omputer, Iru 



Guides, continued... 



group also publishes CALL 
A.P.P.L.E. magazine, and offers 
bound volumes of the magazine with 
indexes each year that contain a great 
deal of useful Apple reference 
material. 

Programmers using the Apple 
Pascal system will find Apple Pascal, 
by Arthur Luehrmann and Herbert 
Peckham to be very helpful, but not a 
substitute for the Pascal Handbook. 
Luehrmann and Peckham write "this 
book is a dismal failure as a reference 
manual" (page 359) and then describe 
what a proper reference should offer. 
That description matches the Tiber- 
ghian book mentioned above. Despite 
the disclaimer, the book has a good 
index and clear explanations that are 
written specifically for the Apple. 

What's Where in the Apple by 
William Luebbert is the best general 
reference to the contents of the various 
memory locations in the Apple II. It 
consists of three parts; a general over- 
view of memory, an "Atlas" listing 
contents by memory address, and a 
"Gazetteer" cross-referencing symbol 
names to their memory location. The 
listings are not easy to read, as they 
are reproduced from a dot matrix 
printer in upper-case only. 

PET/CBM 

Osborne/ McG raw Hill publishes 
the comprehensive, 500 page PET/ 
CBM User's Guide. Chapters cover 
operation, screen editing, Basic pro- 
gramming, special features, cassettes, 
diskettes, and the printer. There is a 
good index and extensive reference 
material, including memory maps to 
the various ROMs, lists of Basic state- 
ments and commands, error messages, 
character codes, and editing func- 
tions. Conversion tables and a list of 



CBM newsletters and reference man- 
uals are among the many other 
features. This is an excellent refer- 
ence book. 

TRS-80 Model I and Model III 

There are several reference guides to 
the TRS-80 ROM routines, including 
77?** TRS-80 Disassembled Hand- 
book, volumes I, II, and III by Robert 
Richardson, Supermap by Roger 
Fuller, Pathways through the ROM, 
which I edited, The Book, volumes I 
and II from Insiders Software Con- 
sultants, and Microsoft Basic Decoded 
& Other Mysteries by James Farvour. 

The most recent, most expensive, 
and best of the lot is Microsoft Basic 
Decoded. This 300-page book begins 
with an introduction to the organiza- 
tion of memory in the Model I and a 
brief explanation of what happens in 
many of the key memory areas, includ- 
ing the communications area, arith- 
metic and math routines, I/O drivers, 
system utilities and other functions. 

Chapter 2 lists over 80 useful ROM 
subroutines which are explained and 
described so that the reader can use 
them from other programs. 

Chapter 3 describes cassette and 
disk operation, while the next chapter 
explains many of the internal tables in 
the ROM. The next chapter gives an 
assembly language program to add a 
SORT function to Basic. This is fol- 
lowed by a program demonstrating 
overlays in the memory communica- 
tions area. The last 250 pages of the 
book disassemble the ROM and give 
comments to explain what is hap- 
pening. 

Bob Richardson is an amateur radio 
enthusiast, and the three volumes of 
The Disassembled Handbook for 
TRS-80 contain quite a few pro- 




"It's the repair technician. " 



grams he has written, many of interest 
to Hams. Pathways through the ROM 
includes two of the other books; 
Volume I of the Disassembled Hand- 
book and Supermap. It also has com- 
ments on the DOS memory locations, 
which are not found in any of the 
other books. 

There are two additional sources 
of valuable information on Radio 
Shack TRS-80 Model I disk opera- 
tion. TRS-80 Disk and Other 
Mysteries by Harvard Pennington is 
primarily a guide to using disk mod- 
ification utilities like Superzap, 
RSM 2D, Monitor 3, DEBUG, and 
Z80-ZAP to examine diskettes, 
recover data, and correct problems. 
It is very technical, but the disk user 
who is willing to work hard can learn a 
great deal from this material. 

The other valuable disk reference is 
the TRS-80 Model I Disk Interfacing 
Guide by William Barden, Jr. This 
little 50-page booklet explains how a 
disk drive works, describes the 
Shugart disk drive and Western 
Digital controller chip used by Radio 
Shack, and gives and explains 
assembly language programs to boot, 
read, write to, and format a diskette. 

This is the most helpful book avail- 
able to assembly language program- 
mers who want to write their own 
TRS-80 disk routines. However, 
assembly language programmers 
should be aware of the descriptions 
of DOS routines that are included in 
the Technical Reference section of 
Radio Shack's own DOS manuals. 
That information may be all that is 
necessary, and it was probably 
included with your disk system. 

Atari 

An excellent collection of simple 
Basic routines appears in Atari Basic- 
Learning By Using by Thomas 
Rowley. About two dozen programs 
illustrate graphics; sound; the use of 
paddles, joysticks, and special keys; as 
well as mixed modes; player missile 
graphics; and other special screen 
routines. Four short appendices cover 
key memory addresses, a p/ayer- 
missile memory map, building a dis- 
play list, and calculating a screen 
position. 

De Re Atari, from Atari, is a guide 
to the Atari computers for serious 
programmers. It gives a system over- 
view, discusses and demonstrates dis- 
play lists, character sets, player- 
missile graphics, display list interrupts 
and scrolling, then covers Basic, the 
operating system, and the disk operat- 
ing system in detail. Nine appendices 
cover technical information, followed 
by a glossary. I would not recommend 
this book to anyone who did not have 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



175 



N ^wr^o p H B T r 



HOW TOSTBAt 



FREE 
PUBLICITY 

By Marry Barber 

ho* and where to get all the «ree 
h ° pubhcty you II ever want 



This remarkable book 
shows you • • . 

• How to professionally prepare 
news releases and articles so they 
will be accepted by the media. 

• How to develop your mailing 
lists. 

• How to work with the news 
media. 

• How to measure the effectiveness 
of your publicity 

• Dozens of ways to secure 
additional publicity at nominal 
cost. 

• Over 600 outlets for free publicity 
and reference to thousands of 
additional sources. 

In this comprehensive publicity guide. 
Harry Barber eliminates the mystique ol 
"tree publicity " shows \ou in detailed, 
step-bv-step procedures, how and whereto 
get it all the tree publicity you'll ever 
want lor yourself or your organization. 

Hon To Steal A Milium $ In tree Public- 
ity is the ideal relerence guide lor business 
owners, corporate executives, political 
groups, non-protit organizations, and 
individuals in all walks ol lite 

About the author— 

National!) prominent advertising and 
public relations executive. Harrv Barber, 
gives it to you straight in his latest book 

I he author has developed hundreds of 
publicity campaigns in conjunction with 
screen and television personalities, US 
Astronauts. I 'SAC Racing, major corpo- 
rations, and private individuals. 

Only $14.95 postpaid 
SATISFACTION GUARANTEED! 

Success Sellers 

Publishers & Booksellers 
P.O. Box 16801 
Irvine, CA 92713 

Please rush me a copy of Harry Barber s 
book, HOW TO STEAL A MILLION $ 
IN FREE PUBLICITY. I enclose $14.95. 

Name 



Address 
Cit) _ 

State _ 



Zip 



cc 



CIRCLE 296 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



;, continued... 

a working knowledge of assembly 
language, as it is quite technical, 
and a great deal of knowledge is 
assumed. The lack of an index makes it 
difficult to use for reference. 

Several chapters of the book have 
appeared in Byte magazine, begin- 
ning with the September 1981 issue. In 
general, the Byte material is edited, 
easier to read, and better illustrated. 
The same topics have been covered in 
more detail and assuming less special 
knowledge in "Outpost: Atari," in the 
June 1981 through January 1982 
issues of Creative Computing. These 
columns have been collected and 
revised and appear in 77?^ Creative 
Atari from Creative Computing Press. 

IVlore Information 

The Basic Handbook ($19.95) 

David Lien 

Compusoft Publishing 

1050 E. Pioneer Way Dept. CC 

San Diego, CA 92119 

The Pascal Handbook ($18.95) 
Jacques Tiberghien 
Sybex, Inc. 
2344 Sixth St. 
Berkeley, CA 94710 

The Beginners Guide for the UCSD 

Pascal System ($11.95) 
Kenneth Bowles 
Byte Books 
70 Main St. 
Peterborough, NH 03458 

Microsystems 

39 E. Hanover Ave. 

Morris Plains, NJ 07950 

Osborne CP/M User's Guide ($12.99) 
Thorn Hogan 
Osborne McGraw Hill 
630 Bancroft Way 
Berkeley, CA 94710 

The CP/M Handbook with MP/M 

($14.95) 

Rodnay Zaks 

Svbex 

2344 Sixth St. 

Berkeley, CA 94710 

Programmer's Guide to the Apple II 

($29.95) 

Computer Station 

12 Crossroads PL 

Ciranite City, IL 62040 

The Apple II User's Guide ($15.00) 

Lon Poole 

Osborne/ McGraw Hill 

630 Bancroft Way 

Berkeley. CA 94710 

Apple Pascal ($14.95) 
Arthur Luehrmann & 
Herbert Peckham 
Byte Books 
70 Main St. 
Peterborough, NH 03458 

176 



Beneath Apple DOS ($19.95) 
Don Worth & Pieter Lechner 
Quality Software 
6660 Reseda Blvd. Suite 105 
Reseda, CA 91335 

What's Where in the Apple ($14.95) 

William F. Luebbert 

Micro Ink, Inc. 

34 Chelmsford St. 

P.O. Box 6502 

Chelmsford, MA 01824 

PET/CBM User's Guide ($15.00) 
Osborne/ McGraw Hill 
630 Bancroft Way 
Berkeley, CA 94710 

Disassembled Handbook for the 

TRS-80 
Vol. I $10, Vol. II $15, Vol. Ill $18 
Robert Richardson 
Richcraft Engineering 
Drawer 1065 

1 Wahmeda Industrial Park 
Chautauqua, NY 14722 

Pathways Through The ROM 

($19.95) 

Edited by George Blank 

Softside Publications 

6 South St. 

Milford, NH 03055 

The Book: Accessing the 

TRS-H0 ROM 
Vol. I $14.95, Vol. II $17.95 
Insiders Software Consultants 
P.O. Box 2441 
Springfield, VA 22152 

Microsoft Basic Decoded and 

Other Mysteries ($29.95) 
James Farvour 
IJG Computer Services 
1260 W. Foothill Blvd. 
Upland, CA 91786 

TRS-H0 Disk and Other Mysteries 

($22.50) 

Harvard Pennington 

IJG Computer Services 

1260 W. Foothill Blvd. 

Upland, CA 91786 

TRS-S0 Model I Disk 

Interfacing Guide ($5.95) 
William Barden, Jr. 
80 Northwest Publishing 
3838 South Warner St. 
Tacoma, WA 98409 

Atari Basic: Learning By Using ($9.95) 
Thomas E. Rowley 
Elcomp Publishing 
53 Red rock Lane 
Pomona, CA 91766 

De Re Atari ($19.95) 
Atari Program Exchange 
P.O. Box 427 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 

The Creative Atari ($15.95) 

Creative Computing Press 

39 E. Hanover Ave. 

Morris Plains, NJ 07950 □ 

November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



GEFliE 



5.25" Fixed /Removable GENIE Cartridge Drives 



I.B.M. 



APPLE II 



RADIO SHACK 



The Genie Cartridge Drive is a revolutionary new 10 Megabyte Hard Disk 
Drive that includes a 5 Megabyte removable cartridge. The cartridge 
Drive system simply plugs into your computer, and includes all 
necessary software and hardware. Genie drives are compat- 
ible with most popular software, 
and each cartridge replaces 
over 30 double-density 
■ floppy disks. 



CEHtc 








FEATURES 

• 10 Megabytes of on-line siorage. 

• File sizes to 5 Megabytes. 

• Power-on self-test. 

• Easy back-ups in minutes. 

• System expandable to eight drives. 

• Built-in error detection and correction. 

• No preventative maintenance required. 

• Comes complete with all necessary software 

and hardware. 

• MTBF 8000 Hours. 

• Built-in fan. 

• Operates 110/220 VAC 50-60 Hz. 

• One year limited warranty. 



Removable Cartridge. Imagine, 5 MegaDyies 
the palm of your hand. These small cartridges are 
only .75 inches thick and 5.50 inches square. The 
disk itself is completely sealed from the outside 
and all its hazards by a sliding door that opens 
only once the cartridge is firmly seated inside the 
drive. Long term availability of this cartridge is 
assured by its adoption by several well known 
manufacturers including Dysan, the world leader 
in computer mass storage media. 



V 



oo* 



Available at your local computer dealer 



"Manufacturer's suggested retail price. Includes all required components 
IBM Personal Computer is a registered trademark of IBM Corporation. 
Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc 
Radio Shack is a registered trademark of Tandy Corporation. 



COMPUTER CORPORATION 

31127 Via Colinas #802 
Westlake Village, CA 91362 
(213)991-6210 



CIRCLE 177 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




/ 



Computer-generated motorcycles line up for a deadly race. 



I have seen the future of American 
film. It is computer-generated and won- 
drously vibrant. Tron takes the viewer 
inside the incredible world of computer 
graphics. 

Walt Disney Productions has issued the 
Wizard of Oz of the 1980s. The story is of 
a young man, abused in this world, who 
suddenly finds himself fighting for survival 
in another. The other world is not over 
the rainbow, but behind the video screen. 
The characters he meets are not tin men 
and scarecrows, but programs. 

Like Wizard, Tron starts out on earth. 
Our man Flynn, played by Jeff Bridges, 
has written several video game programs. 
Corporate villian Dillinger, played by 
dressed-for-success David Warner, has 
copied Flynn's programs and erased the 
originals. Due to the success of "Space 
Paranoids," the best of Flynn's games, 
Dillinger has risen to the top of the 
corporate ladder at Encom, and has 
banished Flynn. 

One night, Flynn returns to the Encom 
computer to regain credit for his pro- 
gramming work. Dillinger, however, has 
installed a Master Control Program to 
thwart such damaging infiltrations. 

With the help of two friends, Flynn 
reaches a privileged terminal and begins 
hacking away at the computer's security 
system. The MCP, like Oz himself, 
becomes angry as Flynn challenges it with 



Mike Coffey 

unsolvable problems, and treats us to a 
dazzling laser light show as it dematerial- 
izes Flynn and draws him inside the 
computer. 

Flynn's journey into the computer, like 
Dorothy's flight to Munchkinland, trans- 
ports the audience into a world never 
before seen. The computer world of Tron 



Flynn 's journey into 

the computer, like 

Dorothy's flight to 

Munchkinland, 

transports the audience 

into a world never 

before seen. 



is made of imagination and electrons, 
instead of papier-mache and polyfoam. 
Time is measured in nanoseconds, and 
matter can be converted into energy at 
the drop of a disk. 

The programs inside the Encom com- 
puter have all been enslaved by the MCP. 
The MCP has decreed that people do not 



Photos CMC Ml \\\ll Wall l)isne\ Productions 

vn orld rights reserved 

exist and that programs who still believe 
in users must be punished. The presence 
of Flynn, a rogue user, within the com- 
puter can only upset this agnostic algo- 
rithmic society. 

The imprisoned programs are held in 
prison sectors with invisible force fields 
instead of bars. Each program awaits the 
time when he will have to prove himself 
on the Game Grid, where video games 
are played to the death. 

Flynn's first game is a round of com- 
puter jai-alai, in which two video- 
enhanced players whip a synthesized 
fireball at each other. Whenever the ball 
hits the ground, it knocks out a section of 
the floor. Eventually, one of the players 
falls through the floor to his death. Flynn 
wins this game, but refuses to finish off 
his opponent. The MCP and Sark, his 
righthand man/program, become further 
enraged at this display of mercy and kill 
the loser anyway. 

Next, Flynn must enter the light Cycle 
race/duel. Each player rides a motorcycle 
dragster that leaves a solid color wall in 
its wake. These cycles are computer 
generated, three-dimensional, blindingly 
quick, and impossibly agile. The bikes 
can make right angle turns at top speed. 

The object of the game is simple: 
survive. Running into a wall made by a 
cycle results in instant dematerialization. 
Flynn and two others, Ram and Tron, 



178 



November 1982 c Creative Computing 









Surk hnlJ\ a deadh disk. 



With Sark and the MCP hot on their heels, our 

heroes finally reach the i/o tower and learn 

the secret that will enable them to 

humble the master program. 



survive the race and manage to escape 
the Game Grid. 

Flynn now joins forces with Tron, a 
creation of one of Flynn's friends in the 
'real world. Tron and his creator are both 
played by Bruce Boxleitner. Tron's goal 
is to run independently of the MCP and 
to keep track of all interactions with other 
computers. Naturally, MCP discourages 
this, since his plans include stealing 
secrets from the Pentagon computer. 

Flynn, Tron, and Ram begin a journey 
toward the input/output tower, where 
Tron must receive instructions from his 
user. Sneaking past armored tanks and 
hijacking a police vehicle, they make their 
way resolutely toward the tower as if 
toward the Emerald City. 

Along the way, they meet a lovely 
female program played by Cindy Morgan, 
who also plays one of Flynn's real-life 
friends. Tron and this female seem to 
share a digital love relationship which 
causes Tron to react with jealousy when 
Flynn seems to recognize her. Anyway, 
she replaces the now deceased Ram in 
the traveling party. 

With Sark and the MCP hot on their 
heels, our heroes finally reach the i/o 
tower and learn the secret that will enable 
them to humble the master program. 
They ride a solar simulator into the 
central part of the great computer where 



The i/o tower. 

the final battle must be fought. 

A great electronic frisbee fight ensues, 
with Sark the first to fall. The battle lasts 
for several minutes before the good guys 
prevail and Flynn returns to the world of 
humans. 

As the master is deprogrammed, a new 
light dawns on the computer world. 
Everything begins to glow in a fresh, new 
way and glorious sounds fill the air. All 
the programs run for their towers to 
communicate with their users once again. 

Judgment 

Though not a great example of film 
literature, Tron succeeds mightily as a 
computer graphics demo. The story is 




strictly Saturday matinee material, and 
the characters are shallow stereotypes like 
those found in TV situation comedies. 
However, for 16 quarters, I may return to 
see it several times. 

The dialogue is peppered with com- 
puter in-jokes. As a former big-computer 
user and big-company employee, I 
enjoyed the rebellious anti-establishment 
flavor of the story. As a sometime pro- 
grammer, I enjoyed hearing programs talk 
about users as if they were gods. 

The great achievement of the film is 
the creation of a new world. The inner 
space environment is easily as convincing 
as the outer space environments of 
Kubrick or Lucas. It seems that the 
nightmares of the video game addict have 
been realized on film. 

The message that comes through 
strongest is that brilliant people can do 
powerful things with computers. Flynn 
was able to thrill countless people with 
his video games, and Dillinger enslaved 
an entire company with his control pro- 
gram. The animation compares favorably 
with most of the "conventional" animation 
I have seen. The backgrounds and tran- 
sitions in Tron are better executed than 
those in many Academy Award 
nominees. 

No coin-op or home computer video 
game comes close to the effects of Tron. 
All those other graphic miracles exhibit a 
flatness that Tron has transcended. In my 
eyes, Tron makes Close Encounters of 
the Third Kind look like Casablanca. 

The images found in Tron are close to 
the best available from computers any- 
where. Some day, all computer games 
will have similar quality animation. If you 
want a preview of future film or future 
gaming, see Tron. □ 



November 1982 c Creative Computing 



179 



I 



i 



VINYL PROTECTIVE DISK SLEEVES 



CSCSAVERS 



R*t««abl« 



CoW 



jO(T** 



Utility 



ft 



i^v 



% 




c ** 




II 



COLOR CODED. Multi-color DiscSavers "' are designed 
for easy recognition of individual disks with your own 
color-keyed filing system. Ideal for office or home use. 

PROTECTIVE: Custom grain vinyl provides added 
protection for magnetic disks by guarding against 
common handling hazards. 

ATTRACTIVE: DiscSavers provide a handsome and 
professional method of single disk storage and 
enhance the look of your hardware while protecting 
your valuable software. -V 



' £ Hi VI 



DURABLE: Rigid vinyl construction protects against 
constant handling to ensure long wear and tear 

PORTABLE: DiscSavers are the only portable viny. 
disk sleeves for use with a single diskette that bear the 
RockRoy mark of quality. 









Assorted i 





Computer Products Division 

u«icSaver5» i<; a titutematk ut RockHoy \\\c 
CIRCLE 229 ON READER SERVICE CARD •< 



7721 E.Gray Road 
Scottsdale, Arizona 85' 
(602) 998-1577 
Tott-Fcee SQQ-528-2361 



Pilot Tutorial I 



M.R. Smith 



This is the first of two tutorials designed to provide 
examples of uses of Pilot. Although it uses the Pilot-to-Basic 

translator which appeared in the October issue of Creative 

Computing, you can use it with other versions of Pilot. The 

tutorials are based on a workshop given at Calgary Teacher's 

Convention held in February 1982. 

Type, Accept and Match 

To type a message out to a student, the command TYPE 
(T:) is used before the message. 

TtThis lesson is on VOWELS 

t: 

T'What is your r»a«e? 

t: 

To make your screen easier to read, use T: without a message 
to print a blank line. 

Once a question has been asked, the next step is to use the 
accept (A:) command to get the student's answer. The answer 
is automatically stored. 

TtWhst is your rone? 

t: 
a: 
t: 

Dr. Mike Smith, 304 86th Avenue SE, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2H 

1N7. 



The answer from the student can be compared against 
what was expected using the match (M:) instruction. You can 
check against one thing or many things. 

TtType in this word FRED 

a: 
m:fred 

or 
TtGive Me 3 vowel 

a: 
m:a,e,i,o,u 

The modify instructions Y and N allow the courseware 
developer to do things depending on whether or not the last 
match instruction was successful. To do this simply add Y or 
N after the instruction T:, A:, or M:. For example, testing the 
vowels again 

TJGive «e a vowel 

a: 
m:a,e,i,o,u 

TYtVery good that was a vowel 

TN'No that was not a vowel* 

Using the Y and N modifiers you can check a series of 
things. For example, suppose you are making a lesson to 
check on the use of the Pilot instruction T: 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



181 



Pilot, continued... 

TtHow would you get PILOT to write WHO AM I 



xtLESSON 1 PART 2 



a: 



R: USING THE LETTERS BETWEEN A AND E 



m:t:who am i 



♦ ♦ ♦ 



TY: RIGHT ON 



♦ ♦ ♦ 



MN * ♦ 

tni each pilot statement must include a colon : 

my:t: 

tnjthe type statement must start with tt 

In this short lesson, the first match instruction checked for 
the full correct answer. The second match instruction only 
occurred if the first match instruction failed. The third match 
instruction was made only if the second match succeeded. 

The match instruction is both very powerful and very 
weak. For example, a single match instruction can be used to 
pick up any of the following words: yes, yep, yessir, yer, okay, 
OK, okey. 

ttdo you understand? 
a: 

m:y,ok 

The Y in the match instruction will be matched against the 
Y in the other words, and the OK will be matched against 
even the misspelled word "okey." That is the powerful part. 
The weak part is that a match will also occur with the Y in 
the student's response NO YOU TELL ME. 

To avoid this sort of problem, match against enough of the 
student answer to avoid this ambiguity but don't match against 
so much that the match instruction might not be able to spot 
a correct student answer. 

For example using 
m:ye,ok 

would be good as it picks up the answers you want and 
ignores the one you don't want. 

m:yes,ok 

is poor. It marks some of the student responses incorrectly 
wrong. 

Long Lessons 

When building a very long lesson, many problems can crop 
up. The first is that you may not remember what each part of 
the lesson does. The second is difficulty in altering the way in 
which the student does the lesson. The first problem can be 
alleviated by documentation, and the second by splitting the 
lesson into parts. 

The remark (R:) command is used to document things that 
the developer would like to remember. The student doing the 
lesson does not see the remark. It is simply a programming 
aid for the developer. 

To break the lesson up into parts, use the lesson part (*:) 
instruction. The name of the lesson part is placed alongside 
the *:. At the very end of all the lesson parts the end (E:) 
instruction must be placed. 

An example of these three commands is given below 

xtLESSON 1 

R J THIS IS A LESSON ON VOWELS 



♦ ♦ ♦ 



♦ ♦ ♦ 



♦ ♦ ♦ 



♦ ♦ ♦ 



xtLESSON 1 PART 3 



RtETC* 



♦ ♦ ♦ 



e: 

The jump (J:) instruction allows you to move about the 
program. For example, J:E allows you to jump to the end of 
the program and J:LESSON 1 PART 2 causes LESSON 1 
PART 2 to be performed. 

Using the jump instruction this way is rather restrictive. 
Instead the jump, match and accept instructions can be 
combined to move about the lesson according to what the 
student is doing. For example, this program shows the J: 
instruction being used to give the student a choice of lessons: 

XISTART 

t:what lesson would you like? 
t: vowels or numbers? 



a: 



m:v 



jy:vowels 



m:n 



TN! ENTER VOWELS OR NUMBERS 



TNtTRY AGAIN 



JNtSTART 



x: NUMBERS 



R: LESSON ON NUMBERS 



♦ ♦ ♦ 



J : START 



x: VOWELS 



R: LESSON ON VOWELS 



♦ ♦ ♦ 



♦ ♦ ♦ 



JtSTART 



xtEND 



The first match/jump pair checks to see if the lesson 
VOWELS has been chosen. The second pair ensures that the 
student typed in a valid answer. At the end of each lesson 
part, a simple jump instruction takes the student back to the 
start of the lesson for another choice of topics. 

Part Two of the tutorial will appear in the December 1982 
issue of Creative Computing. □ 



182 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



1 



By Norman J. Wazaney Jr. 



<* 




it 



j 



V 



£/ 



*\ 





OLIK 



UNPKOTt 

>nvi 



mo 




You never dreame 
Solitaire could be so fascinating. 



Solitaire in a saloon can be fun but it's better 
on your Apple*. Fair warning: if you get hooked on 
Solitaire, beware of this game! "Singles night at 
Mollys'' is actually two basic solitaire card games 
with several variations permitting you to use the 
skill level and strategy you enjoy most Play alone or 
against other players, where a rating system declares 
the winner, features High Resolution color graphics, 
full user documentation and various scoring potentials. 
There are hours, days, even years of pleasure 



to be derived from this intriguing game. Available 
now for only $29.95 at computer stores. 



To order by phone, call 800-526-9042 and use 
your Visa or MasterCard. All shipments made the 
same day in which orders are received. To order by 
mail add $1 for shipping charges and send your 
check to: 
Soft Images, 200 Route 17, Mahwah, PU 07430. 



Singles Plight runs on 48K Apple II, Applesoft in ROM. 

3.3 DOS/ One Disk Drive 

Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer Co. 



CIRCLE 277 ON R6ADER SERVICE CARD 



Soft imaaes 

DMSON Of Ai SYSTEMS INC 



Accounting Plus II 



TM 



Plus . . . 



Software Dimensions announces three new modules for Apple II* users with Accounting Plus II- 
each designed with the same high standards and human engineering factors that have made 
Accounting Plus II so popular. 

With Invoices Plus you can inventory items just by entering part numbers; easily invoice non- 
standard items and miscellaneous charges; place user-defined comment lines oh the invoice; get 
twice as many line items per invoice; automatically generate multiple pages; specify individual invoice 
numbers or assign them automatically — and more. 

G L Plus expands your financial reporting capabilities, including changes in your financial 
position, offering even more flexibility for your General Ledger module. Typical reporting features 
include Budget/Prior Months' Listing, Income Statements. Balance Sheets. Budget Variance Report. 
Comparative Reports. Source and Use of Funds. 

Labels Plus offers a versatile label package that lets you maintain one or more mailing lists 
with up to 1 .000 names each, as well as to access existing Vendor and Customer files easily; add. edit 
and delete names; sort and select; print mailing labels. 

You won't find this kind of flexibility and sophistication in any other Apple II accounting system. 
To find out more, contact your Accounting Plus II dealer. 



Software Dimensions Inc., 6341 Auburn Blvd., Citrus Heights, CA 95610. 91 6/722/8000 

'Registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc. Accounting Plus is a trademark of Software Dimensions Inc 

*82 Software Dimensions Inc. 



CIRCLE 279 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Logo Ideas 




Robert Lawler 



The Clever Hack and Clever Tactics 

Two children played a simple Logo game, SHOOT. In that 
game, the turtle first draws a circle on the video display then, 
the pen is lifted and the turtle is set down at a random screen 
location. The objective of the game is to turn the turtle with 
RIGHT and LEFT commands until it points at the target then 
SHOOT the turtle forward into the target. When SHOOT is 
executed, it first moves the turtle forward the specified 
number of turtle steps. SHOOT next computes whether the 
turtle has landed within the circumference of the target. If so, a 
point is scored, the screen is cleared and a new round begins. 
Otherwise, the turtle is returned to its initial location and 
orientation. 

This is a simple, low pressure game, used to familiarize new 
Logo people with the commands of the language. But with these 
two children taking turns at one terminal, the game quickly 
became competitive. It became important to score every time 
SHOOT was executed (they counted SHOOT executions as the 
basis of turn taking). One child noticed that the turtle always 
drew the target at the center of the screen. He also knew that 
the HOME command puts the Logo turtle at the center of the 
screen (and thus at the target center). He proceeded to score 
every time with the command sequence [HOME SHOOT 0], 
despite the outraged complaints of cheating from his opponent. 
This solution to the SHOOT problem is a clever hack. A "hack" 
is an accidentally effective way of getting around a particular 
problem. 

The child's clever hack was easy enough to render ineffective. 

Someone else had only to change the game so that the turtle 

drew the initial target at another location for the clever hack to 

become worthless in itself. And yet, this clever hack served 

well as an example of a more general form of solution the child 

developed. He developed what he called a "clever tactic." 

Knowing that the SETHEADING command could point the 

turtle in a specific direction, he used SETH then moved the 

turtle forward or back as necessary to align it horizontally with 

the target. A RIGHT or LEFT 90, with more forward and back 

commands would always then put the turtle within the target 

and permit SHOOT to bring a certain score. 

Summary 

It is useful to distinguish between specific solutions to a 
problem in a particular circumstance and general solutions 
to all problems of a given class. Never despise the particular 
solution, however, for it can show the way to a more general 
and more powerful solution. 



Robert Lawler, Centre Mondial Informatique Et Resources Humaines, 
Paris, France. 



Advice To A Teacher 

I write here about my own experience and out of that ex- 
perience, but my situation is probably different from yours. 
You have had to worry about instructing 20 or 30 children. I 
have merely had to play with two children — and those children 
were my own whom I knew well. I write here also with the con- 
viction that your work in the future will be more like my 
experiences than it has been. Computers will permit the con- 
struction of intellectual worlds where children will be able to 
spend much time learning effectively on their own. This will give 
you more time to know individual children and to intervene in 
their learning as the advisor you, their parents, and the children, 
themselves, hope you will be. 

Geometry has been an important central theme of instruction 
in our laboratory because its founder invented a kind of 
geometry for children. We have called it "turtle geometry." It is 
distinguished from other geometries because it is a geometry of 
action. The leading actor, the agent of this action, is the turtle. 
Either a mechanical robot or a triangular cursor on a video 
display screen, the turtle goes forward some distance or turns 
through an angle on command. When its pen is down, the turtle 
draws a line. 

At the ages of six and eight, my children were introduced to 
SHOOT, a simple turtle geometry game. A setup procedure 
drew a target and placed the turtle at some random screen 
location. To score, the children had to turn the turtle right or 
left some angle to point it at the target then SHOOT forward 
some distance into the target. The game was easy for them to 
play and they enjoyed it. (They even played the game without 
the computer; setting a hula hoop on the floor for a target, the 
children took turns playing turtle and keyboard commander.) 

Robby, the older child, came to want a more complicated 
game. He was fascinated by the air battles of World War II and 
asked me to make a game in which the targets would be air- 
planes. READY-AIM-FIRE (we called R.A.F.) satisfied him; 
even more, it engaged him. Robby spent the better part of an 
entire day trying to score more kills than von Richthofen, the 
famous Red Baron of World War I. This game permitted him to 
do something he wanted — play in his own fantasy world. It 
permitted me to introduce him to absolute coordinate 
geometry. 

The AIM procedure required specification of the location of 
the airplane through naming its X and Y coordinates. (Axes 
provided a scale from which these values could be read.) After 
the location of the plane was specified, the AIM procedure 
moved the "gunsight" to the location. AIM could be executed 
as many times as necessary to get the gunsight on target, where 
FIRE would destroy the plane and increase the score. When 
Robby later wanted a similar game for sinking ships, I showed 
him how to modify the R.A.F. procedures so that he could 
replace the gunsight with a sub and the airplane with a carrier, 
both simple drawing procedures he had created. 

The style of introduction presented in this story is op- 
portunistic in the extreme. It depends on three things: the 
inclination of the child to connect his computer activities with 
what he knows about other things that concern him; the 
flexibility of computer systems to enable the building of simple 
models; the knowledge and values of a teacher in shaping 
particular procedures through which the child's objectives 
are achieved in such a way that he is introduced to important 
ways of looking at and describing the world. □ 



November 1982° Creative Computing 



185 




The Countess 
And The 
Computer Langu 




Part One 



Geoff Gilpin 



Picture courtesy of 
Camelot Publishing Company. 







This is the first of a three-part series on Ada. The first 
two parts comprise a tutorial on the language. The third is 
a comparison of two implementations of Ada for the 
Apple. Read on. The Countess is waiting. 



Imagine that you are a computer programmer working for 
the Air Force. While assigned to the Cruise Missile Project, 
you come up with an especially clever program that makes 
the guidance system of the missile more accurate. You show 
the program to your boss who claps you on the back, gives 
you a raise, and then says: 

"Hey, I just remembered — the Navy has cruise missiles too. 
Why don't you show them your program?" 

So you walk across the street to see your friend Al, who 
works in Navy Data Processing. Al is very enthusiastic, but 
there is a problem: your program is written in Fortran and all 
of the Navy's programmers use assembly language. Since the 
Pentagon is interested, however, you and Al take several 
weeks from your jobs and translate the new program from 
Fortran into assembler, wasting a great deal of the taxpayers' 
money and seriously straining your friendship. 

Now take the above scenario, multiply it by a thousand, 
spread it over decades, and you will begin to hear a clamor of 
tongues babbling away in military computer systems. 

In 1975, the Department of Defense decided that this 
Tower of Babel had been built high enough. They formed the 
United States High-Level Language Working Group (whew!) 
to design a single language to be used as a standard among all 
branches of service. We now have the result of their 
labors— Ada, the universal language of the eighties. 

Ada is named after Augusta Ada Byron, Countess of 
Lovelace, the nineteenth-century British noblewoman who 
worked with early mechanical computers. She is widely 
accepted as the world's first programmer and is regarded as a 
patroness by some members of the profession. 



Ada (the computer language) comes into the world 
propelled by enormous political and economic forces. When 
you apply for a job five years from now, your prospective 
employer will ask you if you know Ada, just as they ask about 
Fortran and Cobol now. This makes me very happy because I 
am a big fan of Ada (both the Countess and the computer 
language). I am here today to let you in on the ground floor, 
to give you a head start with programming in Ada. 



When you apply for a job five 
years from now, your prospective 
employer will ask if you know Ada. 



Geoff Gilpin, 1018 N. Leminwah St., Appleton, WI 54911 



But first, a disclaimer: What follows is a description of the 
Ada language itself. Details concerning the creation, main- 
tenance, and execution of Ada programs will vary between 
computer systems and are not discussed here. I am also 
assuming that the reader has some familiarity with at least 
one high-level "structured" language such as PL/1, C, 
Pascal, or even structured Cobol. Beyond that, things will be 
very basic. So, are we ready? 

Here is a genuine Ada program, ready to run on that hot 
little microcomputer you have: 

with TEXT__I0; use TEXT_I0; 
procedure FIRST_EXAMPLE is 

begin 

put ("The Countess of Lovelace welcomes you!"); 

end FIRST_EXAMPLE; 

This is a trivial little program that will, when compiled and 
executed (see your manual), print Ada's greetings on your 
terminal (or printer or whatever your "standard output device" 
is). Although trivial, this program has several things to teach 
us. 



186 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



TAKES THE MISERY AND MYSTERY 

OUT OF USING THE APPLE'S * 

FILE STRUCTURE . . . 



If you really enjoy programming 
and like the freedom of creating programs 
for your own use, you'll be happy to 
discover APPLE FILES. 

This brand-new book is designed 

to eliminate the painstaking trial-and-error 
process that Apple users have to suffer 
through to learn how to use their com- 
puter's file structure. 

No more misery and mystery — now 
this step-by-step tutorial shows you how 
to create and use virtually any type of 
file you want. 

David Miller, author of APPLE FILES, 
is the well-known editor of Apple Ed- 
ucator's Newletter. 

In this book, he makes it relatively 
easy for anyone — from beginner to 



experienced Apple user — to expand their 
programming capabilities. 

Read what Ken Mazur (Microcom- 
puter/Editorial Consultants) says about 
APPLE FILES: 

"... this may be one of the best 
(b<K)ks) I have ever reviewed. The author 
Is dear, concise, and a marvelous teacher. 

He shows concern for his readers 
and makes the effort (successfully) to 
anticipate reader problems . . . 

He then explains in great detail any 
area of possible confusion . . . 

An excellent (book). 1 would rate the quality of 
(Miller's) work right up there with David Lien, John Grillo, 
and J.D. Robertson . . . 

Miller makes a possibly confusing subject extremely 
clear.' ' 

INVEST TIME NOW in learning how to get the most out 
of your Apple. 

Let APPLE FILES help you unlock the mystery of 
your Apple's file structure and give you the unlimited 
freedom to change 1 and add to your programs at will. 




APPLE FILES is available ^t your local 
dealer, or order directly from the publisher: 
R(*ston l\jblishing Company, Inc., 11480 Sunset 
Hills Road, Reston, VA. 22000. 

To order by phone, call toll-free 800 
336-o;*;*8. In Virginia: 703, 437-sooo. 

Send $14.05 for each book, plus your 
states sales tax. MASTERCARD and VISA 
cards are accepted. SAVE! if payment, plus 
state sales tax accompanies your order. pul>- 
lisher pays postage and handling. 

Available separately: a diskette of all the 
programs In the lx>ok. 



RESTON PUBLISHING COMPANY, INC. 



A Prentlce-Hall Company 
11 480 Sunset Hills Road 
Reston, Virginia 22090 



* Apple i< a registered trademark of 
Apple Computer Company 



CIRCLE 265 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Ada, Continued- 



Procedures 

First, Ada programs have names. The one above is called 
FIRST EXAMPLE. It is an instance of a procedure, a simple 
kind of program unit in Ada. 

Procedures begin with the keyword "procedure" followed 
by an identifier, which is a unique combination of letters, 
numerals, and the underscore character. Ada adheres to the 
custom of beginning an identifier with a letter. Here are some 
examples of Ada identifiers: 

X, x, Tl, Fred, day_of_week, ROTATE, abor t_miss ion , 
R97z33, oh_my_s tars_and_gar ters 

Obviously, meaningful names are better. 

Procedures in Ada don't operate in a vacuum; they live in a 
particular environment. The environment occupied by 
FIRST__ EXAMPLE is, in part, defined by the statements 
"with TEXT_IO" and "use TEXTLIO." Just as the citizens of 
a particular country have certain privileges and responsibil- 
ities, Ada programs operating in a specified environment 
acquire the features and limitations of that environment. 

Specifying "with TEXT_IO" makes all the features of the 
TEXTLIO package (more on packages later) available to 
FIRST. EXAMPLE. Specifically, these include other Ada 
procedures designed to move streams of characters between 
the computer and various peripheral devices (the terminal, 
for instance). The "put" statement invoked in the fourth line 
of the program is actually an Ada procedure contained in 
TEXT_IO. If we hadn't specified "with TEXTLIO," the put 
procedure wouldn't have been available to our sample 
program, which would have been deaf and blind to the outside 
world. 

Notice that a blank line divides FIRST-EXAMPLE into 
two logically distinct parts. The top two lines are called the 



Dreams 

Come 

True 




When you use 
Quality Software from CMA 

APPLE II - APPLE /// - TRS-80 - IBM 




Micro Computer Division 

55722 Santa Fe Trail 

Yucca Valley, CA 92284 

(619) 365-9718 



CIRCLE 132 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



"specification," which gives the information needed to link 
FIRST- EXAMPLE up to its environment. The bottom three 
lines, called the body, lists the actions performed by FIRST_ 
EXAMPLE when it is invoked. 

The body of FIRST- EXAMPLE contains a single com- 
mand, the "put" statement, bracketed by the "begin" and 
"end" statements which delineate procedure bodies (and the 
bodies of other program units such as packages). Notice that 
the name of the procedure must be repeated after the 
concluding "end." This helps to keep the boundaries of the 
procedure clear. 

Second Example 

Since our sample program was so simple, let's look at 
another example: 

with TEXT_IO; use TEXT_IO; 
procedure SECOND EXAMPLE is 



NOT_PRIME: 
TWO: 
NUMBER: 
REPLY: 
MESSAGE_1 : 
MESSAGE 2: 



2; 



Boolean ; 
cons tant : = 
integer ; 
characte r : ■ 
string ( 1 . . 14 ) 
string (1 . . 17) 



'y'; 



"Lady Lovelace "; 
"bids you farewell"; 



begin 

put ("enter an integer and I will tell you"); 

put (" if it is a prime number."); 



while REPLY /- 'n' loop 
get (NUMBER); 
NOT PRIME := false; 



— /■ means "not equal to" 



for i in TWO .. NUMBER/TWO loop 
if NUMBER mod i - then 
NOT_PRIME :- true; 
end if ; 
end loop; — for loop 



("is not prime"); 
("is prime"); 



it again?"); 



188 



if NOT_PRIME 

then put (NUMBER); put 

else put (NUMBER); put 

end if ; 

new_line ; 

put ("do you want to do 

get (REPLY); 

end loop; — while loop 

put (MESSAGE_1 & MESSAGE_2); 
end SECOND_EXAMPLE; 

So far, Ada looks pretty conventional. In fact, you Pascal 
users may be having a sense of deja vu. This is not a 
coincidence; the Department of Defense used the Pascal 
language as a model in the design of Ada and, apart from 
minor syntactical differences, Pascal can be considered a 
subset of Ada. Pascal programmers will notice that semicolons 
are used more consistently here. As in PL/1, semicolons 
terminate rather than separate statements. Semicolons appear 
at the end of nearly all statements; the major exceptions 
being is, begin, and loop. 

SECOND- EXAMPLE is one step above the first program 
on the simplicity scale. When executed, it will determine if 
numbers entered by the user are prime; although its real 
purpose is to give an appreciation of the general structure of 
Ada. We will take a quick look at it to familiarize ourselves 
with the basic syntax of Ada and then move on to new 
territory. 

The data declaration section, immediately below the 
specification, introduces a few of the familiar faces from 
Ada's great cast of data types. Notice that TWO is declared a 
constant, a value which does not change during the execution 
of the program. Initial values may be assigned to data objects, 
as occurs with TWO and the character variable REPLY. 

We could have specified the type constant integer for 
TWO, although the type is implied from the assigned value. If 
the value had been 2.0 instead of 2, TWO would have been of 
the type float. 

November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



ort Apocalypse, Reptilian, Claim Jumper and Shamus are all trademarks of Synapse Software, 

K)4- (415) 527-7751 



Jacuzzi St., Suite I, Richmond. 

CIRCLE 298 ON READER ' 



Atari Home Computer 



Atari is a registered trademark of Atari, Inc. 




A lot of computers offer a lot. Only one 
in its price range offers the most. The Tl 
Home Computer 

Better to begin with. Anyone can start 
right away with our Solid State Software™ 
Command Cartridges. Dozens of programs 
are available in home management, educa- 
tion and entertainment. 

Easy to expand. Our Peripheral Expan- 
sion System gives you plug-in cards for 
memory expansion, P-Code capabilities, a 
disk drive controller and the RS232 Inter- 
face. You can also add a modem, speech 




TB Home Computer* 

This is the one? 



synthesizer, disk drive and 80 column dot 
matrix printer. 

Programming flexibility. TI BASIC is 
built into the Home Computer But it can 
also handle TI Extended BASIC, UCSD 
Pascal* Version IV.O, TI LOGO II, TMS 
9900 Assembly Language and TI PILOT. 
Programs can be stored in the optional 
Mini Memory Command Cartridge. 

High-Tech specs. 16-bit microprocessor, 
16K bytes RAM (expandable to 52K). 
26K bytes internal ROM, up to 30K bytes 
external ROM. 3 simultaneous tones from 



1 10 HZ to AO.OOO HZ. High resolution video. 
U. & I.e. Single line overlay for 2nd function. 
Control & function keys. 16 color graphics 
with 4 modes & sprites. 

Sound impressive? Compare a TI Home 
Computer with the competition and really 
be impressed. You won't even 
need a computer to tell you this 
is the one. 

Instruments 



© 1982 Texas Instruments 



'UCSD Pascal is a trademark of the Regents of the University of California 

CIRCLE 303 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Ada, continued... 



Next there are the two MESSAGE strings. Strings in Ada 
are declared as arrays, with upper and lower bounds specifying 
the number of characters the string may contain. There is no 
"dynamic length attribute" as in Basic— a 14-character string 
must hold 14 characters. 

In the assignment of the MESSAGE variables, notice that 
the assigned strings are surrounded by double quotes as 
opposed to the single quotes used to assign the character 
value y to REPLY. 

The main part of the program is contained inside the while 
loop that starts after the third blank line. Here we meet our 
first Ada comment, which begins with the "— " marker and 
extends to the end of the line. There are no embedded 
comments as in PL/1 and Pascal. 

After the get statement (also part of TEXT IO) comes the 
Ada version of the iterative for loop, which is the biggest 
departure from conventional syntax that we have seen so far. 
Instead of assigning upper and lower values to an index 
variable, Ada uses a range. Ranges occur all through Ada and 
can be specified in different ways. 

The simplest way, illustrated here, is to put two constants, 
variables, literals, or expressions on either side of two dots, 
the lesser-valued one on the left. For instance, we might have 

for j in 'a'..'z' loop — the alphabet is predefined 

or 

for HUE in RED. .YELLOW loop 

Although it is not obvious from the above fragments, loop 
counters, such as j and HUE, are not explicitly declared with 
the other variables in the program. When j appears after the 
for keyword it is implicitly defined as a variable of type 
character. An explanation of the second example, and more 
concerning ranges, will appear momentarily. 

Examining the for loop and its inner if statement reveals 



that Ada handles block structure differently from other Algol- 
related languages. Compound statements must be explicitly 
terminated, as in "end if" and "end loop." Although this 
seems clumsy when the compound contains only one state- 
ment, I prefer it to the endless BEGIN-END blocks in Pascal 
and Algol. 

Farther down, in the second if statement, we come to one 
of the genuine shortcomings of Ada. Notice the two put 
statements required to print NUMBER and a message string. 
Any other programming language (even Basic), would have 
allowed you to write "put (NUMBER, "is prime")." Not Ada. 
NUMBER is a number and "is prime" is a string and put will 
only accept one type at a time. This makes formatting output 
extremely difficult, a fact which may slow acceptance of the 
language by the business community. Fortunately, Ada is 
designed for easy expansion and better I/O facilities should 
appear shortly. 

The & in the final put statement is a concatenation operator, 
used for glueing strings together. The output will be 

Lady Lovelace bids you farewell 

with no surrounding quotes. 
Control Structures 

Before considering the more esoteric features of Ada, let's 
look at a couple of garden variety control structures. 
Ada has a case statement which looks like this: 

case NUMBER of 
when 
when 1 
when 2 | 3 
when others 
end case ; 

Notice the vertical bar used to separate alternative cases; the 
others clause used for cases not covered by the preceding 
when clauses; and the special null statement indicating that 



<> put ("NUMBER equals zero"); 

'> put ("NUMBER equals one"); 

'> put ("NUMBER equals two or three"); 
> null; 



Choose from the MOST COMPLETE LINE of VIC® software 



CITY BOMBER / MINEFIELD 

2 game* CITY BOMBER the most addicting 
arcade-style game youve seen on a VIC You 
have to bomb every building' MINEFIELD is a 
game of intense concentration, requiring keen 
logical thinking 
$23 95 cassette 

BLACK HOLE 

An exciting, difficult, original space game' 
The swirling Black Hole is constantly trying to 
draw you in. you also have dangerous space 
debris to avoid or destroy— if you miss, they 
are transformed into malicious space baddies 
out to get you 1 Great graphics and sound' 
$34 95 cartridge only 

EDUCATIONAL/RECREATIONAL I 

2 programs HANGMAN— try to guess the 
letters of a word Every time you guess wrong, 
a cartoon character takes one step closer to 
being hanged' HANGMA TH—try to guess the 
digits of a multiplication problem, a game of 
logic and deduction' Both with color and 
animated graphics 
$14 95 cassette 

LOAN ANALYZER 

Has Amortization tables, computes interest 

charges, compares various loans, analyzes 

loan terms, and can manipulate loan 

parameters' 

$14 95 cassette / $19 95 disk 

LOGIC GAMES PACKAGE 

2 programs CODE MAKER and CODE BREAKER 
based on the famous Mastermind game by 
Invicta Has color, graphics, and sound' 
$14 95 cassette 

EDUCATIONAL/RECREATIONAL II 

2 programs MA TH HURDLER— you are racing 
on a track where the hurdles are arithmetic 
problems' MONSTER MAZE— exploring a 
labyrmthian cave populated with monsters, 
makes a new maze every time' 
$14 95 cassette 



DECISION MAKER 

Can help you decide between alternatives and 
it computes recommended choices Will also 
manipulate decision parameters, weigh 
influencing factors and save decisions on 
tape or disk 
$1995 cassette / $2495 disk 

CAR COSTS 

Record maintenance costs, itemize insurance 
payments, track fuel consumption, sum- 
marize all costs to date as well as compute the 
cost of an individual trip. 
$1995 cassette / $24 95 disk 

ACTION GAMES 

3 games on 1 cassette SEA WOLF, a submarine 
game with different levels of skills, sound, 
color, and challenge' BOUNCEOUT. a game of 
anticipation and reflexes — variable skill 
levels VIC TRAP— you play against the VIC. 
trying to trap VIC. who automatically keeps a 
running score 
$24 95 cassette 

HOME INVENTORY 

Use it to catalog your possessions— it has 

user-definable categories Record serial 

numbers, purchase prices, and other useful 

information, as well as computing the value of 

items 

$1995 cassette / $24 95 disk 

HOUSEHOLD FINANCE 

16 income and expense categories plus 
budgeting. Monthly and Yearly accounting, 
keeps track of tax deductible items, produces 
graphs and tables 
$34 95 cassette / $3995 disk 




or will it bo one 
of our UJORKinG 
YIC program/? 



•>''; 



.-.-. -.■.;• /«.; V 




CREATIVE 
SOFTWARE 



A Division of ASCI. Inc 



201 San Antonio Circle 
Mountain View. CA 94040 
(415) 948-9595 



TO ORDER: VISA /MasterCard, check or money order accepted. If 
a charge, please include expiration date of card. Add $1 50 for ship- 
ping and handling California residents add sales tax Ask about 
our many other recreational and home applications! 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



191 



Ada, continued... 



nothing is to be done if NUMBER is greater than three or 
negative. 

There is also a special elsif construct designed to take the 
messiness out of nested if statements, e.g.: 



if SCORE >- 90 

elsif SCORE >- 80 

elsif SCORE >- 70 

elsif SCORE >- 60 



then put ("grade: 

then put ("grade: 

then put ("grade: 

then put ("grade: 

else put ("grade: 



A") 
B") 
C") 
D") 
F") 



end if 

This lets us get by with a single "end if" and eliminates the 
dangling else that you sometimes see in languages like PL/1. 
By the way, out of 62 reserved words in Ada, elsif is the only 
one that is not genuine English. 

So much for basic syntax. From now on, things begin to get 
very baroque very quickly. 

Consider data types and structures. In addition to the types 
mentioned above, Ada has short integers, integers, and long 
integers; naturals and fixed point numbers; floats (three kinds) 
and reals— all of which can be altered ad infinitum through 



If you want COLORS that can be 
RED, BLUE, and YELLOW, why 
settle for integers that can only 

be numbers? 



the use of various ranges, subtypes, and modifiers. (And 
those are just the numbers.) For instance, the declaration 

NUM: integer range 1..10; 

makes it illegal to assign NUM any value outside the specified 
range (which is handy for array subscripts.) If you are not 
happy with the integers that Ada gives you, you could declare 

type MY_INTEGER is new integer; 

which introduces user-defined data types (preceded by the 
keyword type), and derived types (specified by new). Now 
your integers can do everything that Ada's can, except mingle 
with other integer types. For example, the statement 

X : integer; 

Y: MY INTEGER; 



X :- Y; 

would produce an error message. This is because Ada is a 
"strongly typed" language. Variables of one type are totally 
segregated from those of other types. To get around this, Ada 
provides a conversion mechanism. The statement 

Y :- MY_INTEGER (X); 

will take the variable X (an integer), convert it to the MY 
INTEGER type, and assign it to Y. 

User-defined types do not have to be derived from the 
existing ones. If you want COLORS that can be RED, BLUE, 
and YELLOW, why settle for integers that can only be 
numbers? Instead, write 

type COLOR is (RED, BLUE, YELLOW); 

which permits declarations such as HUE: COLOR; and 
statements such as HUE := BLUE;. These new types are 
called enumeration types because the user must enumerate 
the values that variables of the type can have. 

Sometimes we want to test whether a particular value 
belongs in the list of values of an enumeration type. This is 
called the set membership test and Ada provides a special in 
operator for the purpose. For instance, the declaration 



type ADA_QUALITIES is ( STRONG_MIN0ED , 

FIERCE LY_INDE PENDENT, 
HAUNTINGLY_BEAUTIFUL) ; 



allows us to test 

if MEEKNESS in ADA_QUALITIES 

then put ("she was meek"); 

else put ("no she wasn't"); 
end if ; 

which will print the latter message. 

There are many other data types in Ada, including task 
types (for concurrent programming), private types (for hiding 
data), and access (pointer) types. Are you getting the idea 
that Ada is big? You are right. Now on to data structures. 
Data Structures 

Ada has arrays, of course, which are declared like this: 

MATRIX: array (0..100, 0..100) of Boolean; 

Now we can write conventional assignments like MATRIX 
(1,3) := true;. 

The index type (which in MATRIX is integer) and the 
element type (Booleans in MATRIX) don't have to be the 
predefined varieties. Thus, if we declare 

type BEATLE is (John, Paul, George, Ringo); 
type INSTRUMENT is (guitar, drums); 

we could also declare 

PLAYS: array (BEATLE) of INSTRUMENT; 

and then assign 

PLAYS(Ringo) :- drums; 

Arrays may be initialized at the time of their declaration. 

PLAYS: array (BEATLE) of INSTRUMENT :» (guitar, guitar, 

gui tar , drums ) ; 

In this example, the value "guitar" is assigned to the first 
three components (John, Paul, George) of the PLAYS array, 
and the value "drums" to the last (Ringo). The same thing 
could be accomplished in an assignment statement: 

PLAYS :- (guitar, guitar, guitar, drums); 

The index value may be explicitly named in the assign- 
ment: 

PLAYS :- (George -> guitar, 

Ringo ■> drums , 

Paul ■> guitar, 

John ■> guitar) ; 

This example has the same effect as the previous two. Notice 
that when index values are named they do not have to appear 
in any particular order. (Also notice the use of the "=>" 
symbol rather than the assignment operator.) Finally, there is 
a shorthand form: 

PLAYS :- (Ringo -> drums, 

others «> guitar); 

This kind of explicit list of array components is called an 
aggregate. There are many ways of forming aggregates in 
Ada. 

Another familiar data structure is the record which, unlike 
arrays, must be declared as a separate type. 

type CLIENT is record 

NAME: string (1..25); 
AGE: integer range 1..100; 
BANKRUPT: Boolean; 
end reco rd ; 

PERSON: CLIENT; 

Individual components of a record are accessed by the 
standard dot notation, e.g. 

PERSON. NAME :- "Waldo P. Wigglesworth " ; 

Record structures appear in several guises. One variation on 
the plain vanilla record shown above is the constrained 
record — one in which the initial value of a coT\s\Ta\Ti\ 
parameter is left unspecified until later declarations. This 
allows considerable variety among variables of one data type. 

type GEOMETRIC_SHAPE (SIDES: integer) is 
record 

PERIMETER: SIDES * LENGTH_UNIT; 
end record; 

TRIANGLE: GEOMETRIC_SHAPE (3); 
SQUARE: GEOMETRIC_SHAPE (4); 

The constraint parameter, SIDES, appears after the type 



192 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



name. It is an integer variable, but the initial value depends 
on the declarations of TRIANGLE and SQUARE, which 
create GEOMETRIC SHAPES of three and four sides 
respectively. LENGTH UNIT must have been previously 
declared and set to some value. If the value had been 5 then 
TRIANGLE.PERIMETER would equal 15. 

Arrays may be similarly constrained and both structures 
may be mutated in various other ways. 
Attributes 

Data types and structures in any language have certain 
attributes. An attribute of the integer data type could be the 
largest integer available on a particular computer. One 
attribute of an array structure might be the range of its index 
type (e.g. John..Ringo in the PLAYS array.) 

In pre- Ada languages, after these attributes had been coded 
or hard-wired they were no longer directly available to the 
programmer. In Ada they are. Several attribute functions are 
available to query the various features of types and variables. 
Attributes are formed by writing an identifier followed by a 
single quote mark and the name of the attribute. RANGE is 
an important attribute. Writing PLAYS RANGE is the same 
as writing "John.. Ringo." Thus, we could loop over the range 
of Beatles by writing 

for SINGER in PLAYS'RANGE loop 
put (SINGER); put (": M ); 
put (PLAYS(SINGER)) ; 

new_line; — cr/lf function in TEX 
end loop; 

which would produce the following output: 

John : guitar 
Paul : guitar 
George: guitar 
Ringo,: drums 

The same output would have been produced by writing 






in TEXT 10 



or 



for SINGER in John. .Ringo loop 
for SINGER in BEATLE loop 



either of which would probably have been more elegant. In 
general, Ada gives you more ways to say the same thing than 
any other language. 

There are 48 pre-defined attributes in Ada. Some of them 
behave differently depending on the object that they are 
appended to— FIRST, for example. When stuck onto an 
array, FIRST yields the lower bound of the index. PLAYS' 
FIRST equals John. When applied to the integer data type, 
FIRST gives the lowest available integer. On a 16-bit machine, 
INTEGER'FIRST would be - 32768. 

Some attributes have parameters. Suppose we had declared 
a three-dimensional array called THREE_D._The attribute 
THREE_D'FIRST (3) would give the lower boundary of the 
third index. Enumeration types have several attributes of 
their own including SUCC and PRED, which yield the 
successor and predecessor of a particular enumeration value. 
For example, BEATLE'PRED(Ringo) is George. BEATLE' 
SUCC(BEATLE'PRED(George)) is George. As I said, it can 
get baroque. 

Our tour of Ada is half over. So far, we have been looking 
at the small-scale features of the language including basic 
syntax and the description and manipulation of data. We 
have seen what Ada programs look like and learned how they 
exist in the context of a particular environment. Some of the 
basic data types of Ada made an appearance along with a few 
more sophisticated constructs such as enumeration types, 
derived types, aggregates, and attributes. 

Now that the small details are taken care of, we can start 
thinking about the most unusual and innovative aspect of 
Ada: program organization. This will happen next month. 
The Countess and I will be looking forward to seeing you 
again. D 



November 1982° Creative Computing 



193 



fUASH 



~LECTFMC 




word Processing system 



• Easy to Learn- L«K*^gntmng yo using the easy to 
learn easy to use ELECTRIC PENCIL / sing 
system We say you can nfe one hour sers 
tell us a takes less than OT n os 

• Easy to Use- Process Worrjs. not command'. nenus 
and ole two keystrofle*commands keeps you nd on 
your y, NOT on yout mAnual. Its so easy to use you II 
ivar * to use > v so s< 

• Features - ELECTRO supports disK tape and 
Stringy Floppy (disk veriio.- ' r «as a 36K+ text buffer (48K 
disk system), and ev^ryV -r jre you want m a word 
processor. It's "bullet p\r> < \ . <ry is a built-m 
feature Our exclusive DlCT/ MATIC gives you the flexibility 
of d on play-b^ ,' *\4fc?d from the keyboard. 

• Flexible- I t'stheonly word processing system designed 
like an operating system - a r*v programs and features 
to ELECTRIC PENCIL - such as ^ED and BLUE PENCIL 
dictionary/correction - /yith a 50,^D0 word dictionary (sold 
separately), dynamic prmtir riitmyig, proportional print- 
ing, communications graphics amJftypesel ^nout 
patches and upg V 

• Versatile-ELECTRIC PENCltcuAs\n Model I and Model 
ill TRS-80S ur versions of Tv^sboS and NLWDOS 
without patching ,hes supp N* other operating 
systems; it supports parallel and serial ranters as well as 

ngle and double density A 

ELECTRIC PENCIL is the choice of thousands - make it 
yours for only $89.95 (disk version), $7) 'jl (tape and 
tnngy Floppy versions; Manual on / ^4.95.1 



ELECTRIC PENCIL 
computer stores, selec B. Dalton 

Booksellers and selected -endent 

book dealers if you de ut of 

Stock, order direct (specif/ lape or 

Stringy Floppy vera jde S4 00 

for shipping and - King Foreign re 

' 00 plus purchase prii 

m U S funds. 



Ml 



* r aJ*p and Stringy Floppy 
ycrtons support tape and 
n^*#fl^s only 



Str.ny/Flr,. - I .'Fpt.- .. o - APPARAT Inc 

I " iC .sVtrader i - iJG 

CIRCLE 187 ON REApER SERVICE CARD 

/ 



Stephen D. Page 



The Pascal Directory in Depth, 



Programmers who write programs 
which require details of the contents of a 
disk are fortunate when working with 
UCSD Pascal. Because the operating 
system itself was written in Pascal, the 
disk directory is stored in a record format 
which is neatly handled as a complex 
data type. 

Unfortunately, neither the Apple 
release (1.1) nor the Softech release (v. 2) 
provides details of the directory. This 
article describes the directory data struc- 
ture and includes a catalog program 
which provides examples of various 
medium-complexity techniques and of 
what structured programming enthusiasts 
call "good style." 

Listing 1, headed SYMDEF, defines a 
high-level data structure called "direc- 
tory," which is an array of directory 
entries. Entry zero is the volume infor- 
mation, and entries 1-77 correspond to 
files on the disk. Notice the "stepwise 
refinement" of the data structure into 
smaller types, and the use of CONST 
declarations rather than meaningless inte- 
ger values. 

The data type "direntry," correspond- 
ing to an individual entry in the directory, 
is what Pascal programmers call a "variant 
record." It can contain two kinds of field 
lists, depending on the value of the field 
"filekind." Entry number in the direc- 
tory has filekind of "untypedfile," to 
indicate that it is the volume information 
for the disk: it contains the volume name 
and length (280 blocks on an Apple), and 
the date of the last boot using that disk. 

The other entries in the directory 
contain the filename, the number of bytes 
in the last block of the file, and the date 
of the last change to the file. All directory 
entries contain the number of the first 
block in the file and of the first block 
after the end of the file. 

If we declare a single variable "dir" of 
type "directory," and use UNITREAD to 
load the directory information from a 

Stephen D. Page, 60 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly 
OLD 4068, Australia. 



and Pascal Style in Brief 



main-line code 



analyze-result 




get-directory 



get-outfile 



print-directory 



request-another 




get-outfile sort-directory print-normal print-labels 



Figure 1. Structure of the program, CA TALOG. 



disk, we can access any entry by using 
the format dir[n], where n is the entry 
number. References to dir[0] will indicate 
the volume information entry. 

Fields within these directory entries 
may be accessed simply by adding a dot 
and the field name. Thus dir[ 3]. filename 
will reference the name of the third file 
on the disk. Once this concept of record 
handling is grasped, it is a very simple 
matter to manipulate all or part of the 
directory structure. 

The Catalog Utility 

Listing 2, the program CATALOG, 
provides examples of manipulating the 
directory fields and an example of pro- 
gramming style. The program prompts 
for a disk unit number, then asks for the 
output destination (defaults to 
PRINTER:). Two formats are available: 
a normal printer format and a format for 
102 x 36mm labels (easily adaptable for 
other sizes). The directory is sorted into 
alphabetical order before listing. 

The program may look a bit frightening 
at first, but it is in clear modules, using a 
top-down design. To read a structured 
program it is easiest to start at the highest 
level, i.e. at the bottom of the listing, 
where the main-line code lives. This top 
level is characteristically brief, and con- 
tains procedure calls, which refine the 
process into smaller steps (some of which 
may be further procedure calls). 

194 



Notice that variables, procedures and 
functions which are only used within one 
block (i.e. another procedure or function) 
are declared at the start of that block. 
The program therefore has the hierarchi- 
cal structure diagrammed in Figure 1. 

There is not enough space to describe 
program operation in detail. The com- 
ments on the listing should be helpful. 
Notice the use of a file variable "outfile," 
which can be set with REWRITE to send 
output to any device, including the con- 
sole, the printer, or a disk file. Notice also 
the absence of GOTO and EXIT state- 
ments, made possible by the BOOLEAN 
"finished." 

The sort routine is a bit tricky: to avoid 
having to swap around chunks of memory, 
it shuffles an array which contains direc- 
tory entry numbers. When the following 
routine prints out the file details, it 
examines the directory entries in the 
order given in the index array. For details 
of the insertion sort algorithm itself, see 
Schneider, Weingart and Perlman, An 
Introduction to Programming and Prob- 
lem Solving With Pascal (New York: 
Wiley, 1978), p. 47-48. 

Pascal is an extremely powerful lan- 
guage. Using Pascal, a programmer can 
take a top-down approach, refining the 
problem in stages. Manipulation of data 
structures, however complex, is very 
simple. Time spent developing Pascal 
skills can be very rewarding. □ 

November 1982 3 Creative Computing 




' 






*^w 



X 




[-r^riT"i~c~> 



fr 



< v 



*^*-**-' 







e^ 



S 




X***. 



/ 



irtn 



*>v 



Cx 



^^■i»i / ' 



Will it be survival-or total annihilation? 



You choose the battleground. You decide 
whether this will be a fast-paced tactical war or 
a brain-tingling strategic confrontation. You pro- 
gram your robot troops' dangerous course to the 
enemy base. 

But the enemy is on the march, too — cold and 
deadly! Even the landscape threatens your army, 
as you pit your brain against your adversary's in 
The Final Conflict. 



A war of nerves and skill, waged against the 
computer or a friend, from Hayden Software. 



to order call: 



1-800-631-0856 

(in N.J. call 201-843-0550, ext. 382) 
THE FINAL CONFLICT * 13609. Apple II disk. $34.95 



■ :r,vj»)^cl SOFTWARE 

CIRCLE 183 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





t 




Have you put aside buying a color monitor 

because it's too expensive? 
But, have you looked at the new TAXAN RGBvision 

color monitor? 
Would you be excited at a suggested retail price 

of $399.oo tor the RGBvision I. and $599 for the 

RGBvision II? 







-*OPf*> 





DO WE HAVE GOOD NEWS FOR YOU! 



For those low prices, you can have 

3 Full compatibility with Apple III and IBM PC without 

interlace modules 
S Compatible with Apple II through the TAXAN "RGB-II" card 
3 RGBvision I medium resolution - 380(H) lines 
3 RGBvision II high resolution - 510(H) lines 
3 Unlimited colors through linear amplifier video circuit and 16 

colors lor Apple III and IBM PC 
312-inch 90° deflection CRT display 




Can you really afford to turn all that down without looking at 
the TAXAN RGBvision monitors 9 See your local dealer for a 
demonstration. 



■ 
. 8oc 

OO chc • 




TSK ELECTRONICS CORPORATION 

fhland Aven 
Duarte California 91 
A sul : iry ol K nshi 



CIRCLE 304 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Rascal Directory, continued... 





f\ 


* * 








f 


X X *-* 










to y * 

h 4) 






fa 


o «■* 


TJ rH rH 




* 


4) 


■P * 


.O H 




•K 


n 


«-^ O ft 


•m • «4-l 




* 


E 


* 4) fl 


O 4) -P 




* 


3 


.* L O 


^ WO 




* 


C 


WH(fl 


■P H ^ Ifl V 




* 




•H TJ fl 


Q W* * «-« 

«M —v — 0) 




•d 


• 


tj a 




•n 


9 


c 


XI 03 * (0 C 0> 




* 


• 


C H 4> 


L. -P H -r4 C 




* 


•H 


O ^ 


•P D> (A (0 




* 




<n a 


w - 4) w cn jc 




* 


Ut 


j: m a 


<a t> i* -h a> U 




* 


JC 


8^ < 


•t rH JC "P 

H 4> -P >> +J 




* 


V 




* 


OIH lH 


■p <♦* jc x> w 




* 


c 


£> H 


ID It V P <0 




* 


4) 


V* 


•P (0 <«-i ^-i 




+ 


■-I 


■p o tj 


■P fl rH £ O 




« 




(0 4> 


4> TJ rH » «M 




« 


4) 


fl u i 


M - (0 l, o 




-K 


E 


<h 4) 3 


4) (0 4) 




« 


3 


X) 


4> rH • (A jO 4> 




« 


^H 


«M E -P 


-P H 0) 4) E -P 




* 





o 3 o 


O^h • 3 3 fl 




« 


> 


c c 


TJ O h Ot C TJ 




* 


* 


♦ * 


* «M * * * * 




* 






>^ C w ^ w w 

•H *-N 

* 




* 
* 

* 




• •■ 


4) - * 




* 




4) »« 


^ •-— * u 








cn cc 


•- -H 4) O -P 


• «* 


u. 




C Ul 


— «m O) 4) C 


■p 


U] 


• « 


fl cj 

l, ui 


O -P C L, 4) 
4> X — 53 4) L. 


Q 


B 


L, H 


L, 0) 4) L. -P H 


c 


>- 


•H 2 


4) V E 4) fl TJ 


4) 


(/) 


cj 


TJ »H 


•P - fl -P TJ 


fa 




I 




fl 4> C >, Q 


•H 


Vh 


• • •• 


TJ ft <m X) •• QC 


TJ 





z 


(fl 4> 


H a) O 






M 


4) E 


• • *M •• •• -P O 


u. 


"O 




•«H H 


4) 4) 4> (fl <0 u 


o 


c 


• * 


fa P 


•P TJ E 4> TJ CC 




w 


ft 


-P co 


fl O (0 -P (fl 


i — i 




^ 


C 10 


■o u c >% (fl -o 


4) 


* 


4) 4> 


4J • •• 4) X) 4) C 


cn 


* 


2 


i u 


o ii (iho u n 

<-•<-• h c u 


C 


* 


6 


3 O 


(0 


* 


4) 


C (0 


xi h h <*.. a> io u 


fa 


* 






l«H <«h l/) 


c 


* 






.* < 


•H 


* 






J2 •£ w 


TJ 


* 






TJ O * 


" 


* 






X «*■ — 


< 


* 
* 






•• 


CC 


* 






a 

z 


s 


* 






B 


II 



■p 
o 

I 
fa 

•H 

TJ 


* 

* 
* 

* 
* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 



•s 

•S3 



9 

10 
4J 
(0 

u 



o 
o 

CC 

a. 



i 

* 
* 
* 

* 

i 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
« 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
ft 
ft 
* 
* 

* 
ft 
* 
ft 
* 
* 
ft 

♦ 
* 
* 
* 
* 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
« 
« 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
f 



******* 



1 

g 



u 
o 

■p 
o 

4> 
U 



X 

(fl 



(0 

o 

(A 
(0 

a. 



a 
a 

< 



■p 
to 



! 

9 

a 



CM 
CO 

0> 



4> 

c 

3 



4) 

o> 

a. 



c 

4) 

a 



cn 



******* 



* * 

* 
i 
i 

ft 
ft 

i 

* 
« 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
ft 
* 
« 
* 

* 
ft 

* 
ft 
ft 
ft 
* 
ft 
ft 

« 

« 

* 
ft 

ft 
« 
i 
ft 

i 
* 
* 
i 
ft 

* 
* 

* 
ft 
♦ 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 
ft 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
« 
ft 
* 
* 
■n 



•o 

4> 

> 
U 
4) 
(A 
4> 
L. 

(fl 

•P 



(0 

•H 

u 

u 

4) 



O 



4) 
O) 
(0 

a. 



c 

4> 

x: 
a 

4> 

■p 



CN 
CO 



U 



-P 

x: 
o» 

•H 

u 

a 
o 

CJ 



u 



X 

(fl 

T3 
X 

•H 

Vh 

4) 

s- 

a 

4) 

c 
o 



2 



U 
Q 
Z 
>- 
CO 



-a 

4> 

c 

•H 

(0 

•p 

c 
o 
u 



(fl 

c 
o 



4) * 

T3 H 

X 

^ u 

O H 

X> • 

E u. 

^ UJ 

(fl 



* 

T3 
4) 



O 
4) 

a 

(A 



T3 >« 

<o cn 
o 

* * 















■p 






4) ^ 


















i-t 






C - 


















3 






•H (A 


















(A 






i-t -P 


^-^ 
















i 






(A 


a 


^-^ 














L. 






C H •- 

O X ^ 


>r 


CM 

• • 














O 






4) - 


X) 


■P 














v 






■P 73 




rH 














M 






O >, 4) 
C T3 -P 


| 

T3 


3 

(A 














Li 






ID U 


O 


4> 














o 






'-» (A 4) 4) 


CJ 


Li 














<*H 






•- - •- H Li -P 

— » 4) ^ rH O 


















4) 






- E - 4> (0 L. 


L 


- 








• — 






o> 

(0 
(A 






4j fo jn: e a 

E C (A 3 4) 1 

(0 -H rH rH 4) 



L. 

L. 


II 








E 






(fl 






C 4) T3 O H -P 


4) 


4) 












s 






rH > <4_ H 




"8 








-H 






E 






4) H C L. 


4> 








"O 












OIm ooo > 


U 


u 








• 






Li 


r"^ 




•<h 4) 4) 


•H 










• 






o 


>f 




> rH g H H tfl 


> 


1 








tH 






Li 

L. 


•> 




4) 10 *M «M H 
"O O* O H -H 


4> 

■o 


Li 








fe 






4> 


U3 




4> L. O U X 




o 








o 






C 


rH 

• 




T3 rH 4> 4) (fl 
fl h O Q. Q. h 


O 


L, 
L. 


• • 






1? 






(0 


rH 


u. 
o 


cq rH z cn cn a 


M 


4> 


? 






10 




••» 


4) 


aj 




{n. C^- C^- C^ o- c^- 


0- 


o 


c 










V 


3 
(fl 


o> 


■p 






\ 


13 






£ 




^-t 


• 












^5 




3 


(fl 


• 


3 


Z Z Z Z Z Z 


Z 










(A 


•H 


r* 


(A 


J J J J J J 


-J 


^_, 


■H 


** 






4> 




H 


4> 


UJ UJ UJ UJ UJ UJ 


UJ 


z 


C 


CC 


• •* 


• UJ 




b 





CM 


L, 


(- H H H 1- H 


Hi 


_) 


3 


w 


o 

•p 


rH J 


•• 


1 


l-p 


4a^ 




rH HH M M t-» M 


rH 


Ul 


• ■ 


o 

UJ 


<— > o 
>< o 

< CQ 


H 
X 

UJ 


4) 
(A 


1 
c 


Z 
M 


UJ 

cn 

< 


CC CC CC CC CC CC 

2 2 3 2 3 2 


CC 


H 

rH 

% 

U] 


4) 


z 


o 

4> 


CC 

S4J 


• • 


(0 

c 


-H 
■P 

3 


rH 


u 

z 






X) 


CM 1^ CO CT» rH vO 
rH rH 




c. 


• • 

■P 


•H 
"O 


4) 

•• x: 


4) 


(0 




L. 


3 
(fl 


UJ 

X 




Q 

Z 

u 


cn 


V 1 


3 


• • 


X (A 

4) H 


•H 

<4-l 


UJ 
CC 


rH 


4) 


H 




u 


•H 


CO 


u 


•o c 


•P 


3 


(0 












c 


4) 


•H 


C H 


3 


a 


x> 


U. 










3 


L. 


•o 


•H «M 


O 


UJ 
CJ 


o z 

rH t-l 


H 










§ 










o 


o o 




















CC 


* U) 












> 










a. 


^ 00 













00 






* 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
* 
ft 
ft 
ft 
* 
ft 
* 
ft 
ft 
* 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
* 
* 

ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
* 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
* 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
* 
ft 
ft 
* 
* 
* 
ft 
ft 
* 
ft 
ft 
* 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
i 
ft 
ft 
f 
ft 
ft 
ft 
ft 
f 
ft 
ft 
* * 



******* 



t 

O 

•P 

u 

£ 



bu 
UJ 

Q 

Z 

cn 



CM 
CO 

cn 



4> 

i 



4) 

o> 

fl 
CL 



c 

4) 

x: 
a 

4> 

■p 
cn 



2 

E 
cn 



******* 



* * 

ft 

* 
ft 
ft 

* 

* 
ft 

* 

« 

* 

* 
« 

« 

* 

* 
« 
* 

« 

« 
* 
■ 

* 

i 
■ 

« 

•n * 



4) 










-->. 
































^-^ 








^^ 


ft 










* 


j"*"** 






























* 








4 


•P (fl 










(A 


ft 




























• • 


• 








>. 


-H 










i 


O 




























> 


o> 








c 


«M 










•H 


Im 




























L (A 


c 








4J 


O E 










L. 


c 




























V 4) 


•H 








c 


4) 










4J 


•H 
























4) 


TJ 


C H 


TJ 








4) 


(fl -P 










c 


■r~» 
























JC 


4) 


4) L. 


fl 










•P (fl 










4) 


4) * 
























-P 


fa 


+J 


4> 








o 


C >« 












i x 






















•. 




fl 


<M C 


b 








£ 


4) (fl 










>« 


3 8 






















4) 


c 


ft 


O 4) 










c 


o> 










L 






















r-t 


•H 


CJ --* 




4) 




^-^ 




•H --^ 


4) 4> 










O 


rH 






















•H 




4) * 


(A 4> 


fa 




* -- <. 




* 


CC »H 










•P 


> X) 






















IM 


b 


TJ • 


4) rH 


fl 




Jtf -r 




4) 4) 


a 
4> a 










O 

4) 


II 

ta 4> 








• • 

(A 


M 












fl 
■f 


3 
CJ 


4) 

4) a 


a H 


4) 




^8 






s: < 






^^ 




b 


c 








4) 


(Q 


>» 










fl 


8 


X) >s 


+J 


5 






rH C 


H 






* 




•H 


1 o 








L. 


(A 


t-t 










•o 


+J 


ft 






X) rH 




o 


4) 






•X 




T3 










3 


4) 


r-* 














rH 


fl 


JC 




x» 




> 4) 


**-* x: 






ca 






CQ O 








+J 


rH 


fl 










4) 


>\ m 


* E 


u 




Jtf 






O -P 






-H 




C 


4) P 








fl 


o> 


c 










rH 


ft 


fl -P 


•P L. 


•H 




(fl X 




<4H 3 








"O 




•H 


•H 








4) 


c 


L 










•H 


ft 


fl 


O 


JC 




•H CQ 




rH 


X *«-) 












h 9- 








Im 


•H 


4> 










«M 


fl 


■f TJ 


4> C 


> 




TJ H 




o 


u o 






«M 




T3 


•P 3 










c 


-P 










o 


E 


(0 


fa 






"O 




•p > 


fl 






o 




i 


c 








rH 


fl 


C 










ti 


C 


3 TJ 


fl 4) 


(A 




■p 




fl 


E 4) 






*■"* 




4> CO 








fl 


4) 


•H 










c 


O 


E 4) 


x: 


4) 




CO -P 




E J£ 


4) Li 






* CM 




o 


V 








•H 


E 












•H 


c 


■P 


4) -P 


c 




U X 




Li (fl 


"O 3 






>> 




In 


£§ 








O 




4) 










* 




>> fl 


fa 


■iH 




-H 4) 




H 


fl -P 




^^ 


L. X 












a 

(A 


(A 


wi 










4> 


-p 


4) Li 


4) TJ 


E 




*M C 




•m TJ 


L CJ 

•P 3 




* 

(fl 


B 8 




(0 
4) 


o o 

■P o 








•H 


X) 

■H 










ft 
•ft 


o 

c 


& 1 


JC C 
t- fl 


E 

4) 




* * 




* * 


>^ U 




■p 


O "^ 




a 


CJ 










4) 


CO 










Im 




3 




+> 










■P 




§7 


4) X) 




>* 


4) 4> 








O) ♦ 


CQ 










P 





V c 


• •* 


4) 










>-> (A 




Li —» 


^~» 


■p 


L, -P 








C 


fl 


O 










X 


TJ 


3 4) 


>» ia 


TJ 










fl 




V L. 


H C * 


ft 




H >s 








•H 


•o 


a 










4> .- 




x> 


Li 












(fl L. 




It 


* °57 


(0 
4) 


CO 

3 


T3 X) 








8 


4) 


>N 










4J r-^ 
- b 


(fl 

I 


» 


•p c 

C 


c 










fl o 




O E 


c w o> x: 

H V c v 


■P 





<M ««H 








rH 


x: 


ft 










4) -H 


& 


ft 


4) H 


4> 








• • 


Q. -P 




U 3 


^ 


4) 


o 








ft 


+j 


+- 










rH TJ 


• C 


■P 


E 








4) 


U 




c 


L, 4) O) X) 


§ 















c 










•H 4> 


ft 


•H 


>N "H 


4) 








rH •- 


Q 4) 




T3 


CA fl rH C 




4) 4) 








Im 


4J 


4) 










W-i b 




•H 


Li (0 


4-> 






a 


■ft 4) 


cn i* 




fl -H 

(fl 3 


4> -P 4) 


c 


rH 


O) o> 










fl 


U 










4> 3 


4> 


• V 


O O 


fl 






o 


<«h e 

TJ fl 

a^ 


O -H 


^^ 


H ID UH 

■h E 

<<H rS fl 4) 


•H 
4) 


4) 
CJ 


fl fl 
L. L. 








1 
x: 
•p 


JC 
■P 


fl 

a 
a 










4) 
U CO 


ft 
-H 


> fl 
rH 8 


•p a 
u 

4) 4-> 


■P 
(Q 




CC CC 


TJ 

c 


(fl 4) 


* 


■P 


§ o 


N 


(0 


* * 










CQ 


a 


* 








*> •» 




fl ft 


L fl 


4) 




UJ Ul 


•H 


_s 


4> JZ 


• 


•H E 


•H 


•H 


' — * ^-^ 








JC 


4) 




• 








4) 4) 


1 


U rH 


•H 


CO 




CJ CJ 


(2 


p •• 


■P t- 


(A 


E 3 


3 -P 4) C 


CQ 


E 




• » 


• «k 




-p 


■P 


CQ 


E 








rH rH 


(fl 


CQ fl 


TJ >» 


fl 




Ul Ul 


II 


fl 


C 


•h E 


E O E 


X 






r— « 


W m ^ 




•H 


fl 


•H 


4) 








•H -H 


1 


fl 


Li 


u 




H H 




u • 





rH -H 


•H 4) 3 4) 


8 

rH 


T3 




-C 


JC 




s 


O 




-P 








<4H <M 


5 


a -p 


4> -P 






z z 


• ■ 


alo 


•H 
■P 


X X i- «H r-i 
(fl fl fl H O -H 


§ 


• a. 

4) 


■p 
o> 


o» 




•» 


•H 




(0 ■- 

>» CM 


rH 


is 

'Sl 


Ji 
CQ -P 


o 

41 4) 


5 s 


< 




rH rH 


TJ 

c 


L, C 

■H ft 


L H 


fl 


3 E 


E T3 > <M 


X) 


• *• 


N 


c 


c 


Q 


■p 


C 


ft 


CQ 


rH 


to 


ft 


TJ O 


<M 


ft L. 




• 




• • 


••H 


TJ 


O C 


(J 


O * 


* * * * 


* 


(A X 


•- H 


4> 


4) 


CC 


1 


•H 






• 


• 


• 


X <M 


o 


a L. 


•• C 


| 




X •• 


J* 


4) > 


CJ L 


•H 








4> fl 


X CO 


rH 


rH 


o 




<*H 


rH 


• 


• 


• 


» » 




a o 


4) O 




21 


4) 


L ^" 


C O 


H-i 


U 






o> E 


fl Ji 


4) 


4> 


c_> 


c 


*a 


o 


fl 


1SI 


*a 


ISi 


4> 4> 


fl) 


< u 


C H 






rH 


3 


■H «M 


•H 


fl 






fl H 


E u 


E 


§ 


UJ 


p 






y 








ft ft 


g 




-P 


£ 




•H 


CJ 


•«H 


CJ 


> 






L. O 


fl 


CC 


<M 


<m 


L> 


I 


• • 






•H H 


Q 


<r4 4) 


o>§ 


■H 




X) rH 


*M 


4) 


r-* ~* 


4) 




• » 




L. C 


•H rH 


8 


C 






o 


fl 


a 


X 




• • 


«M «M 


(A 


O L. 


TJ 


Q 


•P X) 




CQ 


fl fl 


a 


«M 


m .- tn 


*» 


3 


XJ JQ 


«M 


Q 


4) 




4> 


a 


■p 


• • 


b 


T3 <«h 




3 


•H U 


• 


ce 


CQ P 


UJ 




CJ O 


(A 


o 


CM 1^ rH 


CM 


«M • 


• • 


» — 1 1 


■ ■ 


UJ 


p 


JC 


>» 




c 


>> 


fl 


a2 


■P 


IS s 


x> o 


• 


o 


L. (fl 


cn 




CQ 








rH 


o • 


• • 


CJ 


CJ 


X 


fl 


*3 




4) 


o 


fl 


4> .- 


fl 


«M 


ft 


CJ 


■H fl 


< 




fl <«-l 

o. o 


Q 

cn 


(fl •- 

C CM 


II II II 


IT) 


_«».«. rH 

c 


Z 

HH 


z 


< 


T3 


c 
o 


fl 


5 


E 


-o 


>N Q 


rS W 
■P 


5 


H 4> 
Li 


41 C 

5 H 


CQ 


UJ 
CC 


<M rH 


CJ 






u 


O >-* 


r^ c x: x: 

(^ O 4J -P 


II 


O II 


II 


CC 


CC 


a 


t-^ 


E 


T3 








Ul 


J 




O O 


c 










9) >\Z 


•H 




•H 


II 


H 


H 




fl 




C 


c 








4) 


■P *J 




o 


II 








r-t +i 




•P II 


•H o» O) 


4) 


•P 4) 


■ 


cn 


cn 


ii 


3 


fl 


fl 


•H 










■P 


u 


Li E 


•H 










a h 


c 


•H 


II -P c c 


N 


•H 0> 


4> O) 








i 
















o 


4) 4) 


O 3 


4-> 


fc 








a (A 


o 


•H fl 


fl 1 4) 


•H 


C C 


rang 
eran 


ii 


ii 


u 


3 














II 


c 


L. U 


«M rH 


•H 








< L 




X (J <H rH 

fl 4) 4) 

E rH E E 


CQ 


•H fl 






4) 


* 
















ft 


■H 4) 





CQ 


4-> 








4) 
•• > 


•o 

4> 


<M E 
4) 4-> 


X 

u 


<4H L. 

4) -P 


4) 


4> 


L, 
4) 


^-^ 














TJ 

c 




TJ JC 


> > 

o 


a 


c 

4) 








4) H 


01 


Q H 


L. L, (3 fl 





Q H 


L, ** 


fl 


•P 
















■H 






Z 4) 




Li 








V C 
D 

Z 


fl 

X) 


cn 

z 


H H C C 
TO "O > «4H 


rH 

X) 


* C 

a 


TJ X> 


§ 


C 


fl 
















fl 






* JC 
w 4J 


■p 
<o 


•H 

TJ 








ft 




o 
o 






c 











































November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



197 



Pascal Directory, continued... 



X 

UJ 
H 



U 

4> 

a 
ca 

4> 



t- 

< 
CJ 

z 
o 
u 



u 
a 

0) 



x 

X 



u 
a 

(A 



»m H 

j 

- 3 
V X 



s 

0) 

$-. X 
13 

CA H 
<0 •• 

m a> 

Z H 

X ' 

X 



<M 
P 

3 
O II 

* H -P 



x 

x *a 

o 

M A 



* 
+ 



3 
(A 



*» 3 
* X 
-^ X 



3 
CA </» 



»-t u 



a> 



* X 



c 

O CA 
H L, 

•p 0) 

M -p 
a> c 

CA H 

c o 
•h a 

c «« 
< o 

• x 

<u tj 
tj c 

o 

c 

(0 

c 
o 
■p 

4> (V 

jo tj 
m « 
r e 
a 

r-t <n 

(0 rl 

o -p 

p s- 
c o 

•rH (A 



-p 


cj 


3 


4) 


O 


fa 


I 


•M 


P 


tj 


4> 




Ot 


p 




fa 


x 


O 


in 


(A 


j 




x 


UJ 




X 




3 




Q 




UJ 


• m 


cj 


a 


o 


z 


X 


UJ 


X 



(0 

o 



>> 

u 
o 
-p 



(A 
0) 
■H 
J-. 
-P 

c 

u 
o 
p 
o 

4) 

c- 



0) 

X 
-p 

(A 
TJ 
ID 
0) -^ 

X * 
J- • 

4) I 
> U 
O h 
TJ 

0) I 
> 



TJ (D >> 



4) 

P 
L. 
O 
(A 

O 

P 

•s 

•H 
P 

3 
O 
X 

* 



(A A3 
fa 



O 



(D 



U 
4) 
P 

C 

•H 

o 

a 



-o 4) 

(tj -p 

- c 

tj -n 

1 

(A (A 

3 4) 

-H 

(A U 

■rH V 

c 

P 4) 

fa 

o o 

(A -P 



a 

•- e 

4> 4) 

E P 

c - 

Cm c 

o 

.. -H 

^H -P 

rH (Q 

<D U 

e o 

(A r-t 



+ 

TJ 
(0 
4) 

fa 

4) 

fc. •• 

4) t* 

2 4) 
P 

>. C 

4) H 

£ O 

■p a 

u n 

U •• 

TJ 

U •— . 

O U 
4) 

4) -P 

X C 

V h 

o 
c a 



(A 
4> 

•rl 

u 

P 

c 

4) 

o 

P 



X 

4) 

tj 

c 



* 

(A 
(A 
(0 

a 

X 
u 
m 

4) 

4) 

C 

o 

>> 

x 

TJ 
4) 

P 
C 
4) 
E 
4> 
fc. 
U 
C 



o 

Q 



O 
Q 

10 
4) 



P U 

C -P 

H C 

O 4) 

a e 

3 

o c 

p • 

X S 

4) _ 

TJ U 

C H 

H TJ 



p rH 

C 

H I 

o 

a (A 

4) 

c u 



-p 

i 
p 
tn 



c 

4) 



O 



•P 1SI 

H . . 

•H 

- TJ 
X 

4) O 
TJ t- 

C 



m 



c u 

•H 4) 

-p 
- c 

•P H 

2 a 



4) 
■P 



4) 

C 

•H 

o 
a 



4) 

E 
(0 

c 

4) 



4) 
■P 

C 

■H 
O 

a 
'x 

4) 

TJ 

c 



■p 

(A 

4) 



(0 
E 
(A 

U 

o 

c 

•H 

o 
o 



X 

4) O 
TJ Q 

c 

H (A 
4) 

O t, 

-P 

TJ C 

C 4) 

W E 

o c 

•H -P • 

(^ r-l 

■P «l 

r-, C ^ 

r-. H t, 

O H 

a tj 



o 

TJ *-• 

4> * 

■P -P 

C 4) 

•h >, 
O 

a tj 

c 

^ 3 

u o 

■P «M 

c 

4) P 

(A 

>n 4) 

V4 r-t 

O rH 

■p 
u 

4) 
fa 



4) 
■P 



(TJ 
£ 
(A 

4) 

JC 
■P 



Z 
UJ 
X 
H 



1 
E 
(A 



CJ> O 
C H 



1 I 

>* (0 

U c 

-P 4) 

C r-t 

4) -r-t 



4) (0 
-P -P 
C (A 



ii 



5 

> 



3 

o 

U, X Z X 

* o * o 

2 ^ U. w U- 

M 

o 

UJ 

X 



•H 

TJ 
II 



z 2 

M E 

O (A 

UJ 
X 



E 
O 

C 



4) 

C 



•P 

(0 X 

U 4) 

O * 



u 

4) 

4-» 

C 

•H 
O 

a 



x 
o 
u. 



X • 

-H 4) <— . 

«« TJ •— . 

C h 

4) h ^, 

s: x 

4-> -P 4) 

C TJ 

4) 4) C 

fc, t, h 

(Q U •_• 

a 3 U 

E (J H 

O TJ 
U 4) 

* x: u- 



4) 

E 
(0 

c 

4) 



X 

4) 
TJ 

C 



U 

■H 

TJ 
II 



Z (0 
t-t E 
CJ (A 
UJ 
X 



E 
4) 
■P 



u 

10 

-p 

(A 
4) 

5 



(A 
(A 
(0 

a 

(A 

■H 

x: 
■p 



TJ 

C 
3 
O 

CA 

4) 



C 

o 

•H 

-P 

(0 

o 
o 



c 
o 

■H 

(TJ 

u 
o •- 

r-l Q 

z 



E 
(A 

4) 

x; 
-p 

a 

(TJ 



•• X 

r-. ft) 

U TJ 

4) C 

-P H 
C 

■H II 

O •• 

a 

^x 'TT 

4) 4> 

TJ -P 

c c 



Vt 

o 
-p 

(A 
4) 
fa 

fa 

o 

a <+* 

E 



UJ (A II 



O 

a 



4> 

-p 



c 
o 

•r-t 

-p 

(TJ 

u 
o 



(A 
-P 
«J 
4> 

a 

4) 

(-1 

a 
o 
o 



5 
O 

z 



X 

a 4> 

E TJ 
4) C 
-P H 



TJ 

c 

_ (0 

X * 

4) ^ 

TJ 

C 

H Q 
Z 
UJ 



•H 




















*4-l 4) 




'— » 
















rH 4) 




« 
















-P (TJ i, 




a 
















3 U • <*-t 




(TJ 
















a (A 4> 


O 


l 
















•P (TJ E <*-■ 


4) 


+j 
















3 X <TJ O 


> 


(A 
















c 


S- 


4J 
















4) S- 

O X 4> 4) 

-P -P E X) 

3 E 


4) 
(A 
4) 
fa 




X 




-p 
(0 
E 
fa 






h Diav > u 

3 3 4) (J O 4) 

n < x o z a 






C -P ^ 3 




TJ 

















4) 3 O C 
-P Xt > -^ 


4) 


c 

(TJ 




*4H 






4) 4) 4) 4) 4) 4> 






n writ 
cant, 
s!!), 
otals 


(TJ 

X 

o 


o 

c 

•■H 




4) 

X 

4-> 

c 






l+H V-< »«H ><H *4H *«-l 

4J V -P -P -P P 
3 3 3 3 3 3 






X 






•H 






O O O O O O 






O H H -P 
•rt ««H X! 


3 


(A 




■P 






UJ UJ X X X X 






-P H -P TJ 


•k 


■H 




c 






8- r- H H H H 






(TJ C C 


m 


TJ 




4) 






r-t r-t r-t r-t r-t f-H 






E O) 4) (TJ 


I 


C 










cc cc cc a: a: cc 

3SS 333 






O (A (TJ - 


(A 


■t-t 
IT) 
■P 




fa 

(0 • 


_^ 








U-t U W 
C (A rt 4> 


r^ X <T> TSl rH CM 


—» 


t-t >^ TJ -P 
(TJ C (TJ 


u 



c 






c 


4) 


to 

rH 


rH r-t i-H 




CM 

• • 


• J H TJ 


r-t 


o 




<TJ 


rH 








xa 


■P rH 


XI 








•H 


V 






(0 (0 O C 




^— > 




(A 


«M 








E -P O 


■p 


m 




(0 


4-> 


X 






r-t 


L. -P H 
O O «t -P 
•*-! C (0 


c 

3 



i 




TJ 

4) 


3 



■P 

c 




C X J- I- > c 
(tj 4> tj a (0 3 




Q 
O 


w O 4) 


u 






(A 




•- E 


n x z < z n 




£ 


rH 4-> U 


u 


(A 




(A 


4) 


*—* • 






(TJ 


(0 TJ U 
E 4) X 
U -P -P 


(0 






• - (TJ 

^ a 


rH 
■H 


- 4) 
1 -P 


4) 4) 4) 4) 4) 4) 


- 





o 




u 


<«H 


- (TJ 


[l, rH rH rH r-t r-t r-t 


c- 


4> 


O O C (A 
C O O 4» 

xt E a 


+J 


l—t 




4) 4) 




TJ 




c^- 


>< 


c 


X 




J- -P 


4> 


•» -■ -> 


(4H l+H l*-l «*H «4H «*H 


0" 


• 


•H 






4) (0 


X 


CM 


£ -P -P -P -P -P -P 


* 


4> 


C >N 
■rt -P -P -P 




vO 




■P TJ 


-P 


•• Q 


4-> 3 3 3 3 3 3 


•k 


■P 


4) 


* 




(TJ 




>N Z 


C O O O O O 


4) 


(TJ 
TJ 


(A 4) 


% 


^^ **** 




TJ 4) 





(TJ < 


O >»^ *wr ^-^ -— ' -^.^ N.^ 


rH 


Ot (0 (A TJ 

O rH C 

r-t O <TJ 


* 




X 


-p 


TJ 


E X X X X X X 


•H 


"-^ 


4-> 


• • * 


Mt 


.. 4J 




• ^~N 


• H H H H H H 


*M 






E lO 


X 


4> 


(A 


4> TSl 


4) rH r-t rH t-H rH rH 


■P 


«> 


•» (TJ (A -P 


o 


4) 


X 


■P (A 


4) 


V 


■P X X X X X X 


3 


— 


rH -P (TJ (A 


-p 


■P II 


(J 


(TJ 4) 





(TJ A 


«23 3 333 


O 


1 


(TJ (TJ * U 4) 


TJ 


(A 

>N (A 


X 


TJ -P 

rH 


o> 


TJ 
- X 


TJ 


X 


•k 


E U 4) N 






S-. ^ X H 


4) 


(A JC 


z 


4> J- 


-P 


4) -P 


UJ rH cm ro nJ- in vo 


H 


4) 


O -P (A -P (A 


•P 


U 


rH 


•P 5 


3 


rH C 


X 


Q rH 


rH 


C C h o 


(0 


r-t O 




(TJ 


a 


H O 


< 


Z X 


•rl 


I-h TJ Xt 4) 


rH 


(0 rH 


• • 


TJ 4» 


■p 


«4H E 


u 


X 3 


*4H 
•P 

3 
O 


■P U r-t 


3 


U X 


(A 


4) C 


3 


-P • 






c a 4) -p -h 


U 


(A TJ 


.X 


-P H 


O 


3 4) 


z 


X 


• H +J - «4H 


r-l 


(TJ 4) 


u 


•H «-> 




O -P 


X 


X 


$-. (0 c 


(TJ 


X > 





U 3 


• 


>_^ (TJ 


X 


— J 


*-' 


a -p tj w - 


U 


fa 


rH 


3 


^ 


X TJ 


l- 


X 


X 


4) (A 




> 4) 


X 


fa 


>» 


H -^ 






[x] Q) •• O 4) 


(A 


X (A 




X 


1 


rH 






r-t 

CC 


X C (A TJ E 


•H 


4> 


Oh 


X tA 


E 


X X 






D h 4) (TJ 




4> U 


<«H 


3 H 


E 


Z 3 rH 






Q -P TJ E C 


(A 


■ 


. 


Q X 


E 


r-t 








X 3 3 4) 


Jtl 


3 H 


-H 


X H 


1 


CJ 








U rH -P 4) 


O 


w 




U * 


TJ 


X 








O X U tA rH 





u z 


% 


O ^ 


TJ 


X 








X + C >% -h 


r-t 


o 


X 












Cl ^-^ h (A *« 


Xt 


<« u 


> 


X 













O 

4-> 

(A 

•P 

a 

E 
4) 
4-> 
•P 
(0 

TJ 

C 
(TJ 

4) 
X 



C 
■ 



o 

> 



fa 
o 



ta 

3 

4) <*h ^^ 

CO * 

■P 

(TJ 4) (TJ 

3 — E 

TJ r-t * J-. 

C (TJ • O 

(TJ > : «^ 

TJ 

TJ (A 4) 

4) C X 

a S-. (A 

a 3 -h 

(0 -P C 

J- 4) h 

4-» U *« TJ 



4-> 

3 

a 

c 



4) 
<-, U 

(TJ 4) 

4-> 

(A U 

S-, (TJ 



O 



(TJ 



U X 

X O 

• X 

X H 

TA X 



«4H TJ 



fa 

4) 
(A 

3 

4) 

X 
•- -P 



4) 

X 
-P 

Sh 
O 



o 

4-> 

o 

4) 



(A 

4-> 

a 

E 
O 

u 
a 



1 *» 
•p c 

4) h 

0> 4J 

3 
X o 

X s- 

Q TA 

U H 

U X 

O H 

X + 

X -^ 



8 



U 

(0 
(A 
(A 
4) 
U 
4> 
C 



O TJ 

4-> 4) 

O 3 

4) CA 

U (A 

•H H 
TJ 

(A 

4) n 

X 

4J -P 

a 

TJ E 

(0 o 

4) U 

<-. a 



C (TJ 

(TJ > 

4) C 

r-t ft 

o 

o •• 

X 4) 

TJ 

rH O 

(0 o 
X 

O t- 

r^ O 

fa 

P 4) 
4) 

(A O 



rH + 



O 

II 
fa 

4) U 

X O 

E s~ 

3 U 

C 4> 



TJ 

C 
(TJ 

.* 

U 

o 

r-t —» 

X * 

• 

4> 4) 

X o> 

4-> (TJ 
(A 
TJ «A 
(TJ 4> 
4) E 
fa 

fa 
O O 
4-> J- 

fa 

- 1) 

4) 
C O 



C 4) 

n 3 

(TJ (A 

E (A 

•r4 

o o 



>% 4-» 



o 
u 

4) TJ 



4> -X 

u o 



+ 
c 

•H 

a 
a 

(TJ 

l 

4-> 

fa 

o 
u 
fa 

4) 

c 

3 
O 

u 

3 
O 

4) 

rH 

X 
(TJ 

c 

4) 
O 

4-> 



* 

4) 
O 
(TJ 



* 
4) 
U 

C 

o 

TJ 

(TJ 
4) 



fa 

4) 

a 
o 
fa 

a >» 



4) 

x 



0) 



..5 



c 
o 



c 

(TJ 
O 



U 
O 



o 

o> 

c 

•H 

*-* o 

-»> 4) 
4) X 
U 



"8 



l 

o 
>> J- 



4) 



o 

<«H 



(TJ X 



Z 

o 



o 
5 



I c 

H 4-» (TJ 
TJ 4) 4) 

I Ot r-t 

TJ O 

(DEO 
4) O X 

V4 4-» 

4) 



O 
4J 
U 

4) 



X 



C 
3 

H 4-> 

TJ * 

TJ 
(0 

4) — » 



C E 
O O 

4-> lM 4-» 

(TJ rl 
(A 

4) (A 

4-> (0 

u >^ 

■r4 X - 

TJ -P 

- <4H r-t 

— O 3 

U (A 

h U 4) 

TJ 4) J- 
^ X 

X I i 4> 

O 3 X 

X C -P 
tsl 

>n 4) 

U > 

(TJ (0 

(A (A 

(A + 

4) w 

U 

4) 

C 



X 



4> 
X 



4) J 



X TJ «A — ' r-t 



4) 

Q rH U 

UJ rH 4) 

C_) (TJ X 

O CJ 4-» 

X * -r« 

Q. >_^ 4) 



i 
z ^ 

rH 

o 

X 
X 



3X3 

C -P X 

I X 

4J TJ X 

rt (TJ O 

x 

X 



3 
(A 
4) 
U 







3 










(A 


»— ■» 








4) X 


* 








5- 3 


>N 








IX 


L 


— -» 






4) (-. 


o 


+ 






(A 


4-> 


>» 






>N II 


o 


fa 


ra 




rH •• 


4) 


O 






(TJ 


fa 


4-> 


A 




3 O 


•H 


O 






TJ 


4) .- 


V 






1 


U X 


rH 




Z X 


TJ 


■r4 (/J 


3 


*-^ 


X X 


(0 


"°.d 


(A 


* 


X -1 


4> 


\< 


4) 


4- 


H X 


fa 


4-> u- 


U 


rH 




* 


4) 




«» 




^ 


o> II 


X 


* 






* •• 



u 

4) 
X 



c 

4) 



o 

> 

X 

u 

•H 

X 
3 



{-. 

o 

4J 

u 

4) 



J- 
4) 
X 

E 
3 
C 



H 

rJ 
3 

X 
X 

IO 

4J rH 
•rl 
C II 



+ 

fa 

o 

fa 

fa 

4) 

4J 
(0 
E 
fa 

O O 

*4H 4-> 



CM 

• • 

4-> 

rH 

3 
CA 
4) 

{-. 



4) 
TJ 
O 
U 



X 

0> 



4J ta 
3 -^ 
a 
c u 

rH H 
fa 

U 4> 

o E 

*4H 3 

C 
TJ 
4) 4> 

C X 
fa 

3 -P 

4-> (A 

4) 3 

w 4) 



Q 

Z 
X 



z o 

r-t 

o 

X 
X 



^ + Z -P 

X I J rH 
(- rH Q 3 
rH «r> < lA 

H CC * UJ 0) 

< 3 — ' X t, 

X 

X 

X 

X 



fa 

4) 
X 

E 

3 

<-» C 

CA 4) 

J- E 
O 3 

4* rH 
U O 

4) > 

4) Ol 
Ot C 

C rl 

(TJ TJ 

U (0 

P 4) 

(A S- 

a u 

(TJ O 

u u 

4-> U 
* X 

w II II 



* 
fa 

4) 

4-> 
U 
(TJ 
U 
(0 
X 
u 

X 

H 

X 

c 
o 

X 

E 

o 

X 

4t 



X 

3 
X 

Ta h 



o 
u 

4> 
4-> 
(TJ 
E 
(-. 
O 



li 



o 

> 



2 

i- 



xa -^ 

z 

A J 

X 
4-> H 



3 
CO 
4> 
U 



CC 
3 
4-> 

-H 2 

— 3 X 

+ CA X 

4- 4) H 

t-t U 

* u. 



fa 

4) TJ 

X 4) 

E X 

3 CA 

C rl 

, |C 

4-> H 

•r4 V4 

C 

3 Z 

X 

X X 



•8 

O 

3 



4) 
U 

•H 

> 

4) 
TJ 

4) 

•P 
4-> 
4) 

JC 

'-» (A 



JC 

O 



4-> 

4) 
(A 



CM TJ r-t 



if) 



(TJ 
4-> 

o 

c 



sr ia 



Z -P 



•r-l 

3 

CO 
•H 

X 

S3 



c 

3 



fa 

4) 
X P- 

E - 
3 — 

C . 2 
I J 

•P X 

•H H 

C M 

3 X 
-^ 3 



TJ 
4) 
i- 
(-. 
3 
O 
U 

o 

o 
(-. 

S-. 
4> 

c 

(TJ 



>> 
fa 

O 

4-> 
U 

4) 
fa 

•H »<H 

TJ H 

I 

TJ JC 

(TJ CJ 

4) (TJ 

U X 



O 

z 

X X 

X r-t 

►J 

X 



Z X 

x cn 
x J 



o 



H X ^ 



•8 



X X 

X X 

_1 J 

X X 



g 

TJ 
4) 

! 

c 

•H 

Cm 













4) 


















fa 






«k 


(A 


















- 4) 






^~ 


(TJ 


















4) X 






c 


U 


















rH 4-> 






fa 




H 
















•H -H 






3 


X 


X 
















*4H 4) 






P 


O Ot X 


'—' 




















4) 


H C 


H 


4t 














4-> L, 






fa 


X H 


• 


• 














3 O 








3 C 




TJ 














a *«h 






4) 


•H 


<M 


■ 














4-> 






Ot 


C (0 


O 


CA 3 










•^ 




3 Ot 






(TJ 


•rl P 




•H CO 










'"^ 




O C 






•H 


c 


c 


(A 










CJ 


* 


•H 






fa 


- o 


O 


X H 










a 




C P 






fa 


TJ U 


■rH 


3 












IT) (A 






(TJ 





CA 


X 4) 










CA 




•H 




^^ 


U 


•H P 


C 


H J- 










•• 4) 




t, rH 




* 




J- 


4) 


(TJ 










X «-• 









4> 


(TJ 


4) C 


P 


rH 










►J Q H 




Cm TJ 




TJ 




a 


X 


r-t CA 










O Z <4H 




4) 







• 


TJ 


4> 


4) 4) 










X < - 




CA 4-> 




U 


4) 


(TJ C 




3 Ot 










z 




4-» 4-> 






• 


(0 


C 


(TJ 










O '-* H 




a (tj 




>N 


•H 


p 


(TJ 


P CA 










U - X 




E E 




(m 


. r 


CO - 




C CO 










• X 




O J- 




o 




3 • 


X 


4) o 








— 


- (-• 




J-. o 




p 


rH 


•r-> - 


P 


3 E 




•• 




•• 


II 




a <<h 




u 


rH 




•H 






^^ 




X 


•• A - 








4) 


3 


4) C 


3 


r-t I. 




— 




X 


V ^" 




4-> (0 




U 


C 


X h 




rH O 








H 


u cn 




rH 




•H 






TJ 


IT) U 




• • 




z 


4) r^ o 




(A 




TJ 


4) 


>» Ot 


4) 


fa 




*—* 




rH 


a -^ x 




• 4-» 




1 


X 


(TJ C 


-H 


<M 4> 




g 




X 


(A O 




Ot 3 




P 




E rl 


r-H 


•rl 






X 


4) 4) II 




c a 




C 


>x 


TJ 


a 


TJ 




H 




- 


<-h a 




•rH 4-> 




•rt 


(0 


u C 


a t 




Z 






■H ID ^ 




4-> 3 




U 


E 


O 4) 


3 


C (0 




rH 




II 


<m 4) CJ 




CA O 




a 






CA 


(D 




X 




• • 


rH 4) 




•H 






X 


- P 




TJ 




X 






z -I a 




rH TJ 




4) 


O 


TJ O 


4) 


- 4) 








u 


UJ Vh CO 




c 




c 


•H 


4) C 


fa 


TJ C 




II 




4) 


X ^ 4) 




>N 10 




•H 


X 


•H 


(TJ 


4) S- 








a H X -• 




fa 




rH 


3 


r-t CA 




C 3 




P 




(A 


H -H 




■ 




c 




a 4> 


4) 


4) P 




r-t 




4) 


- CJ "4H 




4-> C 




•H 


Z ■ 


a e 


CA 


a 4t 




3 




rH 


• z - 




O O 




(TJ 


3 4) 


3 (TJ 


(TJ 


O t- 




(0 




■H 


- UJ - 




4) -H 




E 


X r-t 


(A C 


U 






Cm 




*M 


X 4-» 




C, 4-> 






J r4 


cu 




in co 




0) 






II • — ■ X 




•H (TJ 


,->, 


4) 


O »M 


IA r-t 


fa 


•rl rH 




.. TJ 




z 


O 4) 




•- TJ E 


4t 


X 


o 


•H H 


4) 






X ^ 




X 


CJ 4) P 




>> J- 


• 


P 


X -P 


X 


3 


4) X 




X 




X 


4) a • 




U 4) O 


Ot 




3 


• . 


O 


r-t cn 




►J 4) 




H 


a ca - 




O X "+H 


c 


c 


••ax • 


rH 


H J 


•• 


< rH 


•• 




hi «j^ 




4-> 4-> C 


•H 


■H 


4) P 


X TJ 




*M < 


CJJ 


X H 


•— ^ 


- 


4> r-t cn 




U rl 


r-t 




rH 3 


fr- 4) 


fa 


X 


z 


Cm 


CJ 


- 


r-t rt O 




4) 4) 


>N TJ 


H O 


Z rt 


O 


4) 


t-H 


II 


4) 




H *M Q. 




u u >> 


4J 


4) 


Cm 


rH t-t 




X - 


X 


.. p 


a 


II 


*M ■>-^ « — < 




n 3 U 


CA 


CA 


P C 


cc a 


fa 


H P 


t- 


3 


CA 








TJ TJ O 




3 


3 (TJ 


x a 


4> 


o 


X 


4> a 


4) 


u 


X X 




1 -P 

4-> U O 


r-H 


+ 


O 


3 


a 


• c 




rH P 


rH 


4) 


►H t-H 




(TJ 




1 5- 


4) CA 


a 


>% 


• • 


n 3 


■H 


a 




c a cu 


E 




P O 


(A 


3 


r-t *M 


o 


Cm O 


Cm 


CA 


UJ UJ 




rl U 


fa 


. n 


4) <m 


(TJ CA 




rH rH 


4) 


P - 


**•* 


4) 


X X 




Si O H 


o 


5 


Ot 


CJ n 


e 


ID 


a 


3 — 


z 


rH 


J J 




a 4-> tj 


c 


(A 




•H 


(J • 


(A 


O X 


J 


■H 


X X 








X 


Z P 


X •• 




H TJ 


4) 


IH 


Q 


*M 






X 4) 4) 


fa 


u 


o a 


CJ X 


- 


P 4) 


rH 


P rH 


< 








X C X 


o 




r^ E 


■rt J 


H 


ID C 


•H 


4> X 


X 


X 






ID H 4-> 




M 


^ o 


X o 


X 


E U 


Im 


Z Ot 3 


X 


l-H 






Q 4-> 


CA 


X 


u «- 


3 X 


X 


3 




t-t 










1 X 3 CA 


r-t 


o 


Z X 


z 


H 


P P 


S 


O 








.- 


1 O 4-> 


4) 




3 * 


c o 


• 


3 4) 


X 








Q 


1 O X «- 


X 


% 


X —* 


H O 


- 


(0 (-. 


> 


X 








Z -i 


i X + O 


(TJ 




















X 


Q. ^ CA 


rH 


> 





















198 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 















ow your Apple or Ibm can 

give you complete income tax 

planning and record keeping! 







And TAX-MANAGER 
from Micro Lab lets your 
Apple II or IBM prepare 
your return— and most 
schedules— the easiest, 
tax-saving way... and it's 
deductible! 



TJTJ 



Saves hours of time and effort in tax preparation for indi- 
viduals and unincorporated businesses. 

■ Reminds you to take advantage of all deductions. 
I Easy to use, even if you've had little computer experience. 

■ It's "global'—make a change in one figure and all other 
related figures are automatically changed on the return. 

■ Automatically selects the tax method/computation that 
saves you the most. 

■ FREE one-year Extended Warranty replaces blown disks 
and gives you updated versions at no cost. 

It's Tax Deductible! 

AND AVAILABLE NOW. . . Floppy Disk Version 



T.M. 



another fine product from 



CIRCLE 214 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



micpo lab 



►- systems that work 

2310 Skokie Valley Road 
Highland Park, Illinois 60035 

(312) 433-7550 




Tria rSi ii|i l:i Eufi CSIufi 

The ONLY Book Club 

dedicated exclusively to 

the special interests of 

microcomputer hobbyists 

and experimenters 

the latest books and 



How to Make Money 
with your 

Microcomputer 




». Carl tow-— 1 * 



1416 
List $19.95 



1414 
List $15.95 



335 
List $14.95 



• • • 



software at the lowest prices! 

Select 6 fact-filled books 



for only $2 95 



(total value up to $111.70) 




List $12.95 



List $12.95 



1398 
List $14.95 




1466 
List $17.95 



1333 
List $16.95 




336 
List $14.95 



Challenging 
Computer 
w Games far 
TR5-80 /App'e /« ' 



1396 
List $13.95 



P 

1205 
List $16.95 



1251 
List $16.95 



337 
List $19.95 



1394 
List $15.95 



1111 806 

List $15.95 List $16.95 



1275 
Ast $14.95 




1160 
List $13.95 



1088 
List $13.95 



1391 
List $17.95 

BASIC , 
'Cookbook 



1299 
List $16.95 




PACKET 

RADIO 



1169 
List $16.95 

campufEfl 

GRRFHIC5 

\Mvqra trw **£»»■« «■« 



' MpJKMft) Nf 



1295 
List $16.95 



338 
List $14.95 



1271 
List $16.95 




1209 
List $11.95 



1330 
List $15.95 



1055 
List $9.95 



1345 
List $18.95 



1276 
List $15.95 



7 very good reasons to try 
The Computer Book Club 

Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17214 

• Reduced Member Prices. Save up to 75 % on books sure to 
increase your know-how 

• Satisfaction Guaranteed. All books returnable within 10 
days without obligation 

• Club News Bulletins. All about current selections — mains, 
alternates, extras— plus bonus offers. Comes 13 times a year 
with dozens of up-to-the-minute titles you can pick from 

• "Automatic Order." Do nothing, and the Main selection 
will be shipped automatically! But ... if you want an 
Alternate— or no books at all— we'll follow the instructions 
you give on the reply form provided with every News 
Bulletin 

• Continuing Benefits. Get a Dividend Certificate with every 
book purchased after fulfilling membership obligation, and 
qualify for discounts on many other volumes 

• Extra Bonuses. Take advantage of added-value promo- 
tions, plus special discounts on software, games, and more 

• Exceptional Quality. All books are first-rate publisher's 

editions, filled with useful, up-to-the-minute information 




Tfte ii 1 1[ 1 1 m EccFy SliA 

_ Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17214 



Please accept my membership in The Computer Book Club 
and send the 6 volumes circled below, billing me $2.95 plus 
shipping and handling charges. If not satisfied, I may return 
the books within ten days without obligation and have my 
membership cancelled. I agree to purchase 4 or more books 
at reduced Club prices (plus shipping/handling) during the 
next 12 months, and may resign any time thereafter. 

335 336 337 338 806 1055 1062 
1088 1111 1160 1169 1205 1209 1241 1251 

1271 1275 1276 1295 1299 1330 1333 
1345 1391 1394 1396 1398 1414 1416 1466 



Name 



Phone 



Address 
City 



State 



Zip 



(Valid for new members only. Foreign and Canada add 20%. Orders outside U.S. 
or Canada must be prepaid with international money orders in VS. dollars.) 
This order subject to acceptance by The Computer Book Club CC-1182 



CIRCLE 141 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Pascal Directory, continued... 















• « 






1 
a 


























<-— * 






(TJ 


























ft) 






o> 


























rH 






1 


























•H 






N 


























«M 






•H 


























P 






b 












rH 














s 



















1 














s./ 
































5 






+ 












ft) 

u 














S 






JC 

p 












(TJ 

a 














rH 






or 












■ 














1 






c 
ft) 












1 

rH 














§ 






l-t 

ft) 












1 

(TJ 

rH 














ft) 






c 








• — 














* «k 




u 






(4H 








^■^ 




+ 










rH p 




m 














4) 














£ 




a 






o 








rH 




P 










+ Ol 




(A 






H 








■i-t 




sz 










•H 




1 














*H 




en 










J-. ft) 




rH 






<-^ 








P 




•H 










4) -C 




ft) 






ft) 








3 




ft) 




•• Ta 






X> 




XI 






E 













x: 








E H 




(0 


la 




(0 


• «h 






v_» 




l 










3 4) 




rH 






c 


^•^ 






z 




rH 




ft) II 

1 
m x: 






C X) 






II 




ft) 


- 






►J 




ft) 








1 <tj 

ft) ^H 




O 
H 


• • 




•H 


_ 






UJ 
8- 




<0 




C P 






c 






l, 




lM 


•h 






t-t 




rH 




ft) *o 




• » 


H || 




rH 


ft) 




%_^ 


ft) 






X 






o 


«—l H 




^-^ 


r-t A 






X) 




X 


r-l 






2 




o 


Q 


<M 1 




ft) 






II 






H 


•H 










r- 






rH 


II L. 




• • 


3 




O 


V-. 






Z 




-— » 


r ~~ > 


•» »-^ 




■H 


.. Q) 






c 




z 


P 






UJ 




(-. ft) 


*— * 1 


ft) ft) 




<M 


X> 




•H 


1 




UJ 


3 






X 




ft) rH 


**-* 


»— • jQ 

■H (0 




p 


t- E 


z 




ft) 




-J 


o 






f- 




X) H 


*—* 




3 


ft) 3 


t-H 


x 


c 


»• 




>. M ^ 










E **-• 


X 


•♦H i— 1 







X) C 


o 


o 


■H 


Q 


II 


UJ 






«l 




3 P 


4) 


P 






1 


UJ 


u* 


1— 1 


z 


• • 


H 










C 3 


TJ 


3 Q Z 




z 


3 ft) 


CQ 






UJ 




rH 






A 




1 


C 


O UJ 




J 


C C 










■l-t 


X 






V 




O ^ 


■H 


« — S X 
UJ H 




UJ 


1 H 


z 










2 










C Z 


1m 


2 


t-4 


ft) rH 

c 


UJ 
X 








X 

o 


O 






p 




H J 
-H UJ 


-h 2 


M 


t-t 


IX 


H U. 


H 








hi 


a 






TJ 


*a 


H 


XJ M 


DC bu 


CJ 


2 


rH M 










a 








•H 




II M 


o 


S M 


UJ 














Z UJ 




rH 




* 


A 


•• X 


X U) 




QQ 














uj en 




♦ 




1 




2 


H CQ 


















j 




<M 




r-l 


L, 


-H 


M 


















UJ 








ft) 


ft) 


o 


2 






















II 

• • 


a 
z 
Q 


13 
(TJ 

rH 

a 
o 


X) 

c 

ft) 

c 


HEN FOR 
D 



<W rH 

u. u. 



H H 



















ft) 








TJ 




















































3 •- 








ft> 




















































rH 








x: 




















































(/) (TJ 








(A 




















































<TJ E 








•H 






































* 














c 








c 




















































ft) o 








■H 
















































t>- 
z 
b 




lower cas 
SE print n 








0) 

p 
ft) 
en 

• 

TJ 












UJ 

B 




































o 




x: j 








ft) 








* * 










































U UJ 








<-. 








**^ 








































>* 




ft) 








•H 








- 




M 








































x: w 

U <H 








3 
IT 








• • 




•• 




































p 

1 




* <i) 

^ X) 
(TJ 

rH 








4) 
(A 








z 
u 




TJ 
4) 

x: 

(A 




































o 




•• 1 








•H 








o 




■rt 




































««-. 




r-. P 

- C 








o> 








>- 




C 

-H 




































0) 




C H 








c 








'^^' 




«+4 




































rH 
ft) 




- a 








•H 
P 








TJ 




z 




























— » 
* 

c 








4 

rH 

c 

•H 
■P 


• — 

z 

UJ 

rH 


z z 

- UJ 
- X 

- H 


u 

o 






(A 

•H 
rH 

4) 
P 








ft) 
S-. 

•H 

3 
O* 
ft) 
b 




UJ 

X 
















ory; 
her 












•H 








3 


X 


- >% J 















>s 




- 












z 




p p 












l 








a 3 


>- - 








c 








U 




II 












UJ 




o 


















p 




^ •» 


•k 




• •> 


(TJ 


*— «. 











r. 




-— v 








3C 




ft) c 




















3 


• •. 


■ . - 


ft) 




b 




* 






p 




o 




« 








H 




(-. (TJ 












>> 








O 


.—> . 


>- 


rH 




ft) 


(« 


• 






o 




N_^ 




4) 












£ ' 












b 


z 








x: 


z - 


•H 




x: 


■i-t 


TJ 






4) 








TJ 








TJ 




TJ P 












o 


UJ 






>_^ 


u 


rH i_ i 


«4-l 




p 




4) 






u 




X 







•« 




•• 


4) 




| tA 












p 


X 






UJ 






P 







U 


V 






•H 


••> 


o 







UJ 




>» s 




P ft) 












u 


r- 






E- 


Q 


x: z 


3 




c 


4) 


•S 






TJ 


z 








in 




L 


(A 




•5 5 












ft) 








»H 


< 


U rH 







(TJ 


(A 


3 








mJ 


*~* 




4) 


►j 




O 


-H 














b 


ft) 




H 


X 


UJ 










1 3 


cr 






U 


UJ 


- 




C 


< 




p 


c 




U ft) 




TJ 








•H 


rH 




< 


2 


X 


j x: 


UJ 




P 




4) 






4) 


H 


>* 




•H 


u. 




u 


•H 


z 


a u 




ft) 








TJ 


•H 




UJ 






•H u 


l/> 




i 


JC 


L. 






x: 


M 


- 




rH 






ft) 


Vm 


i-t 






x: 










<W 




x 






H 


o 




v 


(A 








p 


X 


II 




1 


il 




h 




o 




Q 


(A 








P 


P 




UJ 






Z U- 


J 




3 


<TJ 


p 









2 


JZ 




c 


• • 




•H 


H 


UJ 




Z 


-H 








c 


3 


z 


X 






3 M 


o 




cr 




O 


»• 




c 


•- 


u 




H 






TJ 


o 


ffi 




UJ 


c 








•H 


o 


rH 














4) 


O 


c 


X 




< 


/— » 


^^ 




(TJ 


TJ 






z 








■H 








b 




O 












Q 


b 


P 




eC 






x: 


~— ' 




E 


ft) 




P 










Im 








a 


P 


UJ 












z 






(A 


X 




>_» 


u 


tj- 




* 


x: 


H 


ft) 


u. 
















* 


ft) 


CQ 












UJ 


UJ 


4) 


•H 


u 




UJ 


«w^ 


o 




>—* 


(A 


< 


D> r- 








J 










O) 
















X 

3 


C 

•H 


u 


#- 




tr- 

rH 


Q 

< 


z 






•H 

c 


UJ 

X 












rH 
tj- 




■ •* 






Lu 
















a 


P 


ft) 


x: 




X 


UJ 


u. 






•H 


UJ 












z 




o 




z 


rH 
















UJ 


3 


x: 


o 


z 


2 


X 


►H 




Z 


«♦-! 


X 












3 




z 




1 r-t 
















• ~ 


u 


O 


p 




rH 








•• 


rH 


















• 


UJ 




1 O 
















Q 


o 


X 


O 


§ 


a 








Q 


O 


















Q 




■» 


E UJ 
















z 


X 


* 


c 


UJ 








z 


UJ 


















Ul 






CQ 
















UJ 


0- 


^■^ 


(TJ 


> 


X 








UJ 


X 





















* 
ft) 
P 






















































(TJ 








































*—. 














TJ 








































■K 














(A 








-^ 
































3 














(A 








* 
































O 














ft) 








* 
































o 














rH 








j| 
































o 














cn 








^i 






,_^ 






























•• 






* 




c 














■k 


























u 




•^ 






NT 




•H 

c 

(TJ 
ft) 

E 








tn 

r-t 
Q 






etc. 
]] DO 


























4) 

> 
4) 

C 




ft) 
P 






• • 

- (A 
JC 

- u 




(A 








>- 

r- 

X 

1 
Ul 






«*H 
<4H l_« 


























TJ 

H 




- (TJ 
- TJ 






tA 

4) r-t 




ft) 
P 
<TJ 












C X 

■r-t 4) 

TJ 






in 




















3 

o 

x: 




K> tA 

-^ 4) 






r-t X) 
•H 
<*H 1 




U 














X C 






+ 




















tn 




•- JC CJ 










•H 








II 






tA -H 


























* 




JC U U 






- rH 




TJ 








Jji 












x: 




















«w* 




O O (TJ 






- O 




C 








li 






TJ *1* 






p 






















'■^ 


OHv, 






CM > 




■r-t 








« 






■ rH 






o> 






















— 


r-t XI ft) 






•• TJ 
















ft) TJ 






c 






















— 


X) P P 






tA C 




ta 




* » 




•l 






x: 






ft) 






















TJ 


P (A (TJ 






ft) ft) 








*—^ 




4) 






P X 






H 






ft> 


ft) 


ft) 


4) 


4) 


ft) 


4) 


t^- 


ft) 


tA U TJ 






•H • 




Im 




— 




,—1 






(-• 






ft) 






rH 


rH 


rH 


r-t 


rH 


rH 


rH 


r- 


a 


Li H 4) 






Sm r— i 













•H 






i- rH 






E 






■H 


•H 


•H 


•H 


-H 


•H 


•H 


r- 


>> 


•H <M P 






p ta 








c 




Ih 






3 






(TJ 






<M 


«*H 


<4H 


<«H 


«4H 


Im 


<4H 


o- 


p 


*M I -H 






c < — > 




£ 









p 






Im 






C 






JC 


ft) 


P 





(TJ 


Im 





o- 


c 


JC b 






ft) b 
E H 




p 








3 







o 






<4H 






tA 


TJ 


X 


<H 


P 


(TJ 


p 


c^- 


3 


1 O 2 








C 




TJ 








~X Q 












TJ 





ft) 


c 


(0 


b 





c^- 


• 









3 TJ 









ft) 










O 






o 






X 


O 


H 


M 


Q 


CJ 


u* 


t^- 


■ 


JC ^ Z 






C w 




E 
* 




P 





z 

•• UJ 






rH (A 
r-t ft) 






H 






a 


•t 


■k 


•k 


•k 


m 


— 


• 


ft) 

r-t 


U X) UJ 
P X 






r-^ ~ 




<—^ 













(TJ H 






«_^ 






ft) 


ft) 


ft) 


4) 


4) 


ft) 


4) 


4) 


•r-t 


H 111 H 






Ta 




■ » 




X) 


^^ 


'-* H 






« S* 




• » 


ft) 


• «. 




rH 


rH 


rH 


rH 


rH 


rH 


rH 


rH 


<4H 


X) (0 






'—' 




•^ Z 






ft) 
p 


4) r-( 






w- P 




y— , 


E 


^-» 




■H 


•H 


•H 


•H 


■i-t 


•H 


•H 


•H 


P 


P rH ta 






b 1 




- UJ 




p 


rH QC 






c 




4) 


(TJ 


- 




<tH 


««H 


<4H 


«4H 


Vh 


Im 


<r< 


<H 


3 


tA ^ 






•H 

TJ 




•• X 




(A 


(0 


i-t 2 






• - 4) 




E 


C 






P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


p 


P 


P 


o 


(TJ »A 








- H 




(TJ 


TJ 


Im 






(A E 




(TJ 


ft) 


- 




3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


>— ' 


rH - 






r* 




•» 




iH 


4-> 


3 Ul 






JC 3 




C 


rH 


■ 




O 


O 


O 


O 


O 


O 


O 


o 


UJ 


x: 






• 




0) \Sl 






o 






U C 




ft) 


•H 


ft) 




' 


-»_• 


■ 


N— -«■ 


«■— -* 


"W* 


>— " 


*—* 


p- 


+ p 






(A 
^ JC 

U 

o 




E 






o 


O X 






• 




r-t 


Vl 


rH 




UJ 


UJ 


UJ 


UJ 


UJ 


UJ 


UJ 


UJ 


t-t 


c 








(TJ A 






X) 


« t_. 






rH <—• 




■H 


>_^ 


■r-t 


bu 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


H 


X 


tA 


^^ 






c 






• 


2 






X) TSl 




<4H 


X 


««H 


O 


M 


rH 


rH 


rH 


rH 


rH 


rH 


rH 


2 


JC - E 


ft) 






rH x: 






^_, 


►j ta 






TJ •— > 




■ 


E- 


P 




X 


X 


X 


X 


ff 


X 


X 


X 


• • 


U - • 


rH 




rH r—t 




O P 




- 


\Sl 


UJ 






4) L. 




ft) 


O 


3 


TJ 


2 


2 




•x. 


S 


2 


2 


2 


ft) 


O ft) ft) 


•H 




(TJ X) 
P 




> c 




» 




!-■ ii 






> rl 




r-t 


z 


O 


C 
















• • 


•-t 


rH r-t P 


**H 






• O 




ft) 


t^ 


r-l 




. ^ 


U TJ 




•H 


UJ 




•H 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


L, 


•H 


X) H (TJ 


P 




o - 




" E 




r-l 


■ H 


X w 




>, 


ft) 




«rl 


J 


UJ 


JC 


ft) 


ft) 


ft) 


4) 


ft) 


ft) 


ft) 


•H 


<+H 


»4H TJ 


3 




H 




Si • 




•H 


TJ 


2 ft) 




L, 


(A O 




P 




8- 


ft) 


H 


rH 


rH 


rH 


r-t 


rH 


rH 


T3 


TJ 


II P tA 


O 


• * 


>j *-^ 




^ 4) 




<*H 




■ r-| 




o 


4) f— 




3 


II 


rH 


rH 


•H 


•H 


•H 


•H 


■r-t 


•H 


■H 


ft) 


ft) 


•• 3 tA 


*—* 


*""* 


m •• — 




U P 




P 


"ft) 


•• t- 




♦j 


u 




o 


• • 


X 


■H 


<*-. 


<«H 


<M 


<4H 


<+-. 


Im 


<+-. 


S-, 


a 


O ft) 


z 


ft) 


ft) (A ft) 




■i-t (0 




3 


— » P 




u 


r-t 










«4H 


JC 


ft) 


P 


O 


OJ 


*M 


o 


3 


>N 


•- (A >— U 


J 


rH 


rH JC ft) 




TJ TJ 







(TJ 


4) C 




0J 


|| 




UJ 


•H 






(A 


TJ 


X 


<M 


P 


(TJ 


p 


O 


p 


a jc uj u 


UJ 


•H 


•H U Li 




■ P 




•«-» 


*o 


rH 4) 




<^ 


•• II 




r- 




o 


UJ 


TJ 





ft) 


c 


(TJ 


b 





ft) 


c 


Z O H (TJ 


H 


<4H 


*«H O Im 




ft) O 




UJ 


4) 


■H E 




■H 


• • 


z 


rH 


X 


Q 


tn 


X 


U 


p 


■H 


TJ 


o> <*■ 


tA 


3 


U OH 


rH 


P 


P rH 




rH 




H 


P 


Wh 3 


z 


T) 


(A 


rH 


X 


o 




< 




















r-t QC In 


X 


•• 3 
Q O 


3 X) - 





■•-t X) 




r-» 


•H 


P C 


rH 




IJ* »M 


o 


2 


Uu 




o 




















X> 2 M 


2 




•+4 • 




X 


Li 


3 • 


o 


P 


U 


UJ 
































Z > -' 


' 




P •— 


2 


2 


9 


O «— • 


UJ 


h 


X 


X 
































UJ z 


Z 




3 IS. 


r-t 






.- »w » 


X 





^H O 


































rJ 
UJ 

H 

rH 

X 

2 


■J 

UJ 
H 

rH 
X 

2 




ITE(c 
dir[ 


UJ 
X 






END 

ITELN 

dir[i 


UJ 

tn 

rJ 

UJ 


tA 


X) U. 




































X u* 








X u* 












































2 


* r-l 








3 »H 












































o 






















































U) 






















































CQ 























































tA 




























(TJ 


















0) 










P 


















rH 










(0 


















•H 










E 






^-» 












*M 










c 






* 












P 










o 


»— » 




>> 












§ 










Im 


+ 




r-t 






















ft) 




rH 












**- *» 










tA 


c 




(TJ 












3 










rH 


■H 




P 




















ft) 
X) 


rH 




c 
o 












B 










(0 


x: 




N 












r-t 










rH 


o 

(TJ 




•H 

b 












^ 










c 


ft) 




o 












•~ 










•H 


(A 




sz 












— o 

- Q 










•» 


(A 




« 












« 










>> 







(A 












■K ft) 


"^ 








rH 


L. 




ft) 












* U 


-X 








c 


u 
















•K (TJ 


E 











(TJ 




* (TJ 
tA C 












* a 

* (A 


L, 









(A 


(A 




rH ft) 












i> 








ft) 


ft) 




4) rH 












X -H 










E 


E 




X) H 












tn ft) 


rH 








<TJ '- 


(TJ 




(TJ *«H 












rH X) 


4) 








C * 


c 




rH 












a (0 


X) 








• 


ft) 




c 






• «k 






rH 


(TJ 








ft) 0) 


r-t 




C 4) 






**^ 






>* 


rH 






8 


rH C 


•H 


*—+ 


ft) 4) 






• 






H + 








■r-t -H 


<M 


* 


4) 5 






• • 






X 


P 








<4H P 




c 


> P 






• 






S P 


X 






(A 


3 


*4H 


2 


P 4) 






«k 






uj x: 


4) 






4) 


TJ 








4) X) 






ft) 






CJ> 


C 






■H 


C S~ 




TJ 


XJ 






^ 






* H 








•- L. 


(TJ 


S-. 




IA 










■K 4) 


**-. 






r-t P 


Im 


ft) 


IA 


(A 4) 






c 






* x: 


o 






C 


ft) O 


X) 


4) 


ft) O 






rH 






* 


_ 






II 4) 


E 




c 


C (TJ 


• » 




o 






* r-t 


a 






• • 


(TJ TJ 


3 


•H 


H O. 


X 




> 


xa 




* 4) 


o 






3 


C (TJ 


c 


r-t 


r-t tA 


UJ 




• 






- X) 


p 






L. C 


ft) 


* 


* 


* * 


o 




1— 1 


ii 




- (TJ 








ft) • 


4) x: 


^ 


' 


* ^-r 


UJ 




ta 


tA 




4, rH 
rH 


o 
p 






X) •— • 

3 ^ 


• - 3 P 








z 






ft) 




H O 






•• 


3 • » 


tA rH (TJ 


• •. 


• ■» 


• •. •» 


r-t 




•H 


•H 




>r< H 


a 




>* 


C L, 


rH O 


to 


CO 


rH rH 






TJ 


t. 




P 


■r-t 




u 


31 


ft) > tA 








• • 




«• 


P 




3 CM 


JC 




o 


ft) TJ 


X) P 


II 


II 


II II 


L. 




ft) 


c 




O 


IA 




p 


C 


(TJ P C 




p 




ft) 




rH 


ft) 




^ II 


* 




o 


H || 


rH C TJ 


JZ 


x: 


4) 


X) 




•H 


E 




Z •• 


•>— » 




4) 


r-t V 


|-H P 


p 


o> 


U 


£ 




««H 


3 


z 


3 




Z 


L. 




p b 1 


TJ 


•H 


(0 a 


3 




P 


C 


M 


UJ H 




rH 


•H 


•- «M 


c a c 


■H 


4) 


a (0 


c 




3 


• 


o 


e- 




CJ 


TJ 


rH 


H o 


2 


x: 


(A Oi 


1 







r— ^ 


UJ 


•H X 




UJ 




UJ 


L. U 






1 


4) 




%^ 


Ta 


X 


X o 




X 


P 


II rJ 


a p 


rH 


rH 


rH N 


C 




z 


• ■ 




3 u. 




a 


L. 


• • i-t 


>x 


4) 


0) 


ft) H 


•H 




J 


u 


z 






Z UJ 


O 


X 


UJ ft) xt 


x> 


X) 


X) L, 


rH 




UJ 


•H 


UJ 






uj tn 


(A 


*M 2 


x c 


(TJ 


(TJ 


(TJ O 


«k 




H 


TJ 


X 






j 






D H TJ 


rH 


rH 


r-t SZ 


<«H 




rH 




H 






UJ 






Q P ft) 








■» 




X 


bu 














a uj 3 c 


t- 






•H 


z 


2 


rH 














z •- O h 


cn 








r-t 


















UJ Q O X '♦h 


z 






5 


o 


















Z X * ft) 


o 






UJ 


















UJ X >^ TJ 


o 






> 


X 



















November 1982° Creative Computing 



201 



The Towers Of Hanoi 

A Lesson In Recursive Basic 




The program described in this article is 
based on the recursive programming 
techniques described by Antonio Leal 
("Recursive Programming in Basic, " 
Creative Computing, Dec. 1981). When I 
first read the article, I was immediately 
reminded of a course in Pascal I took 
some years ago. One feature of this course 
was a very effective demonstration of 
recursion as both a programming and a 
problem-solving method. I decided to see 
if Dr. Leal's techniques could be applied 

to the task addressed in the demon- 
stration. 

The demonstration involved a problem 
known as the Towers of Hanoi. For the 
benefit of the uninitiated, this is as 
follows: You are given three rods and N 
disks, of different sizes. The disks can be 
stacked on any of the rods, forming 
towers. 

Suppose the N disks are stacked in 
decreasing size on rod A, as shown in 
Figure 1 for N=4. The task is to move the 
N disks from rod A to rod C, in such a 
way that they wind up in the same order 
on rod C as on rod A. The moves made 
must meet the following requirements: 

1. In each step, only one disk can be 
moved from one rod to another rod. 

2. A disk may never be placed over a 
smaller disk. 

3. Rod B may be used to store disks. 
When the moves are made in the 

optimum manner, the number of moves 
necessary to move N disks is(2**N)-l;that 
is, three moves for two disks, seven moves 
for three disks, 15 moves for four disks, 



Kimball M. Rudeen, 335 Lowell St., Lexington, 
MA 02173. 



Kimball M. Rudeen 



and so on. There is supposedly a legend 
that in a remote temple there are three 
rods and a set of 64 disks. The priests of 
this temple have been moving the disks 
from rod to rod since the world began. 
When the task is complete, the world will 
end. For 64 disks the number of moves is 
18,446,744,073,709,551,615. If one move 
is made per second, this will take about 
58 trillion years. 

In my Pascal course, we were shown 
how recursion could be used to solve a 
problem by redefining it as a set of 
subproblems which were either trivial or 
simpler versions of the original problem. 
For the Towers of Hanoi, the main prob- 
lem is, "Move N disks from rod A to rod 
C." This can be broken into three 
subproblems: 

1. Move N-l disks from rod A to rod B. 

2. Move one disk from rod A to rod C. 

3. Move N-l disks from rod B to rod C. 



The application of recursion is immedi- 
ately evident. Each of the more difficult 
subproblems can be broken down into 
three still simpler sub-subproblems, and 
so on, until N-l is equal to 1 and the final 
set of subproblems is a simple set of moves 
of single disks. It is only necessary to 
write a routine that will break any given 
disk problem down into the three sub- 
problems and call itself to solve the more 
difficult ones. 

Listing 1 is a Basic program written to 
use this approach. The recursive sub- 
routine first increments the level count 
used to maintain the local variables, and 
sets the disk count for the current level. 
The next three sections mirror the sub- 
problem breakdown described above. 

Section 1 redefines the current problem 
into the first subproblem for the level. If 
the subproblem is now simple (number of 
disks for this level is one), it is solved. 
Otherwise Section 1 makes a recursive 
subroutine call with the new subproblem. 
When a return from this call occurs, the 
entire solution to the first subproblem 
will have been printed out. 





Figure 1. 


* 


* 


♦ 


* 


* 


* 


********* 


* 


*********** 


* 


************* 


* 


*************** 


* 


A 


B 



* 
« 
* 



202 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



.w* 



aV IP 






cs 




6v> 



J^ 



oo 



S^ 1 



«ft©<^ 



e** 



^ 





** v 



A ATARI 



® 



Atari is .i Registered Trademark ol Atari Inc 



NAME 



NAME 



PRICE 



NAME 



.». 



PRICE 



CLOWNS AND BALLOONS CS 
CROSSFIRE DK 

CRUSH, CRUMBLE, CHOMP DK 



ACTION OUEST 

All BABA & 40 THIEVES 

APPLE PANIC 

ATARI BASIC BOOK 

ATARI BASIC REFERENCE 

CANYON CLIMBER 

CENTIPEDE BY ATARI 



DK 
DK 
DK 
BK 
BK 
DK 
CT 



S25 

28 

25 

9 

10 
25 
34 



CRYPTS OF TERROR 
CURSE OF RA 
CYCLOD 
DATA PERFECT 
DEADLINE 
DELUNE INVADERS 
FILE MANAGER 800 
GHOST ENCOUNTERS 



DK 
DK 
DK 
DK 
DK 
CT 
DK 
DK 



$25 
25 
25 
30 
17 
25 
85 
42 
34 
85 
25 



GORF 

HOME FILING MGMT 

INVIT. TO PR06. 1 

INVIT. TO PROG. 2 

INVIT. TO PROG. 3 

K-RAZY ANTIKS 

K-RAZY SHOOTOUT 

K STAR PATROL 

LETTER PERFECT 

MARCO ASSEM & TEXT 

MASTER TYPE 

MICROSOFT 

NAUTILUS 

PAC MAN BY ATARI 

PACIFIC COAST HWY 

PREPPIE 

PROTECTOR 

RASTER BLASTER 



CT 
DK 
CS 
CS 
CS 
CT 
CT 
CT 
DK 
DK 
DK 
DK 
DK 
CT 
CS 
DK 
CS 
DK 




jCipplG 

Apple is a Registered Trademark o( Apple Computer Inc 



® 



NAME 



PRICE 



NAME 



ALPHA PLOT DK S34 

APPLE GRAPH S ARCADE BK 17 

APPLE MECHANIC DK 25 

APPLE PANIC DK 25 

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE BK 17 

ATLANTIS DK 34 

BAG OF TRICKS DK 34 

BANDITS DK 30 

BENEATH APPLE DOS BK 17 

BOOK OF SOFTWARE 82 BK 17 

CANNONBALL BLITZ DK 30 

CASTLE WOLFENSTEIN DK 25 

CHOPLIFTER DK 30 

CRANSTON MANOR DK 30 

CRUSH, CRUMBLE, CHOMP DK 25 

CURSE OF RA DK 17 

CYCLOD DK 25 

OB. MASTER DK 183 

DATA CAPTURE 4.0 DK 55 

DAVIDS MIDNIGHT MAGIC DK 30 

OB MASTER UTIL PAK 1 DK 84 

DB MASTER UTIL PAK 2 DK 84 

DBASE II DK 595 

DEADLINE DK 35 



'i* 



DOS BOSS DK 

ELECTRIC DUET DK 

ENHANCER II AC 

FLI6HT SIMULATOR DK 

FROGGER DK 

GAME PADDLES AC 

GRAFORTH II DK 

GRAPHIC SYSTEM DK 

GRAPHICS MAGICIAN DK 

GROGAN DK 

HOME ACCOUNTANT DK 

HORIZON V DK 

JOYSTICK AC 

KABUL SPY DK 

KIDS AND THE APPLE BK 

KNIGHTS OF DIAMONDS DK 

MAGIC WINDOW DK 

MAGIC WORDS DK 

MAILMERGE DK 

MARAUDER DK 

MASTER TYPE DK 

MICROSOFT SOFT CARD AC 

MICROWAVE DK 

OLYMPIC DECATHLON DK 



PRICE 

S20 
25 

127 
28 
28 
34 
64 
59 
51 
34 
64 
30 
48 
30 
17 
30 
80 
59 

106 
30 
34 

659 
30 
25 



NAME 



PFS: GRAPH 

PFS: PER FILING SYS 

PFS: REPORT 

PIE WRITER STD 

PINBALL 

POWER OF VISICALC 

POWER OF VISICALC 2 

RAM CARD 

RASTER BLASTER 

RENDEZVOUS 

ROBOT WAR 

SAM 

SARGON II 

SCREENWRITER 2 

SENSIBLE SPELLER 

SERPENTINE 

SNACK ATTACK 

SOFT VIDEO SWITCH 

SOFTCARD 

SPELLSTAR 

STAR BLAZER 

SUPER TENT 2 

SUPERSOFT I 

SWASHBUCKLER 



DK 
DK 
DK 
BK 
BK 
AC 
DK 
DK 
DK 
DK 
DK 
DK 
DK 
DK 
DK 
AC 
AC 
DK 
DK 
DK 
DK 
DK 



Radio /haek TR5-80 



fRS 80 >s h Registered Tradem ar k of the Radio Shad Division ol Tandy Corporation 



PRICE NAME 

S42 

42 

21 

25 

25 

42 

42 

42 
127 

76 

34 

76 

25 

34 

25 

25 

25 

25 



PRICE 



DK S106 
DK 106 



81 

127 

25 

8 

8 

166 

23 

34 

34 

110 

30 

110 

106 

30 

25 

30 

336 

170 

27 

128 

150 

30 



NAME 



PRICE 



ATTACK FORCE DK S17 

B 1 NUCLEAR BOMBER CS 14 

COSMIC FIGHTER DK 17 

CRUSH, CRUMBLE, CHOMP DK 25 

CURSE OF RA DK 17 

DEFENCE COMMAND DK 17 

ELIMINATOR DK 21 

EMPIRE OF OVERMIND DK 30 

FLIGHT SIMULATOR CS 28 

GALAXY INVASION DK 17 

LUNER LANDER DK 18 

METEOR MISSION II DK 17 

MIDWAY CAMPAIGN CS 14 

OLYMPIC DECATHLON DK 25 



NAME 






PRICE 



PENETRATOR DK S21 

ROBOT ATTACK DK 17 

SARGON II DK 30 

SCARFMAN DK 17 

STARFLEET ORION DK 21 

STARFLIRHT STAR TREK DK 17 

STELLAR ATTACK DK 17 

STELLAR ESCORT CS 14 



NAME 






PRICE 



SUPER NOVA 
TEMPLE OF APSHAI 
TYPING TUTOR 



DK S17 
DK 34 
CS 17 



REAR GUARD 

SAM 

SHAMUS 

SOFTPORN ADVENTURE 

SPACE EGGS 

TECH USER NOTES 

TELECOM 

TEMPLE OF APSHAI 

THE UP REACH APSHAI 

THRESHOLD 

TRACK ATTACK 

ULTIMA I 

ULTIMA II 

VISICALC 

WIZARD AND PRINCESS 

WIZARD OF WOR 

Z0RK1 

Z0RK2 



DK 
DK 
DK 
DK 
DK 
BK 
DK 
DK 
CS 
DK 
DK 
DK 
DK 
DK 
DK 
CT 
DK 
DK 



NAME 




«*25Ur-'- 






PRICE 



$21 
50 
25 
25 
25 
25 
72 
34 
17 
34 
25 
34 
44 

185 
26 
42 
32 
32 



PRICE 



SYSTEM SAVER AC $76 

TARGET PLANNER CALC DK 43 

TEMPLE OF APSHAI DK 32 

THRESHOLD DK 33 

TWERPS DK 25 

TYPING TUTOR II DK 21 

ULTIMA DK 32 

ULYSSES & GOLDEN FLE DK 30 

UTILITY CITY DK 25 

VIDEOTERM AC 293 

VISICAL 3.3 DK 198 

VISICALC 80 COL PRE DK 42 

VISIFILE DK 168 

VISITERM DK 85 

VISITREND/VISIPLOT DK 255 

WIZARD AND PRINCESS DK 28 

WIZARDRY DK 42 

WORDSTAR DK 268 

ZOOM GRAFIX DK 34 

ZORK DK 34 

ZORK 1 DK 34 

ZORK 2 DK 32 



" TYPE KEY: 
AC ACCESSORY 
BK BOOK 
CS CASSETTE 
CT CARTRIDGE 
DK DISK 



CIRCLE 129 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Towers of Hanoi, continued... 

Section 2 simply solves the second 
subproblem, which is nothing more than 
a one disk move. Note that the move is 
defined on the previous level. 

Section 3 defines the third subproblem 
and solves it or calls the subroutine with 
the subproblem as in Section 1. When a 
return from this call occurs, the entire 
solution to the third subproblem and 
therefore the entire solution to the prob- 
lem at this level will have been printed 
out. 

After Section 3, the subroutine will 
decrement the level count and return to 
the previous level. 

Figure 2 is a listing of the solution to 
the three-disk case. Each move is illus- 
trated with a diagram showing its effect. 

Note that while the subroutine has one 
return and is entered on one line, it calls 
itself in two places. At some stages of the 
solution a return from a lower level will 
be after Section 1 , and at other stages the 
return will be at the end of Section 3. 
After the final move of a solution is 
output, the subroutine will be at the very 
lowest level of recursion, and all of the 
unreturned subroutine calls will have been 
made in Section 3. As a result, the final 
operation of the program will be a cycle 
of level decrements and returns until the 
top level is reached and the routine 
returns to the main program. 



Listing 1. 



Figure 2. 



10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
70 
B0 
90 
100 

110 

120 
130 
140 
150 

1000 
1010 
1020 
1030 
1040 
1050 
1060 
1070 



REM TOWERS OF HANOI 

REM BY KIMBALL M. RUDEEIM 

CLEAR 1000 

DEFINT A-Z 

INPUT "NUMBER OF DISKS" ;N 



DIM ND<N), X*<N), Y*<N) , Z*(N) 



--rcr " 



B 



INITIAL 



MOVE 1 :A TO C 



MOVE 2 :A TD B 



MOVE 3 :C TO B 



MOVE 4 :A TO C 



MOVE 5 :B TO A 



MOVE 6 :B TO C 



MOVE 7 :A TO C 



ft 


* 


* 


* 


♦ 


* 


♦ft* 


♦ 


* 


♦♦♦♦ft 


♦ 


* 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ 


* 


♦ 


ft 


* 


♦ 


* 


* 


♦ 


♦ 


* 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ 


* 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ 


*** 


♦ 


ft 


* 


* 


♦ 


* 


* 


♦ 


* 


* 


♦ 


ft 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ft* 


* 


* 


ft 


♦ 


* 


ft 


* 


♦ 


ft 


♦ 


ftftft 


ft 


♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 


♦ ♦♦♦♦ 


ft 


* 


* 


ft 


* 


* 


M 


* 


* 


ft 


♦ 


*** 


ft 


* 


***** 


♦ ftftftftft* 


♦ 


* 


ft 


♦ 


* 


ft 


♦ 


* 


ft 


* 


* 


ft 


♦♦♦ 


***** 


♦♦ftftftftft 


* 


* 


ft 


* 


* 


ft 


* 


* 


ft 


♦ 


* 


ftftftftft 


♦♦♦ 


* 


******* 


ft 


* 


ft 


* 


* 


ft 


* 


* 


ftftft 


♦ 


* 


ftftftftft 


♦ 


* 


ftftftftftftft 



1080 
1090 
1100 
1110 

1120 

1130 
1140 



1150 
1160 



X*(1)="A" 
Y*<1)="C" 

Zt<l>~"B" 

LV=1 

ND(1)=N 

NM=0 

GOSUB 1000 

LPRINT "PROBLEM COMPLE' 

END 
REM RECURSIVE SUBROUTINE 
LV=LV+1 

ND(LV)=ND(LV-1)-1 
REM SECTION 1 

X*<LV)=X*<LV-1) 
Y$<LV)=Z*<LV-1> 
Z*(LV)=Y*(LV-1) 

IF ND(LV)=1 THEN NM=NM+1 : LPRINT MOVE" ; MM ? " : " : X* ( ...V ) a 
" TO ";Y*<LV> 
ELSE GOSUB 1000 
REM SECTION £ 

NM=NM+1 .-LPRINT "MOVE" ; NM ; " : " ; X* (LV-i > ; " ^0 "$Y*<LV-1 
REM SECTION 3 

X*(LV)=Z*<lV-1> 
Y*<LV)=Y$(LV-1> 
Z*(LV)=X*<LV-1) 

IF ND(LV)=1 THEN NM=NM+1 :LPRINT "MOVE" |NM$ " I M ; X* (LV) 
" TO " ;Y*(LV) 
ELSE GOSUB 1000 
LV=LV-1 
RETURN 



This program is a very good example 
of the power of recursive programming, 
even in a language not specifically de- 
signed for it. The structure of the sub- 
routine is extremely simple, even in Basic. 
In Pascal, which requires no bookkeeping 
on local variables, the program for this 
problem seemed to be no more than a 
subroutine that did nothing but call itself. 

One final point of interest is the size of 
the problem that the program can, in 
theory, solve. The amount of memory 
required for the variable arrays depends 
on the number of disks, not on the num- 
ber of moves in the final solution. Even 
the maximum "stack" of recursive sub- 
routine calls that can exist at one time is 
equal to the number of disks minus one. I 
find it a little mind-boggling that if handed 
the 64-disk problem, the program will 
almost immediately begin printing out the 
solution, and that given enough time (and 
paper) it will finish. □ 



204 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 




Were you made for each other? Are the two of you destined for romance? Spend an evening 
with LOVERS OR STRANGERS, and find out. LOVERS OR STRANGERS can tell how compatible you 
are in love, sex, money, work, play and more. It's fun. ..it's serious... it's romantic... it's thought- 
provoking... it will keep you up nights. 



LOVERS OR STRANGERS is available at your local dealer or direct from 
Alpine Software, 2120-E Academy Circle, Colorado Springs, CO 80909 (303) 591-9874 

Only $ 29.95. Add $.100 for shipping/handling. VISA, Mastercard, checks, COD accepted. 
Colorado residents add 3% sales tax. Requires Apple II Plus, 48K, DOS 3.3, and a willing partner. 

Apple II Plus is a registered trademark of Apple Computers, Inc. 
CIRCLE 106 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



9 









*> 4 




A 




v 



SUDDENLY you awaken in a coffin 
surrounded by a vast grav 
YOU MUST GET OUT BEPOR 

HOW? There's no easy way, the 
walls are too high — the gates are 
locked. Vampires, Zombies, and 

Werewolves constantly attack as 
you frantically search musty 
crypts, catacombs, and dead 
tombs for treasures and clues. 
ONLY TWELVE HOURS TO 
ESCAPE OR REMAIN FOREVER ! 

CRYPT OF THE UNDEAD, designed by Marc Benioff , 
Offers . . . 

• Both Puzzle-Solving 81 Role-Playing Intrigue! 

• Superb Graphics, Sound &. Color Animation! 

• Hours of Challenging Terror! 
Requires . . . 

' ATARI 4001800 St One Disk Drive 
< One Player Si Joystick Controller 
Comes with . . . 

• Game Program St Complete Instructions 
EPYX 30/FOREVER WARRANTY 

Now Available At Your Favorite Dealer . . . $29.95 

For the name of your nearest EPYX dealer write : 

"CRYPT OF THE UNDEAD" 

EPYX/Automated Simulations, Inc. 

P.O. Box 4247, Mountain View, CA 94040 



> 



WN! 



I 



■3d 



'«♦'#. * 



wi i I Jsl 



/ 




COMFHJTSf? GAMES 
THINKERS RLAY 




EPYX Temple of Apshai was the very first computer 
game ever to win the Hobby Industry award for 
excellence. EPYX pledges you that same excellence 
in every game you purchase from us . . . the VERY 
BEST in entertainment! 

EPYX 30/FOREVER WARRANTY 
*Our 30-day Unconditional Guarantee: If your 
EPYX Game has any defect whatsoever within 
30 days of purchase, return it to us or your 
dealer and we will replace it free . 
♦Our Forever Warranty: If anything happens 
to your disk at any time after 30 days, for 
any reason, just send it back with $5.00 for 
shipping, and we will send you a replacement. 






• ATARI 400 800 is a trademark of ATARI, INC 

CIRCLE 117 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



How to Find It 



Programming Data Structures In Basic 



Part 3 



Edward Mitchell 



Part two of this four-part series showed how the memory of 
a computer can be organized into data structures such as 
lists, stacks, queues and trees. This month's article shows how 
to create and use the structures in Basic programs, and 
presents the source listing of the genealogical database 
designed in Part Two. 

All program examples, except where otherwise noted, are 
written in Advanced Basic on the IBM Personal Computer. 
All should run on other computers that use Microsoft Basic, 
such as the Radio Shack Model II or the Osborne 1. 

Allocating Memory 

Each data structure requires a changing or "dynamic" area 
of memory. The stack, for example, needs an ever increasing 
amount of memory as new numbers are pushed. When the 
numbers are popped, the memory becomes free. 

List elements can appear anywhere in memory because 
each element is linked to the next by a pointer. It isn't 
necessary to place elements one right after the other. 
Furthermore, when elements are deleted, the memory space 
that was occupied must be made free and available for future 
use. 

Unfortunately, a language like Basic doesn't provide for 
dynamic allocation of memory. Many Basics allow an array to 
be dimensioned only once during program execution— DIM 
A(100) cannot be changed later to DIM A(150), at least not 
without destroying the older data in array A(). This means 
that the Basic program must simulate dynamic memory 
allocation. The section on lists shows one approach to 
allocating memory dynamically in Basic programs. 

Stacks 

A simple way to create a stack is to use an array and an 
index or pointer variable. Let DIM S(100) be space for a stack 
having up to 100 elements, and let P be a pointer to the top of 
the stack. Initially set P to 1. To add or push data on to the 
stack, the program executes, 

S(P)=D 

P=P+ 1 

Edward Mitchell, 813 West Stevens Ave., #1, Santa Ana, CA 92707. 



For example, a stack containing five numbers, 
P=6 

S(5) =21 
S(4) =13 
S(3) =8 
S(2) =5 
S(l) =3 

A pop is the reverse of the push, 

P=P- 1 

D=S(P) 
Appropriate checks should insure that P does not exceed the 
dimensions of S(100). 

Queues 

A queue can be implemented by using a variation of the 
stack. With a queue, elements are always removed from the 
head and added at the tail. Instead of a single stack pointer, 
the queue needs two pointers: H for head and T for tail. 

Let DIM 0(100) be a queue having 100 elements. At first, 
the queue is empty, so we have, 

H=l and T=0 
To add a value D to the tail of the queue, set 

T=T+ 1 

0(T)=D 
Adding to the queue is the same as a push onto the stack. The 
major difference occurs when an element is removed from 
the head: 

D=Q(H) 

H=H + 1 

Adding and deleting elements to the queue is illustrated by 
Figure 1. Initially there are five elements in the queue. At (b) 
a new element is added to the tail and at (c) one element is 
removed from the head. Two problems must be dealt with in 
this arrangement. 

First, what happens when either H or T exceeds 100? One 
solution is to reset either value to 1 so that the queue "wraps 
around" back to the first element of 00- Element 1 then 
follows element 100 in a circular fashion, as illustrated in 
Figure 2. 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



207 



Data Structures, continued... 



(a) 


1 


I 

i 


• • • 


10 11 12 13 14 

He * ad (b, 


15 16 17 
Tail 


18 


• • • 




• • • 


10 11 12 13 14 

t 

Head t fc 
(c) 


15 16 17 

♦ 
Tail 


18 


• • • 




• • • 


10 11 12 13 14 

t 
Head 


15 16 17 

♦ 

Tail 


18 



Figure 1. A queue data structure represented in an array. (a) 
shows a queue with five items. A new element is added to the 
tail in (b), while another is removed from the head in (c). 




Figure 2. A circular queue is programmed in a fixed size 
array. If we define DIM Q(100) as an array of 100 numbers, 
then the queue can be made to grow by having it "wrap 
around" when reaching Q(100). In effect, Q(100) is followed 
by Q(l)> Listing 2 uses this technique to implement a queue 
structure. 

Second, if the queue has more than 200 entries, the tail will 
overtake the head and data will be destroyed. To detect when 
the queue is full, a variable N is used that counts the number 
of elements in the queue. A complete set of subroutines to 
add and delete queue entries is shown in Listing 1. 

Before adding or deleting elements, the program should 
GOSUB 1000 to initialize the queue variables. The variable 
MAX should be set to the maximum size of the queue (for 
100 entries MAX= 100) and a DIM Q(MAX) should be placed 
near the start of the program. 

The queue can be made to hold more than just numbers by 
changing the array Q() to some other type. By changing DIM 
0(100) to QS(100), and D to D$, the queue may contain a list 
of names. 

Several arrays can hold additional data in parallel. For 
example, DIM 01(100), 02(100), and 03(100), and let Dl, 
D2, and D3 be additional data variables. To add the name D$ 
and the three numeric values, perform 

T=T + 1 

0$(T) =D$ 

QKT) =D1 

Q2(T) =D2 

03(T) =D3 

To remove data from the head of the queue, execute the 
statements, 



D$=Q(H) 

D1=Q1(H) 

D2=Q2(H) 

D3=Q3(H) 
See the articles by Gorney for more information about 
queues. 

Lists 

As mentioned earlier, list elements do not have to appear 
one after the other, but may appear in any order. That means 
a simple array and a couple of pointers will not work. If a list 
element in the middle of the array is deleted, the program 
must keep track of the freed space, otherwise unusable holes 
develop. 

For a list of names, three arrays are created. DIM N$(100) 
holds the name part of each field. DIM P(100) is the pointer 
to the previous entry in the list, and DIM N(100) is a pointer 
to the next entry in the list. Let H be a pointer to the head of 
the list, and let T point to the tail of the list. Like the queue, 
these two variables point to the first and last elements of the 
list, respectively. Graphically, a short list of names appears as 



GEORGE 




ALAN p 




N 



LISA 1 P 1 N | 



Head 



The "previous" field for GEORGE (denoted by P) and the 
"next" field for LISA (denoted by N) don't point anywhere 
because they are at the head and tail of the list, respectively. 

When represented as arrays, the list might appear as: 

N$(3)=LISA N(3)=l P(3)=7 

N$(1)=SAM N(1)=0 P(l)=3 

N$(7)=GEORGE N(7)=3 P(7)=0 
Note that the elements are not consecutive, and that they do 
not have to begin at the first element in the arrays. P(4) and 
N(7) are both because they don't point anywhere. By tracing 
the P() and N() pointers, verify for yourself that the 
three names are correctly linked together. 

In the N$(), P() and N() arrays, each of the elements is 
either used or unused. The used entries are all linked together 
by the P() and N() pointers. To keep track of the free entries, 
the program may link the unused elements together, again 
using the P() or N() arrays. 

For example, let Ul be the index of the first unused entry 
and let U2 be the tail of the unused list. The list consisting of 
GEORGE, ALAN, and LISA might be represented as shown 
below, 



(1) 



N$ 



P 



N 2 



(2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) 

- ~ GEORGE ALAN ~ LISA 



Ul = l 




H=4 



T=7 



In effect, the arrays are holding two lists simultaneously: the 
list of names and the list of unused entries. 

To remove ALAN from the list, the entry at location 5 must 
be unhooked from the name list and then added to the tail of 
the unused entries list. The deletion is performed by setting 
N(4) to point to 7, so that it by-passes location 5. Similarly, 
P(7) is set to point to location 4. The newly freed entry is then 
attached to the tail of the unused list, by executing, 

N(U2)=5 

N(5)=0 

U2=5 



208 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



r\rC3ClC vi3fil6rS • • • 



Our fabulous 
New Wave Strategy line 
by Terry Eagan 
represents a new concept 
in strategy gaming. 



ZEND AJR is an involved economic-defense 
simulation. Simple to play yet intrinsically complex, 
its underlying model may require years of strategy 
optimization. ZENDAR may take some slightly longer 
than one hour to play, but potential empire builders 
will find it positively captivating. (Pure Strategy) 



IfU 



D*v«lop»d Asset* 



m%& 



sns 

•12 



e-i7 



R 1 



:»9 



conmMD 




F0« H6LP ? 



7*!» 



troops to defend your front line and break through an enemy sector. 
This game requires quick offensive and defensive tactical 
maneuvering. (Arcade-Strategy) 

ROADBLOCK is a chase game with the realism you've come to expect from SubLOGIC. 
Dispatch your police cars to prevent bank robbers from escaping in their Porsche 924. (Arcade-Strategy) 



Learn in 5 minutes, 
play in 1 hour. 

See your dealei 

or for direct orders, add $1.50 and specify GPS or first class mail. 
Illinois residents add 5% sales tax. Visa and MasterCard accepted. 



Apple" is the registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 



48K Apple II disk, $29.95 




CIRCLE 295 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Communications Corp. 
713 Edgebrook Drive 
Champaign, I L 61820 
(217) 359-8482 
Telex: 206995 



Data Structures, continued... 

Listing 2 presents sample routines to implement a list 
structure. To insert names, select option A (for add). When it 
asks for the location, enter and then the name to add. 
Thereafter, to add names, enter the location at which the 
new name should follow. 

For example, after entering the first name, the Head and 
Tail are both set to 1. The second name might then be 
attached after 1 by entering a 1. Option D displays the list 
structure, showing both the list of free space and each of the 
list elements, including the next and previous pointers. The 
subroutines in Listing 1 can be easily applied to a self- 
organizing list, like the one described in Parts One and Two. 

Trees 

Trees are programmed like lists— pointers to the left and 
right. Subtrees of each node are kept in a set of arrays. Like 
the list, the names are stored in array N$(). Pointers to the left 
and right subtrees beneath any node are kept in L() and R(), 
respectively. 

A small tree having the structure, 

HAROLD 

/ \ 

ERIK MIKE 

/ \ 

ALAN GEORGE 



might be represented in the arrays N$(), L() and R() 



as 



N$(l)=HAROLD 
N$(2)=ERIK 

N$(3)=ALAN 

N$(4)=GEORGE 

N$(5)=MIKE 



Ml)=2 
L(2)=0 
L(3)=0 
L(4)=0 
L(5)=0 



R(D=5 
R(2)=4 
R(3)=0 
R(4)=0 
R(5)=0 



The zero in the L() and R() values shows that there is no 
subtree beneath those nodes. You should verify that the 
values shown above do, indeed, represent the tree structure. 

New names are added to the tree by linking in a new 
branch and leaf at the appropriate node. First, a binary 
search is used to see if the name to be added already exists. If 
the name is already in the tree, it cannot be added. When the 
search completes without having found the name, it has 
stopped at the point where the name should appear. 

For example to add RICHARD to the tree shown above, 
the algorithm first searches the tree. Seeing that RICHARD 
is not found to the right of MIKE, the search terminates. 
Therefore, the name should be placed along a new branch 
descending to the right of MIKE, giving the tree, 

HAROLD 

/ \ 

ERIK MIKE 

/ \ \ 

ALAN GEORGE RICHARD 

The arrays are updated to show the addition of the new 
name, giving, 

L(l)=2 R(l)=5 

L(2)=0 R(2)=4 

L(3)=0 R(3)=0 

L(4)=0 R(4)=0 

L(5)=0 R(5)=6 

L(6)=0 R(6)=0 

A Basic program, demonstrating searching and adding to a 
tree structure is shown in Listing 3. Deletion of individual tree 
entries is not described in this article because there are 
problems that make deletion a difficult task. 

Traversing a Tree 

A tree is "traversed" by climbing from node to node or 
node to leaf within the tree. By changing the direction of the 



N$(l)= HAROLD 

N$(2)= ERIK 

NS(3)= ALAN 

N$(4)= GEORGE 

N$(5)= MIKE 

N$(6)= RICHARD 



climb, the data in the tree can be read in either ascending or 
descending order. 

To produce an ascending order traversal (also known as 
"inorder" and "symmetric" order), the traversal algorithm 
descends as far as it can down the left side of tree. After 
visiting the leaf on the far left, it moves up to the node 
immediately above and visits nodes along the right branch. 
Ascending order traversal algorithms are shown in Algorithms 
1 and 2. 

Algorithm 1 

In Order Tree Traversal 

Step Action 
l)SetS = Root 

2) Traverse Tree (S) (see Algorithm 2) 

3) Stop 

Algorithm 2 
Traverse Tree 

Enter with S be the tree to traverse 

Step Action 

1) If Left Branch (S) exists then 

PUSH S Save S on stack 

S = Left Branch (S) 
Traverse Tree (S) 

S = POP Get old value of S back 

2) Display the name at node S 

3) If Right Branch (S) exists then 

PUSHS 

S = Right Branch (S) 
Traverse Tree (S) 
S = POP 

4) Return 

Algorithm 2 is a "recursive" procedure because it calls 
itself. When programmed in Basic, a stack is used to keep 
track of the return positions within the tree. To traverse the 
tree in Figure 3, S is set to 1. Since (1) has a left branch, we 
place 1 on a stack and descend to (2) by setting S to 2. The 
stacks looks like 

1 
Since (2) has a left branch, (2) is placed on the stack and the 
algorithm descends to (3). 

2 

1 
(3) has no left branch so the algorithm goes to step 3 and 
prints A. Since there is no right branch it simply moves back 
up to the previous node by popping (2) from the stack, and 
returning to step 1 of the original call in Algorithm 2. B is 
printed, and then at step 4, the algorithm descends the right 
branch. 






(b) 








2 




• 


Stack 


1 










(7) 






G 







210 



Figure 3. Traversing a tree. A stack based algorithm (see 
Algorithms 1 and 2) reads the tree from left to right. It 
descends down the tree as far as it can along left branches. At 
each mode it places a return point on the stack. At (b) the 
algorithm has reached node (3) where it prints A. It then pops 
the return node (2) from the stack and climbs back up the 
tree to (3) to print B. Then it descends to the right and prints 
C. Finally it returns to (I) and descends the right branch of 
node (I). 

November 1982 ° Creative Computing 





The HUMAN FLY 

Can you climb the World's Tallest Building 9 As you climb the 
dangers increase 

Watch lor angry police, menacing gorillas, earth shaking 
earthquakes, unpredictable birds, tailing tlower pots, and an 
occasional rising balloon (catch it and get a tree ride up) 

Elevation indicator shows where you are on the building 

Will you be a HUMAN FLY or a MOLE HILL CUMBER 9 Find out 
in THE HUMAN FLY by Kevin Bagley 

HIRES action. SUPER SOUND. ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE, THE NEXT 
GENERATION OF COMPUTER GAMES 

48K APPLESOFT - 33 DOS 

29 95 + shipping & handling or see your tavorite dealer and 
ask tor The HUMAN FLY by KEVIN BAGLEY 



OIL RIG 



Are you the next JR. ot the Oil industry?^ Find out in OIL RIG! 

An entirely new concept in gaming. 

The Oil Market is constantly changing, even while you are 
typing in your transactions Build your DYNASTY' to where 
you can prospect tor oil then drill tor the moving pool ot oil 
Maybe even buy an ottshore drilling platform. 

Watch your cash ilow — it your rerinery explodes or your plat- 
form sinks, ofrrrmrm 

9 skill levels and variable game lengths. 

HIRES action. SUPER SOUND. ACTIVATED TEXT ASSEMBLY 
LANGUAGE. THE NEXT GENERATION OF COMPUTER GAMES 

48K APPLESOFT - 3.3 DOS 

29 95 + shipping & handling or see your tavorite dealer and 
ask tor OIL RIG By KEVIN BAGLEY 

•Featured lront page Wall Street Journal - April 22. 1982. 



COMPUTER PROGRAMS UNLIMITED 

9710 - 24th Ave. S.E. Everett, Washington 98204 (206) 337-5888 



CIRCLE 148 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Memory — you never seem to have quite 
enough of it. 

But if you're one of the thousands of Apple 
owners using the SoftCard, there's an economical 
new way to expand your memory dramatically 

16K ON A PLUG-IN CARD. 

Microsoft's new RAMCard simply m 
plugs into your Apple II," and adds 16k 
bytes of dependable, buffered 
read/write storage. 

Together with the SoftCard, ■ 
the RAMCard gives you a 56k I 

CP/M " system that s big enough 
to take on all kinds of chores that | 

would never fit before (until now, . 

the only way to get this much 
memory was to have an Apple I 

Language Card installed). I 

GREAT SOFTWARE: L ~" 

YOURS, OURS, OR THEIRS. 

With the RAMCard and I 

SoftCard, you can tackle large- I 

scale business and scientific I 

computing with our COBOL and 2 

FORTRAN languages. Or greatly - 

increase the capability of CP/M | 



4 



¥ 


l» 8 




-f- 


• 

B: :l: 


p-> 



applications like the Peachtree Software account- 
ing systems. VisiCalc™ and other Apple software 
packages can take advantage of RAMCard too. 

And RAMCard gives you the extra capacity to 
develop advanced programs of your own, using the 
SoftCard and CP/M. Even with the RAMCard in 
place, you can still access your ROM BASIC 
and monitor routines. 

11 JOIN THE SOFTCARD 

FAMILY. 

The RAMCard is just the 
latest addition to the SoftCard 
family — a comprehensive sys- 
tem of hardware and software 
that can make your Apple more 
versatile and powerful than you 
ever imagined. 

Your Microsoft dealer has all 
the exciting details. Visit him 
soon, and discover a great idea 
that keeps getting better. 

Microsoft Consumer 
Products, 10700 Northup Way , 
Bellevue, WA 98004, 
(206) 828-8080. 



£ 



\ » • 



- 1 i 



i*M 



o> - . 



-* 




3 7 


7-4l^^fa 


ct 


1 ■_ -M^ 


1 


> 


WB Wtk 


■b 


a 

u 




|i : 


CL 


1 » -i i-^-i ■ 


**"* 1 1 


?' 


ft ^:. . 


vT ' • 


T*» 1 1 


V^ 




*v. . 




• s: • • 


^ ' • 




Pi i • 

jA. • t£. ! ■ 


• 5 • 

• ■ 


: 




%«MM> 






( 


(Vehbdhmhi 


W^* ,'• 




: :| : : : : : 




• • • __ • • 


. 






Data Structures, continued... 

A Practical Application 

Part Two described a genealogical database used for 
making pedigree charts. The design is based on a tree 
structured database that provides a natural representation for 
the problem. The three commands provided by the program 
are: "Add" to add new ancestors into the database, "Print" to 
display some or all of the ancestors, and "Change" to modify 
and update the data file. 

The genealogical program is split into several subroutines 
summarized in Table 1. The major routines Add new ancestor, 
Print out pedigree chart, and Change data records, provide 
the user interface, prompting for data, and displaying the 
results. 



Line 


Subroutine 


100 


Select command 


1000 


Add new ancestor 


2000 


Print out pedigree chart 


3000 


Print the name at record R 


3500 


Print the name and information at record R 


4000 


Change data records 


5000 


Perform tree search to find an ancestor 


6000 


Expand short-hand relationship specification 


7000 


Open data file 


8000 


Read record R 


9000 


Write record R 


10000 


Update and close file 


11000 


Exit program 



Table 1. Genealogical Program Subroutines. 

When a name is added, the program performs a search on 
the data file looking for the specified relationship. All searches 
begin at logical record 1. The relationship F means locate the 
record pointed to by the "father" field of record 1. The 
notation MF means jump to the mother record, pointed to by 
the "mother" field and then to the "father" record specified 
by the "father" field in the "mother's record. 

To add a new ancestor, you enter the ancestor's relationship 
to you. Your grandfather is your father's father, or FF for this 
program. The search routine sees if that ancestor is already in 
the tree. If not, a new record is created, and the "father" field 
of the your father's record is set to point to the new record. 

Changing records is fairly easy. After entering the relation- 
ship, the search routine locates the correct record. The data 
is displayed, and you may make changes as necessary. When 
complete, the updated record is written back to disk. 

The Print routine uses some interesting data structure 
techniques. Any individual in the tree may be displayed. Or, 
pedigree charts for any individual may be printed. A pedigree 
chart for the person at the root of the tree includes all of his 
ancestors. 

Entering FMF prints the record corresponding to your 
great-grandfather. If you wish to see a pedigree chart for your 
great-grandfather, enter FMF+, meaning display FMF plus 
a\\ of his ancestors. The same notation can limit the size of 
the pedigree chart. FMF+1 means display FMF plus one 
more generation, which is his parents. FMF+2 displays both 
his parents and his grandparents. 

The program shown in Listing 4 is limited to 16 generations 
because of the use of integers for the father and mother 
pointer fields. Additionally, each record requires 128 bytes of 
storage, which means only about 780 ancestors can be entered 
per 100K of disk storage. For many people that is not a severe 
limit, but for others it may be very constraining. 

One alternative is to keep just the names on the disk file, 
with perhaps an index number identifying an external record 
of the ancestor. That would expand the storage capability to 
over 3000 names per 100K of disk storage. Also, when 
extending the pedigree chart back many generations, it might 

November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



be best simply to create a separate database starting at, say, 
the eighth generation. 

Summary 

The lack of dynamic memory allocation in Basic requires 
that data structures be set up within fixed size arrays. Stacks 
and queues are easily programmed by using an array and one 
or more pointer variables. 

On the other hand, lists and trees both require several 
arrays and complex programming to link all the elements 
together. But without data structure techniques, the genealog- 
ical database would be difficult to build and probably quite 
slow to operate. 

Next month, several sorting techniques, including Shellsort 
and Quicksort, will be discussed. Quicksort is an especially 
fast sort algorithm, well suited to sorting large tables of 
randomly distributed records. 

References 

Gorney, Len, ''Queuing Theory, the Science of Wait 
Control, Part 1: Queue Representation," Byte, Vol 4, No. 4, 
April 1979, p. 132. 

"Queuing Theory, the Science of Wait Control, 

Part 2: System Types," Byte, Vol. 4, No. 5, May, 1979, p. 176. 

Knuth, Donald E., The Art of Computer Programming: 
Fundamental Algorithms, Vol. 3, Addison-Wesley Publishing 
Co, Reading, MA, 1973. 

Standish, Thomas A., Data Structure Techniques, Addison- 
Wesley Publishing Co, Reading, MA 1980. 

Swanson, Paul, "PDQ: A Data Manager for Beginners, 
Don't Reinvent the Wheel," Byte, Vol. 6, No. 11, Nov. 1981, 
p. 236. □ 

Listing 1. Subroutines to add to and remove elements from a 
queue. To add a new element, set D$ to the value to be added 
and execute a GOSUB 2000. To remove a value, execute a 
GOSUB 3000. D$ will be set to the removed element. 



1000 
1010 
1020 
2000 
2010 
2020 
2030 
2040 
2050 
2060 
3000 
3010 
3020 
3030 
3040 
3050 
3060 



REM - INITIALIZE QUEUE 



T = 0: N 







1: RETURN ELSE F-0 



= 



H - 1: 

RETURN 

REM - ADD ELEMENT TO THE QUEUE 

IF N = MAX THEN F 

N • N ♦ 1 

T ■ T + 1 

IF T > MAX THEN T 

Q»(T) = D* 

RETURN 

REM - REMOVE ELEMENT FROM THE QUEUE 

IF N = THEN F = 2: RETURN ELSE F=0 

D* » Q*<H> 

N = N - 1 

H = H ♦ 1 

IF H > MAX THEN H = 1 

RETURN 



Listing 2. Several routines to create and manipulate list 
structures in Basic. 



10 

20 

30 

40 

50 

60 

70 

80 

90 

100 

110 

120 

130 

140 

150 

160 

170 

180 

190 

200 

210 

220 

230 

240 

250 



N(MAX>, P(MAX> 



DdSPLAY Q(UIT ? 



MAX=100 

DIM N*(MAX) , 

GOSUB lOOO 

PRINT "ENTER A(DD RCEMOVE 

C«-INPUT*<1) : PRINT C* 

ON INSTR<1,"ARDQ" ,C*>«-1 GOSUB 40,80,130,170,32767 

GOTO 40 

INPUT "ENTER LOCATION ? ",G 

INPUT "ENTER NAME ? " , S* 

GOSUB 2000 

IF F>0 THEN PRINT "ERROR ",F 

RETURN 

INPUT "REMOVE WHAT LOCATION ? ",G 

GOSUB 3000 

IF F>0 THEN PRINT "ERROR ",F 

RETURN 

GOSUB 4000 

PRINT "TRACE OF LIST CONTROL 

PRINT "FREE SPACE LIST -" 

P-Ul 

IF P-0 THEN GOTO 230 

PRINT P, : P-N<P>i GOTO 210 

PRINT : PRINT "USED SPACE LIST-" 

PRINT "HEAD-" ;H, "TAIL-" ; T 

P-H 



INFORMATION" 



213 



§ 



a. 



£ 



-I 
UJ 

CD 



cn 



UJ 

x 
<i 

z 



i 



O 

o 

O 
tO 

ca 

3 

cn 

o 

CD 

o 

0- 



or 

lL 

z 

UJ 

I 



o 
u. 



z 
or 

3 
I- 
UJ X 
0T U 

.. a: 
o <x 



z 
or 

D 
LU 

a: 



o 
o 

<r 

ill 

3 

cn 

c 

CD 



UJ 

cn 



o 
o 
o 

CN 

0Q 

3 

cn 

o 

CD 



00 
*-* 

_l 

UJ 

X 



cn 



cn 



0T 

a. 

z 

UJ 

I 



II 

I- 

•-4 

Or 

■ 



O 

II 

u. 



z 
or 

3 
»- 
Ul 

or 



o 
o 



o o o 



o 'w» o o o 
cn i-o t ui -o 



■ 
n 

u. 

UJ 

_J 



Z HH 

h- ** 

a o * 

o t- z 
or M 

: — i >— < 

H HH 

»-►-••- 
Z Z h- 

•-• or »-« x 
or o or ui 

a. u. o. z 

o o o o 

t^ CD 0- O 

■*+■*-*■** CN 



-I 

>— 

Z 
UJ 

2 



U. 

uj a 

UJ 

or t- 

i- a 

o 

uj or 



_l 
<I 



z 
or 

3 
LU 

or 



UJ 

cn 
i 

x 

UJ 

or z 
or 
» 3 
o •■ 
I 



a: 



ui 
or 



o 
o 
o 



o o 



o o ~> 
~ o o o 



cn 

UJ 

x 
<i 
z 

or 
o 

U. 

UJ 
UJ 

or 

t- 

UJ 

X 

t- 
or 

i 

u II 

or 

<z - 

UJ CD 

en 
z 

or i or 

3 

i- x ii 

UJ Ui 

or or cd 
o o o 

tO O ~« 

o o o 

** CN CN 



z 
or 

3 
I- 
UJ 

or 



or 

3 
Ul 

or 



CD 
II 
CD 



a 

u. 



o 
II 

u. 

z 

UI 

X 



z - 

UI CD 



II 



CD 

or 

H 
CD 

UJ 

cn 

_i 

UJ 

s 

_J 
II 

CD 

Z 
UJ 

I 

CD 

~ <I 



UI 

UJ 

or 



UJ z 

x or 

I- 3 

I- 

a uj 
i- or 



cn 

UJ 

x 
<r 

z 



<r 
u 
u. 

z 

UJ 

X 



II 

m 
cd cn CD 
I 

u. u. ^ 

M H (3 

o o o 

CN tO <* 
O O O 
CN CN CN 



Z O 
CN 

V o 
CN 

* 

cn a 
u. a 

►-< CD 

o o 

in o 
o o 

CN CN 



a x 

<x x 



UJ 
UJ 

or 



ui 

i 



> 
a 
<r 

UJ 

or 

-j 

cn 



UJ 

x o 
<x II 

Z LL 
UJ UI 

x cn 

t- _j 

UJ 

u. 
►-. z 

or 

UJ 3 

UJ h- 

cn uj 
or 
i 

x cn 

UI II 

or u. 
•• z 

O L'J 

O I ~ 

O I- 
CN + 



I 



II CD I 

Z 3 U. 

x cn 

uj u. o u. 

i£ _ CD — Z 



f 

CD 

-J 
UI 

cn 

_i 

UJ 

z 
I 

CD 

or 

z 

UJ 

I 

Jr- 

CD 

z 

A 

* 
cn 

U_ 



Ul 

cn 

_j 

UJ 

z 
II 
or 

z 

UI * 

I cn 

t- 

N 
O Z 

h ^ or 

CD Z 3 



II «- 



O O O o o 

o ~» cn to <r 

o o o o o 

tO tO tO tO tO 



U. * UJ 

-• z or 

o o o 

in <j rv 

o o o 

tO tO tO 



cn 
Ii 

CD 



I 

a. 

N 

0- 



O 
CN 
O 
<* 

at 

3 

cn 
o 

CD 



or ~ 

UJ UJ CD 

UJ h- ~ 

or z _j 

h- ►>• H 
O CD 

uj a. 

.. 

t- ii -h 

u + 

Z « 0. 

•— • • — It 

cn ll 
cn 

UI UI •• 

or h ii 

z cn a. 

uj •■* ■»-' 
cn 

uj a. 

x z 

t- I uj 
x 

> x t- 

<X UI 

-j or o ~ 
o. A CD 
cn •• v v 

hO 4R 
Q II ~ Z 

a. a 

i *» i- 

« _j z 

x or •-■ 

uj ii u. or 

or cd •-« o_ 

o o o o 
o ~i cn to 
o o o o 



cn 

u 

CD 



I 
0. 

II 
0. 



o 
n 
o 

5 
cn 
o 

CD 



CD 

or 
ii 

CD 



0. 

II 
a. 



CD 

n 

o. 
cn 

z 

UJ 

X 



o 

A 

v / 



CD 



o 



z 
or 

3 Q 
I- z 
UJ UJ 

or 

IV 

o >o 
in n 

O CN 






O 

I 





































K 












cn 








































or 







B 






1- 
z 








































1 








•I 






3 








































UJ 






i 






Ul 




































»- 




<r 












H 






















cn 
or 










K 




cn 

1— • 





a. 






* 






z 

UJ 




cn 


















UJ 






cn 




Z 
UJ 




-j 




3 






i- 






8 




1-4 
j 


















Z 

►-4 






1-4 


^ 


X 
UJ 




<x 




z 

UJ 






s 










Ui 


^> 
















O 








Ml 


_l 




Ll 




X 






HH 






<z 




CJ 


0. 
















0. 






Ui 


3 


UJ 




O 




h- 






K 










<I 


z 
















-J 






CJ 

<I 


~ 


K 




a 




m 






UJ 






h 




a. 
cn 


Ml 
















1-4 






a. 


z 


z 




<i 




_i 






Ui 












5 
















<x 




CD 


cn 




UJ 


cn 


Ul 




Ml 






p 






cn 




Ul 


II 
















h- 








II 


u 


or 


X 




<r 












or 




UJ 


h- 




















Z 


a 




<I 


UJ 






h 






u. 






UJ 




or 


X 
















Q 




o 


UJ 


t-4 


rj 


h- 


UJ 










1-4 






H 




u. 


Ul 
















Z 




Ml 


cn 


3 


Q 


z 


X 




or 












z 






z 
















<r 




H 


3 




« -I 


M 


K 











tn 






H4 




Ul CD 


- 




















1-4 


Z 




II 


O 












or 






O 




I 


m 
















Q 




cn 


3 


UJ 


U. ~ 


0. 


UJ 




Q 






11 Ul 






a. 




K II 


^ 
















<X 




o 




cn 


a - 




or 




<i 






i- 












0. 
















hi 




a. o 


Ul 


_i 


CD 


cn 


1 




UJ 






CD U. Z 






cn 




Z ^ 


***' 






a 










I 




ii 


X 


UJ 


or - 


3 


Ll II 




X 






Ml 






2 




O CN 


0. 


















1- u. 


»- 




UJ z c 


UJ ~ 










Z UJ 






Q 




3 


Ml 






« 










K 




<i 






i 


1-4 <-« 


CQ _i 




UJ 






cn a. 






H-l ^% 


*-s 


^ -^ 


u 






g> 










cn 




Ul 


X 


o 


z o_ r> _j 


** 


CD 


X 






*-« _i 






> CD CD Z Z 


H 














»-4 




i- cn □ 




1-4 


UJ w 


CD Z 


11 


h- 






h- Ul .J 






UJ »- 


■v*^ 


Ul 


cn 
















-J 




cn _j or 


H 


a z or z 


Z 


^\ 








^ »-4 






or 0. 


z 


X Ui 


z> 






Q 














hUJU. 




0. UJ GL 


«— 1 •■ 


_j 


cn 






g z «i 






q. 




ui cn 


o 






UJ 










UJ 




-J 




CN 


X 


UJ 


h- -J 


■w 


1- 






or h 






1 


H 


_i _i 


»-• 






cn 










u 




Z 4 


3 


cn »- 


a cn 


or 11 


a. 


u 






_i 3 











UJ Ul 


> 






ZJ 










<z 




uj or 


o 




3 


Z -J 


Ul ^ 




Ui 






»- or 






z ** 


^^ 




UJ 






z 










0. 




I 3 


1— < 


• ■ 


o o 


<X UJ 


en 1 


UJ 


El 






»- ui 






<X M« 


^-% 


a tn 


or 




Ul 


3 










cn 




t- h- 


h- 


o 


Ml 




z ** 


cn 


Ll -1 






<x or 






CD « lu 


0. 




ID 
















Ui 


<L 




> A 


1- 'V 


MJ Q. 


_i 


<E II 






a 






K w 


«-^ 


h- C4 


= 




Ul u 










Q 




o or 


U 


H 


Ul 


x CD 




UJ 


1- 






K « cX 






x Z 


u. 


Ui 3 


■ 




ID O 










UJ 




H 


o 




or -^ 


UJ *- 


.. Z 




K 






Z CN UJ 






Ul w 




_j 


0^ 




a 












cn 




n 


J 


*-4 


LL CD 2! Z _l Ui Ul O 


or z 






UJ I -0 


^ 




Z Cl 


z 


Ul •• 


z a. 0l 






K 










Z) 




1- ~4 




3 


** 


II II 


cn x 


11 


Ul Ul 






X II CD 


CD 








Q CD 


or mi *• 




UJ 


cn 


X 








z 




z n 


Ul 




UJ z 


cn — ^> 


<Z H 


^^ 


cn 1 






Ul Ul ~ 


■«^c 




UJ z 


z 


II 


3=1* 
K Z 
UJ 1- » 




M 


►-« 


<L 








3 




Ul u. 


Ui 


Z 


X 


'• JCDU 


_j 


z t- 


_l 




JlLlZ 


Q. 




X UJ 


UJ 


UJ 1-1 




-J 


-j 


31 








_J 




x or 

iiiZlL 


Ul 

X 


h- u. 

•-4 


-J * 

z z 


O 


a. 


H X 




Ul K II H 
Z II- 




K X X X 3 


or z = 




<I U- 


o 








<I x 




-J Ul 




t- 


»- 


LL 


<E Z 




Ul II 






UJ UJ UJ 






Ul 




Z 
Ui Ul 
CJ X 


Ui II 

z r uj 

uj uu r 






rj i- 








K4 « 

h r 




UJ x <x 


CN 


(OZDZZh z 

3 uj uj ui cj a uj 


X CD Z 

1- Ul 




> X H Z Z 

O 1- «I Ul UJ 




K O O 




1-4 


h- 


»-H 








>-• ii 




Q 


H 


3 


llhlllUZI 


or x 




X Oil 


1-1 


Q A 


/*•., 


<Z K 


X _l <x 




Z uu 




»-« 




o 


Z CN 




a x 


UJ 


* 


QhLJl-ha.<Ih 


u. »■ 




uj a. i- 


h- 




CL 




_J 


f- UJ z 


o 


»-» 


U) 


II 


+ 




I 


*-• 3 




<X <L CD 


ii cn <x 


cn 


cn 




1-4 






or 3 




I 


3 ** 




CL O 


0tk 


>0 








Ml 


I-* 


^^ 




z 


X 




ii 














Ml 


O 


z 


H CD 


CD 




CD rn 


II 


v-» ^* 


C'l 


1 


1 


Ml 


II 




X 


1 •• 


or 


1 II 


1 


T-4 ^s 


1 A 


1 A A 


1 n 


II -H 


i II 


II 


or 


11 1 


|| 


z 


1 ■*" 


^ 


1 r-i h 


II 1— 1— Q_ 

a. z z - 


o r x or 


1-4 




x r h 


3 


z 

X 


*4 

X 3 


3 _l 


CD 

X 


CD CD 

X 


CD + 
X z 


Z CD 3 

X 


z ' 1 

X X 


K 


II 


Z 0. 


REM ■ 

if u: 

P(G) = 


»-• i-i 2 

u. or or ii 

•-■ o. a. a. 


i— 
o 

CD 


Ul 

or 


UJ 

or 


a 
Ll 


v L J "4 

z z z or d 


Uj uj u. 

or or ►-> 


Ul II 

or -j 


Ul <* UJ U_ 
hZCh 


UJ Ll Ll 

or -* •-• 


UJ u. 
or •- 


Ll II 
►-• Z 


UJ Ll 

or •-• 


LL 

1-4 


UJ 

or 


UJ Ul U Ll 

or 1-4 or ** 


U. 
1-4 


z 


Ul U. 

or •-• 


u. 

1— c 






o 


0*OOOO0*OOOOChO 


o o 


(hoo-oo^moin 


0- 


O 





i> 


r% 


«"""• 


^* 1*^1 


<-l 


3069 
3070 
3080 


o o o o 

*0 fv CD Ch 


O ^ 

O o o 





r>< r> «r i- in >o 
O o O O o O 


O'-'CNKj^-min'ONOfvCOCDCD 

O O O O O o o o o o o o o 


Ch 0* 

a 


0- 

^ 


»4 »-• O O O O <"% rt /~l {~m <~\ 


CN C'l C4 C4 


K> 


*~4 


r* 


•-I 


Mi 


«-4 


^4 


»-4 «-4 


■<— i 


CN C4 


CN CN 


r>i n c>i cn cn cn n c-i r j cn cm 


(M C>l 


CM 


CN 


k» M ro ro 


Kj 


M 


n n 


K) 



















1 






Q - 






















O 






K) = 




















3 


Ll 






O P 




















L 


2 






-* C 























1 






1 




















P 


* 






O P 




















■ 


or 






K Ul 




















QJ 








O -i 




















U 


UJ 






CD XI 




















C 


cn 


























«! 


UJ 






M 

: 








S 












2 








Ul P 


















QJ 


* 






P 








L. 












Z 


or 






Ul Ul 








•P 






O 






TJ 


m. 






■M -ft 








i 






O 






XI 


z 






QJ C 








r 






•-4 






<r 













• 




■u 






»4 






- 


r- 






> -• 

XJ P 




UJ 
CJ 




CP 






»■ 






i- 


p 






IB iB 


Ul 


<r 




c 






O 






z 


■M 






QJ L. 


QJ M 




•»4 




•V. 


v4 






1-4 


:< 






L QJ 


•4 


UJ LL 




in 




— 


Q 






or 


UJ 






-H C 


L 


X 1X1 




L 






<t 






0. 


II 






IB QJ 


P 


<i 




i 




r- 










or 






o» 


C 


Z H 




> 






w. 






UJ 


u 






L 


Ql 


or 3 




Hi 




p 









cn 


Wi 






P 




O a. 




L 




•r4 


«H 






_i 








P IB 


**- 


1- z 




•P 




3 


• 1 






UJ 


a 






ui r 


a 






L 


w 


CN 








■»4 






QJ 1- 




Ul 




C QJ 


QJ 


a 








: 


x: 






u = 


* 


U UJ 




Qj -* 


-*. 




v. 






1 


Ul 






c 




z z 




r ^ 


<c 




1 ■ 








c 






IB »- 


•■H 


<x »-• 




2 M- 


X 


QJ 


1-* 






QJ 









z 


ifi 


W -1 








CP 


t ■ 






E 


p4 






p •"• 


P 


I- Ul 




"O «TI 


P 


c 


•M) 






<B 


P 






ib or 


: 




di P 


L 


»B 








C 


•B 






r a. 


p 


a. <i - 




TD 18 


Ii 


£ 


m. 








-H 






f- 




Z Q = 




QJ X) 


r 


N*» 


• • 






L 


• 






= z 


«4 


1-4 dl 


6 


■ 


u 


u 


Co 






3 


L 






UJ 


c 


r- 


«0 


c a 






1^ 















1- I 


QJ 


UJ • 


L 


3 


QJ 










> 


> 






z »- 


£ 


z = x: 


O 1 


* v * 


01 


p 


1X1 








s- 






1— I 


QJ 


1-1 jj 


CN 


ti c 


L 


c 


3 






L 


■*4 






or — 


L Jf- L. 


L CD 


(S QJ 


CT 


•p4 


cn 






QJ 


u 






LL * 


u 


•M 


ach 


p a 


■r4 


L. 









P 


i 






or 


c 


.. Qj ill 


Ml 


cn 


T3 


^^ 


CD 






C 


a 






z v 


1-4 


.»- 4J 


>. 




QJ 


LL * 








Ul 


cn 






UJ z 




: iB<4> 


■m ai 


K » 


LL 


u 


«-4 






1 


: Z 






X UJ 


r. 


X) 








+ 








or 






p _l 




r- 


^4 u. 




~+ 


T3 1- 


.—. 






1- 


*- 3 






A 




C Ql 


•»4 




IB 


X) z 


« 






z 


3 h 






O V 




Q» P U 


+j >o 




U 


>^ 1-4 


u 






1-4 


LL UJ 






a x 




e l •b 


3 Ml 




■r* 


<r or 


v. 






or 


z or 






UJ 




•B -t-l ^H 






a> 


a. 


- 






LL 


1-1 






H 




C XI CL 


■P • 









Q 








z 






CD U. 






L *-• 




^4 


■• ■• 


U 






z 


Z UJ 






M 




L. L, L. 


IQ i-h 







L, M. 


CL 






Ul 


UJ X 






Q 




Oj id qj 


x: QJ 




QJ 


Qj ^4 


<I 






X 


X H 


O 


O 


Z Z 




*J ^J *J 


CJ XT 




C 


P — 


2 






1- 


1- 


v4 


»* 


<r ui 




c c c 


u 

QJ *J 


^ O 

O »"* 


CD 


C 4<f> 

Ul K 


or O 






Q 


O : 


>0 


O 
111 


X 
O H 


Ml 


UJ UJ Ul 


m >m 


CM O 


z 


= 3 


h- ^ 






II 


A II 






/'\ 


■f 




L. X 


** N 




LL 


cn ^ 


z 


1' K 


.v? K 


X <J» 


a 


ii 


M X 


X 


hhl- 


a> 


X 


»- h- 


»- Z 


z 


or 


1 Z 


Z Z 


z or 


3 


3 


Z UJ 


z 


Z 3 Z 


•f4 • 


cn iii 


z z 


z •-• 


1-1 


3 


1 '- , 


►H 




cn 


CO 




II 


1-4 U. 1-4 


XJ Jt 


3 


l-H 1-4 


•-• II 


K 


1- 


1 or 


Ll Or 


Ll Ll 





O 


Ll Ll 


M 


ij; ^ iae: 


IK "O 


x cn 


or or 


or * 


Z O 


UJ 


- a. 


-• CL 


1-4 1-4 


CD 


CD 


i-i 1^ 


Z 


LL Ul 


1-1 


a. ll 


LL U 


O CD 


or 












O 








Q CD 










Q O 


O O 


O O 


1^1 


O 


ui *r 


1^1 


O Q O 


' r ■ r, r. r. 







O O 


O O 


Q 


O ~* 


CN Ki 


<r ut 


•O 


N 


N CD O 


Ch 


C- CN K) 


xNttt Ul 



-4 CN 


»-• 


n n 


•it in 


ND 


O O 


O O 


O O 


Q 


^3 


SPLAY TREE 10 
10 

1 


O 


«-4 •-"! -H 



or 

3 
1- 












II 


Z 




<-« 


or 


cd r 


1 


3 


1- 


fi 


*~ 


Ul 


3 z or 





O 





(how 





«H 


*-< 


Kj 


M 


K) 



cn »-• 
•-• or 

-J CL 

> z 

<X Ul • 
-J X ~ 

CL I- CL 

cn 

— O * 0. 

Q Z « 

II 

IX I- z 

CL Z 

X II —ll 

uj u. or 
or 0. •-• 0. 0. 

00000 
O mi cn to <* 
o o o O o 
<»■ <* <»■ <»• *<■ 






Z 

or 

3 a 
1- z 
ui UJ 
or 
h» 

O ND 

-D N 

O C4 

*t to 









O 














UJ 





























UJ 














UJ 














z 




N 










it 




>0 




s 






CJ 




h» 








€ 


Hi 


CM 




■§ 






cn 


r 


to 

V. 













cn 

1-4 


»- 


Ml 




8" 






^^ 


M 

3 


m 
O 




a 






^^ 


^ 


CM 








cn 

I 


a 


vH 




2 






1 


K 


*• 

O 




C 






X 


cn 


to 




-»« 






Ul 


M 


-H 




^ 






or 


^0 


•b 




$> 








_j 


O 




8 






n 


> 


CD 




■s* 









<i 


O 




o 


• 




N 


-j 


«r 







^ 




cn 


9 

Ml 


CQ 

3 






O 




n 


^^ 


cn 




<4> 


^ 




^ 


a 







«0 




X 




CD 




5 


8 




<I 


1 






a 




X 


u 


Ml 


* 




O 




■>M» 

or 


or 




cn 


•ts 


*> 






UJ 


CJ * 


z 




8 




X 


cn 


CJ 

t- » 
z ■ 


c- 





<4> 




<I 


Q 


►-4 a 


UJ 


-«: 




X 


QCJ 


X 




-V4 




M> 


^0 


0. a 


<t 


3 


^ 




-J 


€ 


cn 


z 


•5 


^ 




» 


or 


^ r 


or 




s^. 




^ 


UJ 


1-4 K 


UJ 


3 


.^r 




X O 


K 


** »-l 


»- 


O 


■5 




<X O 


Z 


~ 


z 






X 


UJ 


i- or 


UJ 




O 


>^ WH 


r 


3 1- 






O 


• 




a. cn * 




^ 


Ml 


Z fifc 


K 




II 


3 Z 


»-• 1-4 3 


00 


-5: 


X 


x cn 


•-4 


11 t- 


0. 


c 





<Z 


— or a 




c . 


X 


a cd a. 


U O CD 


»-4 


c«3 


Q 














^) 


< 


O 


"3 


Ml 


cm to *• m >0 N CD 



214 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 




TTCTiTTXTitT 





I. APPLEsurance 

DUAL AUTOMATIC DIAGNOSTIC AND 
ASSURANCE SYSTEM 

The only double-safe system now available for 
insuring the reliability, integrity, and dependability 
of your Apple II and peripherals. Identify problems 
before you lose time and data. APPLEsurance II 
includes: 

( 1 ) A standard disk controller card which also auto- 
matically runs sophisticated diagnostic routines on 
basic system hardware each time you power-up. 
Descriptive error messages indicate any problem 
areas and, in some cases, the specific chip or 
component that's responsible. 

(2) Disk based diagnostic and assurance tests for 
further and more extensive checks of the basic 
hardware plus elaborate standard and optional 
analysis of peripheral cards and sub-systems. 

APPLEsurance II suggested list prices: 

Complete System with Disk Controller Card 
and Disk Based Software $150.00 

Disk Controller Card with Power-Up 
Diagnostics only $125.00 



Disk Based Software only 



$125.00 
$50.00 



IV. VERSAcard... 

FOUR CARDS ON ONE + TWO NEW OPTIONS 



the preferred multifunction card for Apple II 
(1) Serial Input/Output Interface (2) Parallel Output 
Interface, (3) Precision Clock Calendar, and 
(4) BSR Control PLUS NEW OPTIONS: Screen 
Dump Graphics ROM and BSR Time and Event 
Program. 



VERSAcard suggested list price 
Options extra. 



$199.00 



. GRAPHITTI. . . 

GRAPHICS/PARALLEL PRINTER CARD 

Sophisticated text and graphic routines available 
via simple keyboard commands. Avoid "squashed" 
printouts. GRAPHITTI on-board firmware lets you 
utilize the Apple high resolution graphic screens - 
circles are printed as circles. Use with most of 
today's popular dot-matrix printers. Graphic sup- 
port for Epson, Okidata, NEC 8023, C-ltoh Pro- 
writer, and IDS Prism. Compatible with most soft- 
ware packages including PFS:Graph,™ CP/M,™ 
and Apple Pascal : m 

Firmware 'text' features include: Set Line width via 
standard A InN format, Enable or Disable Line Feed 
after Carriage Return, Set Lines per Page, Set Left 
Margin, Set or Clear 8th Bit. Print High Resolution 
Page 1 and/or 2, Double Size, Emphasized Mode, 
Inverse Mode, Rotate 90 Degrees, Specify Left 
Margin. . .and more. 

GRAPHITTI Graphics/Parallel Printer Interface 
Suggested list $125.00 



V. EXPAND -A- RAM... 

16K to 128K EXPANDABLE RAM CARD 

A low cost solution to future larger memory needs. 
Start with 16K ($225), 32K ($249), or 64K ($375), 
and expand to 1 28K later. Or, simply order the full 
128K size now ($495). No Apple modification re- 
quired. All cards include memory management 



available. Optional: Expand Visicalc™ to 128K and 
80 column format. 



Apple II is a registered trademark of 
Apple Computer, Inc 



. VERSAbox... 

THE ONLY INTELLIGENT SPOOLER/BUFFER 
WITH AN OPTIONAL REAL TIME CLOCK 
INTERFACE DISPLAY 

For use with all Centronics parallel and RS-232C 
INPUT/OUTPUT interfaces. VERSAbox's high- 
speed input combined with up to 60K buffer (more 
with character compression) frees up your com- 
puter from the slow job of printing. Modems and 
other compatible devices can also be buffered. 
Multiple software selectable outputs permit you to 
choose between two or more VERSAbox outputs 
or use them simultaneously. You can buffer multiple 
inputs simultaneously too. 

Add the optional REAL TIME CLOCK to VERSAbox 
and you get a six digit LED numeric time display. 
Your computer can read the time via the RS-232C 
port. Another useful option is the SWITCHED 120V 
SOCKET that can turn external devices on and off 
by clock control. 

Cabinet is 1 1 "W, 8"D, 8"H. VERSAbox 
suggested list price with 16K buffer 
$249.00 Options extra. 





Great Games From 

Piccadilly Software Inc. 




Piccadilly 
Software 

Presents 



Star 
Blaster 





Piccadilly 
Software 

Presents 



Survival 





COMING IN * THE 2ND HALF OF 1982 



Piccadilly 
Software 

Presents 



Falcons 




Piccadilly 
Software 

Presents 



Suicide! 





Piccadilly 
Software 

Presents 



Warp 

Destroyer 





Piccadilly 
Software 

Presents 



Succession 




Available at your local dealer. 

Requires: APPLE ll/APPLE II PLUS with 48K in Dos 3.3 or 3.2 • APPLE 
Piccadilly Software Inc. • 89 Summit Avenue • Summit, N.J. 07901 • (201) 277-1020 



If you're unable to obfaln Piccadilly Games from your local dealer, send $29.95 per game plus $1.50 per order for postage and handling. NJ residents add 5% 
sales tax. Outside US, send $3.00 per order for shipping. 'Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 

CIRCLE 319 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



5 

Z 

I 



CO 
UJ 

u 



D 
Cl 
Z 



z 



Ui 
L> 

<r 

_i 

0. 

til 



LL 

z 



UJ 

z 



UJ 

u 
<z 

_J 

ll 
Q 



D 
0. 

Z 



UJ 

2: 
<I 

z 

X 

o 
cn 

UJ 

cj 

z 
<x 
11 

* 

X 

o 



r- ~. _ 

T * -J -J 

qj uj * o <r 

D» »— .. UJ .. h- Q 

C <I .» I— mi CO CG 

• Q : <L 

r Hi q 
u r q 



UJ UJ 
CJ CJ 

-I UJ _J 



= 

c 
r 



x ^ 

P 

l r- 



UJ 

u 
z 
<i 



* oi n 



X 

cj 



X) 



p 

'+- Ti 
X> 



If UJ 
Qi lD 
XI -J 



II 

UJ 

<X 
Q 

I 



ill 
II 

* 
UJ 
LI 

<r 

_j 

0. 

I 



<I 

Q 
Q 
II 
* 
UJ 
\- 

<r 

Q 

x 



Q 
II 

UJ 

u 
<z 

-I 



x ~ 



r 01 r 

m p u p 

E L ID t 

? * * J 

Q) 0i 0i 

c c c c 

L L L L 

Oi Oi Oi QJ 

V 4J +J +j 

c c c c 

UJ UJ UJ UJ 



Z Z D Z D 

*-• •-" CL i-i O. 

CL a. >-> Cl '-' 



s- Z 1I1 

UJ 

I h- 

01 H UJ 

u cn 

TI = _J 

■-1 = 

a A - z 

v uj 

J * 1 

Ql UJ 1- 

c r 

-I = 

L Z = 

Qj IT A 

P O V 

C K « 

UJ CD UJ 

: UJ i- 
U 

H Z 

z <r 



ill UJ 

S 



UJ 

Q 



UJ K UJ 

cn uj cn 

_j cn _j 

_» 

z z 

UJ Z UJ 

I UJ I 



a 



A : 
V A 

4* V 
UJ » . 
U UJ u 

<r I- 
-I <I 

LL Q 

1X1 Q 



1* © 
UJ N 



1 
-J 



X ll ll 

U. I-i l-l 



ll ll U. 



ill 

D O 

cn k 

o o 

CD CD 



O © © O Q Q O O P © O O P O 

— cn w <t in <o md > o ^ n m 5 



XI 

c • 

3 01 

XJ 

s- 

u 

•p 

L 

c 

L 
*+- L 



P c 

c TI 
Ti 

X) «fl 

♦ c ■** 
CC OJ 

U X 

> m ui 

TJ 

a» <+■ v. 
-•00 
»♦• -p 
*« c iff © 

U 01 II 

11 H U ,\' 

a. p c uj 

Iff 15 TI 

U - 

1- O 01- 

O ^ £ II 

■P VN 

mm »-. 

• Ti g| 

U -. .. 

c x p 

* _i .v 11 

CD x 

a c _j 

3 L « 

-¥ 3 QJ « 

Ov (Ih 

O Ql ^ II 

-J cc 01 x 

» » « O 

O *4 M © 

2 "• ^ CM 
Q Q O O 

iit m yT ui 



z 

■3 

\- 

UJ 




II 
ft 

UJ 

IT UJ 

UJ ID 

I _J 

t- UJ 

<I 

U. Z 

II iX 
H D 

CD h- 
Ul 

UJ a: 
en 

_i .. 

uj x 

•-• 

K II 
IX .V 

UJ UJ 

I 

t Z 

O UJ 

E I 

II h- 

CD ~ 

z cx 

D O UJ - 

1- w 1 z 
uj o >- ui 

IX QD _J 

■ II 

•• CD z , 

11 cn 11 -. 

X o - 

-J CD -• U. 
»• 1— « 

z .. X 

uj .n: ►-< z 

X CD ' UJ 

»- II * I 

X OC I- 

= ♦ O ^ 

II .. Q II + 

* X •-> N M 

IX CD Z. CD — 

II II 

U. X li U. N* 

M _J •-• t-i i-» 

Q Q O O O 

K' T U") >0 N 
O O Q O Q 

in ui u") ut ui 



z 

IX 



iX 

I- 

UJ 

ex 



X 

CD 
II 
.V 

_l 



II 
X 

UJ 

z 

UJ 

I 



ex 

z o 

UI <f 

_j 6 
a n 
x 

1-1 o 

I- 

U. O 
•-1 CD ^ 

Q O O 

00 0^ 
o o o 
UI ui >o 



«0 


c 
■o 

L 
TJ 

c 



o 

4J 

c 



c 



•»■« 

<n 
■p 


c 



c 
o 



01 
L 

XI 

c 

Ti 

JZ 

■p 

L 


i: 

IK 
XI 

c 
at 

acM 
x 11 

UJ 






o 

CD 



X 



X 



X 

1—1 

I 



z 

UJ 



u 



X 



Z Q 

ex -• 

D E 



UJ 

ex 

z 

UJ 

I 



ex 



CD 

<*■ 

I 



CO 

l> 

UI 

«t 

CN 



ex 



z 

•f 



a 

U 

cn 
<x 

Wk 

X 

Q 

« 

CD 

Z 
1— 1 

ex 

cn 

•f 



x ^ ^ 

•-« »CN 
I 
X 



IX 



z ^ 

uj ex 

-J K 

a cn 
X z 



N U. Ix X 



»-* ex 

z - 

U Q 

en -. 

<r z 

11 11 

Q Q 



ex 

w o 

* X Ki 

I- Q O 

U. + >0 
UJ X 

JHO 
II II 

# x o 

ex -• cd 



I -M 

I Ll 
I 

l 11 

I -p 

I >9 

I O 
I 

I c 

I 01 

1 a 

»- 1 o 



•p 
ui 

X 

01 

XI 

m 
01 

L 
•-^ 

>v 

Ql 



01 

r 



01 - 



Ql 

Oi 
cn = 

> 

- IX 

I- 
p cn 
CN uj 

u 



UI 

I- 

I 
I- 
<t 

s 

CN 



UJ o 



Q 

X 



en 

CN 



cn 

ui 
u 

z 

en 

<L 

r-i 



cn 

UJ 
CC 

I- 
z 

UJ 

z 



UJ 

u 

-J 



> 
u 
II 
X 

z 



ex 

UJ 

1 
1- 
o 

z 

go cn 

^ « rn 2 



cr 

UJ 

Q 



CM <I 



cn 

UJ 



01 
■p 

<B 
01 

L 
U 

O 
UI 



•p 

in 

X 

01 



c 

■ft 
XI 

01 



z 
<I 



> 
ex 
i- 
cn 

UJ 

u 

z 
p <I 



IX 
UJ 

X 

<x 
u. 

cn 



e> 
cn a 



UJ 

u 
<r 

_j 
O. 

X 



Z 
UI 

z 

D 
Z 

cn 
<r 



UJ 
CD 

UJ 

cn 

_i 

UJ 
p 

II 



o -• 

CD * 



p 
II 
X 

UJ 



IX 

o 
ex 
ex 

UI 

z 
o 



z 

UJ 

X 



UJ 

cn 
o 

_i 
u 



O -« CN <X M 

CD * •-• 

IX - — -H 

O ut * W » 

CX = <I 

^ ^ Q o. Q H K 

UJ Z _J 0- j UJ D 

ui uj r a uj h- 

Z Cl *-• m u. ui 

o o u. u» «-• ex 



UI 



o 

o 
o 

N 
UJ 

z 

D 

cn 

UJ 

ex 



ex 



XI 

L 


U 



ex 



q -* 
ex + 

Oi U iX 
(X UJ 

ex • 

X) 
rB 
01 

ex 



ex ex 

UJ UJ 

x x 

1- »- 

<x o 

Ll Z 



> > 

u u 
II II 



o 
<r 

UJ 

ex 



UJ 
CD 



cx ex z 

uj uj ex 

x x z> 

• — • — »— 

<r o ui 

u. z ex 



X X 

ex ex 

UJ UJ 

x x 

1- 1- 

<L O 

u. z 

X * «► 

it M M 

it! -L. 

X) T. 
V. II 
O « 
U iX 



z 
II 

» — 

CC + 



01 UJ UJ 
CC X X CC 



Ll 



o » 



'-» 'w- 'J O V 



OOO o O O O O O P 

•j cn r.t <t \n >o n co o o ^ cn r« ^r u^ 

P P p p p o O O O O P O P P P 



o o p 

>0 N GO 

o o o 



j-» y -w* > w > ^ OOOQOOOO 
c> o -« cm k> o — r -j k* <r m >o o 

P«4M«4^QQO O O O O O 
IvNNrvfviDODOOCOCOCOOO^ 



L. I- I- 
3 UJ UJ 

cn cn 
- -J _l 

o o 

^ CN 1*0 

o p o 



u. 



o o 



o 



ex 

D 

LU 
CC 

o 
in 
o 
o 



01 Z 

Ll -* 
01 E 

Iff II 

* 
^ cn 

U UJ 

>— < 

XI CC 

C I- 

•« z 

UJ *^ 

01 z 

•p Z) - — 
•» Z -• Z 

xi • uj ex 
a»- cn zi 

DUJhOI- 

(DD JU 

» -I Cl U CC 



01 

Iff 



CJ 



o 

CN 

o 
o 



D 

cn q 

o Z 

CD UJ 



o 

o 

p 



o o o o o o o o 

*^ f -1 K< t m O - N 

o o o o o o o o 

O © O O O «-• ~* ti 



UI 

1— 

«I 

Q 
Q 



^) 

■»« 

c 
o 
<*> 

.05 



01 
p 

a 



01 
Q 

L. 
01 
■p 

c 

UJ 



Ql 

E 

c 
Iff 

UJ -P 
U Iff 
<I L. 

-I -1 

Cl s- 

a 

cr 
1- c 

Cl l 
Z Oi 

l-l ^» 

c 

UJ Oi 

z 

m * T3 
-J L 

o 

- 01 u 

— 1/1 Oi 

: HI L 

u 
r 01 

^ c 
r «c p 

p -* 

Hi U TJ 
Oi Oi ti 

Q am 
cn cc 



II 



L 

p 

Z XI iff 
L Oi 
O u 

ex u c 

UI 01 1i 

X L 

I- Iff 

<L iff - 

U. - X 

p p 
UJ c 

JT3 O 

UJ C s- 

01 

X UTJ 

Iff 

Ql 



z 
II 



L 




X XI u 



0) 



CC 

UJ P 
X 3 

y- o xj 

O -1 

£ 11 H 



z - 

UJ L 
I 3 



1X1 



UJ 



01 

U -H O 

ti II K) 



z 
II 



Cl _| CD 1 



o »- 

II <L 

X Q 

CC iXi 

UJ II 

X 



UJ 
CJ 

<I 



UJ 

z 

<r 

* z 

UJ CC 

u o 
<I 



XJ 

h 

L. 

i 

c 

01 

r 
•p 



Oi 



L 
3 



Cl 

z 



LZll 
01 UJ D 

p x cn 

C I- o 
UJ _ CD 

if 
I- .V? 

Z _| -I 

"-• II 
CC u. X 
Cl -1 CC 



CC 



X 
CD 



N 
p 

o 

Oi 

D 

en 
o 

CD 



o 

z <r 
a 

» X 



ill 
II 
* 

* UI 
UJ u 

<r 



LL <X U. 

oj a a 



Cl 

I 



•~> I- t- 
II CC cc 



CC 

UI 
T 



ill oi 



UJ UJ 

cn en 
-I -J 



<x 

Q 
Q 

II 

UJ 

I- 
<t 

Q 

X 

I- 

UJ 

Q 



ill 
u 
<r 

£ 

X 

I- 
<r 

UJ 
Q 



cn 

UJ 
CJ 

z 
<I 
II 

» 

CC 

o 
en 

UI 

u 

z 



o 

C4 Q 

O h'i 

o o 



ex 



-J 



\n 



* 

CC 
X 
CJ 



CC 
Cl 

_J 



CC 
UJ 

z 



UJ UJ 

cn cn 



111 

Z D 

11 cn 
o 



-I _J _l CC CD CD 



UJ 

II 

X 
CJ 



^ Cl 



CC 



L. 

o 



ti 

X 
CJ 

01 

Oi 

L 

o» 
•a 

Ql 

Cl 



L, 

Cl 



P O O P O O P OOOOQ O © © P 

<r U") >0 N 00 O © -* N K> ^ UI <0 N CD 5 

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ r^ fsj (m N r<< r^ r>J r>l N x 
^•-^-*'^i'^^-i'iTi*-»»i^i»N^i^ir-j 



z z z 

•— t t— I •— t 

ex cc cc 

Ql Cl Cl 

© © © 

— CN K) 

© © © 

CN CN CN 



a cc 
r z 

Iff UJ 
C X 

Z H- 

~ cc 

P D = 

ti K Cl © 

- UJ = 11 

01 CC II .n! 
L ~- CC 

Z »H hi 

L. UJ - K 

mi « z 

+* I- CC i-i 

c w cc 

UJ = « CL 

"h Ll ui 

v- ♦ lu cn 

DCC_I j 
CL UJ 

z u. u. 



c 



p 
ti 
u 



u II 
01 X 

a_i 
Iff _J 

<L 

X 
P UI 

acn 

Oi J 
XI UJ 

L. © 

•"■ 

H- ^ 

N 

-i' 

U O - 

01 »- ~ 
X o ^ 
U CD + 



II * 

X cc - 

~ _J ~ -4 

= -I * I 

+ <X Q X 

= »-l l-l 

*z z * 

♦ UI ~ ♦ 

CC X _l cc 

I- « ** 
> * 

© II I- 

W X LL 



© 

© 
CN 



o 

CD 



XI 

c 
o 



r-'i p 

P o 

tN C 

o a 

O JZ 

CD iff 

c 

- o 



in 

CO 

>o n 

^ en 

II o 

X CD 

X © 

Cl © X 

UJ UI _J 

Q II 

CO x 

Z D CC 

uj cn 
X o z 

K CD LU 

X 



p 
ti 

*-« 
01 

cc 



X 



© © \n 

t inn 

© © © 

CN CN CM 



en 

Z X X UJ 

MMJ-J 

11 cl II 
X Ll UJ * 

1-1 i-l Q CC 

© © © © 

■ONODO 
© © © © 
CN CM N CN 



II © 

X -* © 

I © II 

I- >0 X 

a. _/ 

UJffl J 

a d <r 
cn 

Ll O ll 
1— 1 CD •— < 

© © ll") 

© ■* -« 



cc © 
Cl to 

© 
Z CM 
UJ 

X o 

I- »- 

o 

© CD 

II 

X .. 

CD © 

cc - 
o r <* 

X Oi X 

LU D CD 

cn 11 
Ll O X 
►h CD CC 

© UT © 
CN CN to 



o 



L 
Qi 
P XI 

C L 

^ 

o u 
a ai 

L 

ti 01 

tl X 

■p p 
cn 

XI 

■p ti 
at 01 

cn x 



o 

CD 



X 

X 
UI 

X 

I- 

<! 

u. 
II 

X 

ex 



Cl 
II 

X 

Cl 



X 

ex 
II 

X 



cn 

z 

UJ 

I 



A 

V 

X ~ 

cc X 

UJ Cl 
X - 

»- X 

<x cn 

Ll 11 

X 

u. ic 



z 

UJ 

X 



LL 
© UJ 
to Q 



II 

X 

Cl 

© © 

UT -• 

•^ © 



CO v CN K> 



CO x 

© D Cl 
11 cn 

X O U. 

Cl CD •-• 

© © © 

t in >o 



CO CO 
D Xl 

cn en 
o 

CD 

© 



CM CM CM CM CM CN CN CM CM CM 



CO 

n 
cn 
o 

CD 



X 

UJ 

X 

I- 
o 
z 
II 

X 

cc 



•f 

X 

Cl 
II 

X 



II 



cn 

z 

UJ 

X 



f~. 



X 

cc 

UJ ~ 

X .x 

1- Cl 
o ~ 

Z X 

cn 

U. II 

•-• X 

cc 

z 

UJ •■ 

X -• 

I- I 

X 

X Cl 

X II 

\- X 

Cl Cl 
UJ 

a - 
V © z 
x in cc 

0.-3 

CN h- 

Ll lu 

1-4 CC •• 

© © © 

00 o © 

« W4 © 

CN CM K) 



UJ UJ 

u u 
<I <I 

-I 
Cl 

X 



Cl 

I 



1X1 



UJ 

a 



IX 
CL 

-I 



XJ 

L 

o 
u 
01 
cc 



u-) 
* 
X 

CO 

♦ I- 

iX 
O H 

»- z 
cn «-i 
UJ cc 

1 5 

-z 

- u 
m x 



L 

4J © *-• 

c 

UJ 



Cl x 

ex 

to CO LU 

© « I- 

CD K Z 



p 

c 

- D Z 



L 
CL 



X 
Cl 



cc 

Cl 



z 

•-« »- 
cc UJ 
Cl CC 



Oi OI 

u u 

ti ti 

— 1 — < 

Cl Cl 



© © 

CM CN 

CO CO 

<X <£ 



T3 
L 

o 
u 

01 

L 



-2 9 

© 
P 00 

c 

*« £0 
> XI 

Cl cn — 
o cc 

- CD Cl 



UJ UJ 

I- I- 
<x « 

Q Q 
X X 

cc « 

i-i UJ 

co a 



z 
cc 

D 

I- 

LU 

cc 



UJ UJ 
U CJ 



-J 



CO 



-I 

CL 

I 
<r 

UJ 

a 



X 



* = = 

Cl 
o 

I- - « 

cn c xi 

UI L 01 

CJ o -• 

Z CO Q 

<r = = 



z 

UJ 
X * 

cc 
o 

h- 
cn 

UJ 

u 

z 
<x 



OJ at 

u u 

ti ti 

~* — < 

CL CL 



© © 

CN CN 
CO CO 

<r a. 



LU UJ 

I- »- 

<t <I 

Q Q 

X I 

I- h- 

CC <I 

»-. UJ 

co a 



II 
X 

cc 

UJ 



C XJ 

L 01 

o - 

CO Q 



z z z z 



cc z 
Cl ~ 

•— < i-i •— ' cc 

cc cc cc u. a. 

ll Cl Cl — .1 



»- I- »- z 

z z z cc 

N1 l-« l-l 3 

CC CC cc »- 

Cl Cl cl LU 

-I -I «J cc 



ti 

p 

<0 

Q 



X 

LU 

II 

cc 
u 



01 

p 
ti 

a 

3 

o 

•p 



r 
Iff 
c 

o z 
*« cc 

P D 

-i LU 

L 



P L UJ 

tJ 01 x 
TJ -P »- © © 

a c -* — 

D LU s © © 

I : : <|« 

II 

K|-KH#fflffl 
ZZZDC33 

•-• •-« i-i a. co co 

CC CC CC Z LL O O 

Cl Cl Cl •"••-• CD CD 



© 

MM 

'P 



o 

CD 



Iff 

X 
01 





c 
w 

01 

o 

•0 

L 

o 
•p 

Iff 

01 

u 

c 

« 



ti 

£ 

: 

z 

1—1 
CC 
CL 



UJ 

X 



© 

H 
X 



cc 

o 

X X 

UJ -I 

I 

LL X 

•M X 



8 

in 

to 

m 

CO 

s 



© © © m © © © 

^ N W M O N O 

© © © © © © m 

to to to to to to to 



©©«©©©©«©© ©©©©©©©©ppppp 
uoininmuTinminminu")>o©©©©©ppp©©ii 



Making Every 
Vote Count 



A Program to Tally the Single Transferable Vote 




Democracy is a wonderful thing, but it 
is not always easy to know how to achieve 
it. The usual ways of voting sometimes 
lead to results that just don't seem right. 
Too many good candidates on one side of 
an issue can split the vote for that side 
and throw the election to the other side, 
even if that other side is favored by the 
minority. When a committee or council is 
elected, it is possible for a bare majority, 
or even just a plurality, to win all the 
seats, leaving a substantial part of the 
population without any of their candi- 
dates elected. If your favorite doesn't 
seem to be one of the leading candidates, 
you may feel compelled to vote for some- 
one you don't like nearly as well. 

All of these inequities involve situations 
in which for some reason, someone's vote 
doesn't count, or is in danger of being 
"wasted." That is not just tough luck, or a 
necessary part of politics; it is a result of 
the election system. 

There is no way for everyone to win, 
but there is a system that guarantees that 
everyone's vote will have an effect. It is 
described here with a program to help do 
the tallying it requires. If it sounds attrac- 
tive to you, you may want to propose it in 
some organization to which you belong. 

The System 

Of the many methods devised to try to 
make elections fairer, the most elegant is 



Jim Parr 



Jim Parr, Mathematics Department, Illinois State 
University, Normal, IL 61761. 



that of the Single Transferable Vote 
(STV). We often use the idea of a trans- 
ferable vote in electing a committee 
during a meeting: we take a vote among 
the candidates, eliminate the one with 
the fewest votes, and vote again. 

Once your favorite candidate is elimin- 
ated, you get to transfer your vote to 
your next choice. Besides that kind of 
transfer, STV also allows transfer of 
surplus votes of a winning candidate, thus 
reducing the chance of the majority being 
underrepresented if they all vote for the 
same candidate. 

Under STV, each voter ranks the can- 
didates in order of preference. A series of 
tabulations or tallies follows, similar to 
the series of votes taken in the example 
of the meeting; except that they are all 
done from the ballots, so that the voters 
don't have to be present when the count- 
ing is done. 

If there are no more surplus points to 
redistribute, then we eliminate the trailing 
candidate, the one with the fewest points 
currently assigned. If my ballot has some 
points assigned to the trailing candidate, 
who is my Nth choice, then those points 
are transferred to my (N + l)st choice. 
Surpluses are reassigned first because 
they may affect who is eliminated. Ties 



between trailing candidates are decided 
at random. 

This process continues— if there is a 
surplus, redistribute it; if not, eliminate 
the trailing candidate— until all the posi- 
tions are filled. 

Results 

From your standpoint as voter, the 
effect is that your entire vote counts. Any 
part of your vote that your candidate 
can't use is transferred to your next 
choice. Voting for a "dark horse" doesn't 
waste your vote; if he loses, your vote 
goes to your next choice. Even if all your 
favorites eventually lose, your vote is in 
there to the last, if only to express your 
preference between the two candidates 
you liked least. Failing to rank all the 
candidates is the only way that part of 
your vote could end up not counting. 

From the standpoint of the election as 
a whole, voting blocs (such as parties) 
will win seats approximately in proportion 
to their voting strength. Thus STV is one 
of the methods of achieving "proportional 
representation." This is in contrast to the 
usual at-large plurality rules in which a 
bloc of 49% can be denied repre- 
sentation. 

In an election for a single office, "in 
proportion to their voting strength" means 
that a candidate cannot win until he has 
accumulated a majority of the points in 
the election, including points transferred 
from losers. A candidate supported only 
by a minority cannot win the office. 



218 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



CD_ -». 
<CD 

5 < 

as 

£c 

oo • 
c a> 

Q. 

■D 
O 
00 
00 
CD 
00 
00 



CD 



o 



o 

I 

o 

I 

I—* 

o 
o 



o 

00 

o 

CD 
0) 
00 
CD 

O 

o 

o 
a> 
o 
a. 

0) 
00 



> 

a. 

CL 
-^ 
CD 
C/) 

cy) 



C/) 



CD 
Q> 
C/5 
CD 



3 

CD 



> 



co 
o 



co 



nag 

3>T)8 

2.3 i 

CD CD 
O 



f/2 on 

£- o> 
cr < 

If 

O O 
CD =3 

^^ 

fo§ 
^CD 

CD 
0) 




nan 



-^ CD 
CD ® 

co GO 
< — 

co£ 

-° cy) 



^^ 

CO =^ 
^J CO 

I ^ 

9> CO 

CD c 
N> CD 

a> co 

c> 



°9 

</* CD 

— *""< 

CD CD 
CD 9> 

00 en" 



< 

CD 



CO 
















LU > LU 

< < LUm j< 

y lu ^ _ q 

Q_ q ^ Z LU 
OLULL ■ 

—7 S 



Q§ 


DCS 




^■^ LU 


Q 


^v_ _J 


S~x => 


o 


Ql m 


LUg 


DCo 


z 


c/^ 


COS 


LU^ 


* CO 


cos 


"^ »— 


—J CO 


0Q£ 



LU 
LU 
(7) 
CO 
LU 
DC 
Q 
Q 
< 

CD 



LU 

CO 



LU 
CO 

o 

CL 



•OS 

S3 

a 

© 



C\J 
CO 

o 

00 

o 
■o 

2 o 

C\J o 

LOQ 

x ^: 

CD 

32 

O 
DO 



O 
DO 

d 






Mowupto 

Mcrosystems 

THE JOURNAL FOR SOPHISTICATED 
MICROCOMPUTER USERS. 



Microsystems is not, in any sense, for beginners. 
Unlike "personal computer" magazines, 
Microsystems is written exclusively for expert users 
and designers in the software and support hard- 
ware field. 

If you need a reliable, high-level, up-to-date 
journal devoted to CP/M,® MP/M,® MS-DOS™ 
UNIX,® XENIX™ OASIS and other operating 
systems, then Microsystems is for you. We feature 
tutorials on the modification and special use of 
systems, offer short-cut routines, show you debug- 
ging procedures, techniques for interfacing, and 
much more. Our one purpose is to keep the 
advanced microcomputer professional at the lead- 
ing edge of DOS development and use. 

In a few recent issues of 
Microsystems you would have seen: 

■ Reviews of four C compilers: BDS C, Small C, 
tiny c TWO™ and Whitesmiths C. 

■ A programming style comparison: Digital 
Research PL/I-80™ vs. Microsoft BASIC. 

■ Twenty-seven 16-Bit DOS compared. 

■ Virtual segment procedures under UCSD 
Pascal. 

■ An in-depth look at MP/M-80 II.™ 

■ A simple 6-byte hexadecimal ASCII conversion 
routine. 

■ Using CP/M's undocumented "Autoload" 
feature. 

■ An explanation of double density disk 
controllers. 













/ 




Mtfcr/ftfra* / / 






***""'""" / / 






pm§m wHm / 






§SSIilH7i= ^xxjrtSris 1 






~ r?Z~-~~~J~z3 t'** 






!t£53e~--3=S==: -—DsiSB."/ / 






!ss3™i=s?= S&isSjf '^""-^ 






•— — w *-~* 






^ss^sar-z^jrr? jESSJ^rCSJC * 






V; TTT-T , JH..'**"m' J, *^ %~ ^»»*«** , "* — "J 






^■jgjs.rry. ~ur ; jrg j: - JL_ C#«— •■* 


*** 




2^*J£tt£s x ^rs - mi' .. — jfj-.Ti--»» ;* A yr,'*^ 






ss:/j£sa5Vtr.-i.iri: sS^?J?'-~^ii£r ; 5 


















^^^^ 

















££** 






^fefeES 



! *S§? : 






*iSS?g 









■ A comparison of five popular S-100 disk 
controller cards. 

■ OS-l-a UNIX-like DOS with a CP/M adapter. 

Every issue of Microsystems keeps you at the 
forefront of the industry in customizing software 
and adapting hardware to meet new requirements 
and standards. You'll also find industry news, book 
and new product reviews, plus our regular Software 
Directory listing newly available programs. 

To get the high-level systems information you 
want, join the club of serious microcomputer pro- 
fessionals who subscribe to Microsystems. Use the 
coupon below to order, and save up to 33%! 



PROFESSIONALS 
PLEASE NOTE: 

Your subscription to Microsystems 
may be tax deductible. Check 
with your accountant. 



Trademarks: 

XENIX: Microsoft; tiny c TWO: tiny c assoc ; 
PL/ 1-80, MS-DOS. MP/M-80 II: Digital Research. 
Registered Trademarks: 

CP/M. MP/M: Digital Research; UNIX: Bell 
Laboratories. 




Mcipsystems 



CN 1987 

Morristown, New Jersey 07960 



YES, enter my subscription to Microsystems for: 

□ 12 issues at $19.97-1 save 20%. 

□ 24 issues at $36.97-1 save 26%. 

□ 36 issues at $49.97-1 save 33%. 

Savings based on full 12-issue subscription price of $24.97. 



Mr. 
Ms. 



8H07 



(please print full name) 



Company 



Address 



City 



State 



Zip 



CHECK ONE: □ Payment enclosed. □ Bill me later. 

Offer valid in U.S. and possessions only. Please allow 30 to 60 days for delivery of first 
issue. Satisfaction guaranteed or a prompt refund for unmailed issues. 

NEW SUBSCRIBERS ONLY 



Every Vote, continued... 

Figure 1. 



SAMPLE ELECTION 












H&re are th 


e five ballots. 








Rank record 


ed beside 


names 








ARNOLD 2 


ARNOLD 


3 


ARNOLD 1 


ARNOLD 4 




ARNOLD 4 


BAKER 1 
MEYER 4 
MORENO 5 

PARK 3„ 


BAKER 
MEYER 
MORENO" 
PARK 


1 

.4. 
5 
2" 


BAKER 2 
MEYER 4 
MORENO 5 
PARK ~3~ 


BAKER 5 
MEYER l" 
MORENO 2" 
PARK 3 




BAKER 5 
MEYER"" 2 
MORENO i_ 
PARK 3 


Names in pr 


e-ference orders 








BAKER 


BAKER 




ARNOLD 


MEYER 




MORENO 


ARNOLD 


PARK 




BAKER 


MORENO 




MEYER 


PARK 


ARNOLD 




PARK 


PARK 




PARK 


MEYER 


MEYER 




MEYER 


ARNOLD 




ARNOLD 


MORENO 


MORENO 




MORENO 


BAKER 




BAKER 


Candidate n 


umbers 












assigned at 


randomt 




11000 


DATA 3,5 






ARNOLD 5 






11010 


DATA 1, 5, 


2, 


4, 3, 


BAKER 1 






11020 


DATA l f 2, 


5* 


4, 3, 


MEYER 4 






11030 


DATA 5, 1, 


2, 


4, 3, 


MORENO 3 






11040 


DATA 4, 3, 


2, 


5, 1, 


PARK 2 






11050 


DATA 3, 4, 


2, 


5, 1 P 








11060 


DATA -1 







Figure 2. 



(In a single-office election there is a 
method which is sometimes better than 
STV. A compromise candidate might be 
best, but might be everyone's second 
choice and be eliminated by STV as the 
trailing candidate on an early tally. To 
avoid that, for each pair of candidates A 
and B, count how many voters prefer A 
to B and vice-versa. If there is a candidate 
who wins all his one-on-one comparisons, 
that is the winner. If there is no such 
winner, use STV.) 

I first encountered STV in the council 
elections for the department in which I 
work. People who do not want to serve 
cross their names off a list of those 
eligible, and the department votes by STV 
on those remaining. Rotation of member- 
ship is guaranteed by our rule that a 
person cannot serve two consecutive 
terms. The department has two major 
groups which get along well together, and 
even overlap, but have different interests. 
Our elections assure appropriate repre- 
sentation to each, without any need to 
designate them formally, or for some 
nominating committee to try to achieve a 
"balance." The balance is provided by 
the voters, through STV. 



QUOTA - 1260? 2 WINNERS: 1 5 
HIGH ■ 1? LOWS =34 
TOTAL SURPLUS ■ 276s DIFFERENCE 
DISTRIBUTE EXCESS OF CANDIDATE 1 

TALLY NUMBER 5 

1: 517 

2: 317 

3 s 226 

4 s 
5s 

SUM 1260 

CAND 1 
QUOTA - 1260s 2 
HIGH « 5s LOWS 
TOTAL SURPLUS - 
ELIMINATE CANDIDATE 3 

TALLY NUMBER 6 



= 204 









102 


381 








102 


381 








50 


724 








1 000 








1 000 











1 000 


1254 


1486 


2 


3 


4 


5 


WINNERS s 1 


5 




3 4 








226s 


DIFFERENCE - 


254 



TALLY NUMBER 1 










Is 


1 000 














2s 


1000 














3s 














1 000 


4s 











1000 





5s 








1 000 








SUM 


2000 





1 000 


1000 


IOOO 


CAND 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


QUOTA - 


1260s 1 


WINNERSs 1 







HIGH ■ Is LOWS -23 

TOTAL SURPLUS =» 740s DIFFERENCE 

ELIMINATE CANDIDATE 2 

HIGH ■ lp LOWS - 3 4 

TOTAL SURPLUS ■ 740s DIFFERENCE - 

DISTRIBUTE EXCESS OF CANDIDATE 1 

TALLY NUMBER 3 



1 OOO 



1: 


517 








102 


381 


2i 


517 








102 


381 


3s 


226 








50 


724 


4s 











1 000 





5s 











1000 





SUM 


1260 








2254 


1486 


CAND 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 



QUOTA 



1260s 3 WINNERSs 1 4 5 



Is 


630 











370 


2s 


630 





O 





370 


3s 





O 








1000 


4s 











IOOO 





5: 








1 000 








SUM 


1 260 





1000 


1 000 


1740 


CAND 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


QUOTA = 1 


260 s 2 


WINNERSs 1 


5 




HIGH = 5s 


LOWS ■ 


-34 








TOTAL SURPLUS ■ 


480 s 


DIFFERENCE ■ 





DISTRIBUTE EXCESS OF 


CANDIDATE 5 





Proaram outputs 



TALLY NUMBER 4 



DISPLAY 


DETAILED 


TALLIES 


BALLOTS 










1 1 


1 1 


5 


2 


4 


3 


2 ! 


1 


2 


5 


4 


3 


3 : 


t 5 


1 


2 


4 


3 


4 : 


\ 4 


3 


2 


5 


1 


5 : 


1 3 


4 


2 


5 


1 



(Y/N)?Y 



Is 


630 








102 


268 


2s 


630 








102 


268 


3s 


276 











724 


4s 











1000 





5: 








1 000 








SUM 


1536 





1000 


1204 


1260 


CAND 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 



220 



November 1982 • Creative Computing 



* 




almost wholesale" 
prices: 



16K RAM KITS 13.95 

Set of 8 NEC 4116 200 ns Guaranteed one full 
year 



DISKETTES 

ALPHA DISKS 21.95 

Single sided, certified Double Density 40 Tracks, 
with Hub-ring Box of 10 Guaranteed one full 
year 

VERBATIM DATALIFE 

MD 525-01. 10. 16 26 50 

M0 550-01. 10. 16 44 50 

MD 557-01. 10. 16 45 60 

MD 577-01. 10. 16 34 80 

FD 32 or 34-9000 36 00 

FD 32 or 34-8000 45 60 

FD 34-4001 4860 

DISKETTE STORAGE 

SI*" PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 2 50 

8 PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 3 50 

PLASTIC STORAGE BINDER w/ Inserts 9 95 
PROTECTOR 5'A" (50 Disk Capacity) 21 95 

PROTECTOR 8" (50 Disk Capacity) 24 95 

DISK BANK 5'/4" 5 95 

DISK BANK 8" 6 95 

ALTOS, NEC, & HP 
COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

Call Alpha Byte tor our low prices 

ATARI COMPUTERS 

ATARI 800 65900 

ATARI 400 (16K) SCALL 

ATARI 810 DISK DRIVE 445.00 

ATARI 850 INTERFACE 169 00 

ATARI 410 PROGRAM RECORDER 75 00 

JOYSTICK CONTROLLER 10 00 

PADDLE CONTROLLERS 19 95 

STAR RAIDERS 35 00 

MISSILE COMMAND 35 00 

ASTERIODS 3500 

PACMAN 35 00 

INTEC PERIPHERALS 
RAM MODULES 

48K FOR ATARI 400 279 00 

32K FOR ATARI 800 125 00 



PRINTERS 



C-ITOH F-10 40 CPS PARALLEL 1390 00 

C-ITOH F 10 40 CPS SERIAL 1390 00 

C-ITOH PROWRITER PARALLEL 480 00 

C-ITOH PROWRITER SERIAL 590 00 

EPSON MX-80 W/GRAFTRAX PLUS SCALL 
EPSON MX-80 F/T W/GRAFTRAX PLUSSCALL 
EPSON MX 100 W/GRAFTRAX PLUS SCALL 

EPSON GRAFTRAX PLUS 60 00 

C0MREX-CR1 PARALLEL 839 00 

COMREX CR1 SERIAL 859 00 

IDS PRISM 80 W/COLOR 1599 00 

IDS PRISM 132 W/COLOR 1799 00 

NEC 8023A 485 00 

NEC SPINWRITER 3530 P RO 1995 00 

NEC SPINWRITER 7710 S RO 2545 00 

NEC SPINWRITER 7730 P RO 2545 00 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 82A 469 00 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 83A 720 00 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 84 1199 00 

OKIGRAPH 82 59 00 

OKIGRAPH 83 59 00 

GRAPH PROMS 82 4 83 79 00 

APPLE HARDWARE 

SUPER CLOCK II 129 00 

VERSA WRITER DIGITIZER 259 00 

ABT APPLE KEYPAD 11900 

SOFTCARD PREMIUM SYSTEM 579 00 

MICROSOFT Z 80 SOFTCARD 260 00 

MICROSOFT RAMCARD 125 00 

VIDEX 80x24 VIDEO CARD 260 00 

VIDEX KEYBOARD ENHANCER II 129 00 



VIDEX ENHANCER REV 0-6 99 00 

M & R SUPERTERM 80x24 VIDEO BD 315 00 

APPLE COOLING FAN 44 95 

T/G JOYSTICK 4495 

T/G PADDLE 29 95 

T/G SELECT-A-PORT 54.95 

VERSA E-Z PORT 21 95 

MICRO SCI A40 W/CONTROLLER 479 00 

MICRO SCI A70 W/CONTROLLER 629 00 

PROMETHEUS VERSACARD 180 00 

MICROBUFFER II* 16K W/GRAPHICS . 259 00 
MICROBUFFER II* 32K W/GRAPHICS 299 00 

SUPERFAN II 62 00 

RANA CONTROLLER 114 00 

RANA DRIVES 360.00 

IBM HARDWARE 

SEATTLE 64K RAM+ 370.00 

QUADRAM QUADBOARD 64K 464 00 

64K MEMORY UPGRADE 80 00 

MONITORS 

NEC 12" GREEN MONITOR 174 00 

NEC 12' COLOR MONITOR 399 00 

SANYO 12" MONITOR (B & W) 249 00 

SANYO 12" MONITOR (GREEN) 269 00 

SANYO 13" COLOR MONITOR 469 00 

AMDEK COLOR 1 389 00 

AMDEK RGB COLOR II 859 00 

AMDEK RGB INTERFACE 169 00 

COMREX 12" GREEN MONITOR 159 00 

MOUNTAIN 
HARDWARE 

CPS MULTIFUNCTION BOARD 199 00 

ROMWRITER 149.00 

APPLE CLOCK 252 00 

A/D + D/A 29900 

RAMPLUS 32K 149 00 

CALIF. COMPUTER 
SYSTEMS 

S-100 BOARDS 

2200A MAINFRAME 459 00 

2065C 64K DYNAMIC RAM 539 00 

2422 FLOPPY DISK CONT & CP/M* 359 00 

2710 FOUR SERIAL I/O 279 00 

2718 TWO SERIAL / TWO PARALLEL I/ 0269 00 
2720 FOUR PARALLEL I/O 199 00 

2810 Z-80 CPU 25900 

APPLE BOARDS 

7710A ASYNCHRONOUS S. INTERFACE149 00 
7712A SYNCHRONOUS S INTERFACE 159 00 

7424A CALENDAR CLOCK 99 00 

7728A CENTRONICS INTERFACE 105.00 

MODEMS 

NOVATION CAT ACOUSTICS MODEM .135 00 
NOVATION D-CAT DIRECT CONNECT 156 00 
NOVATION AUTO-CAT AUTO ANS 219 00 

NOVATION APPLE-CAT 310 00 

HAYES MICROMODEM II (APPLE) 289 00 

HAYES 100 MODEM (S-100) 325 00 

HAYES SMART MODEM (300 BAUD) . 227 00 
HAYES SMART MODEM (1200 BAUD) 540 00 

HAYES CHRONOGRAPH 199 00 

LEXICON LEX 11 MOOEM 109 00 

TERMINALS 

TELEVIDEO 910 639 00 

TELEVIDEO 912C 74500 

TELEVIDEO 920C 830 00 

TELEVIDEO 950C 995 00 

ADDS-VIEWPOINT 599 00 

TRS-80 HARDWARE 

PERCOM DATA SEPARATOR 27 00 

PERCOM DOUBLER II 15900 

TANOON 80 TRK DISC DRIVE W/ P/S 345 00 
TANDON 40 TRK DISK DRIVE W/ P/S 289 00 
LNW DOUBLER W/DOSPLUS 3 3 138 00 



LNW 5/8 W/ DOSPLUS 3 4 171 00 

MOD III DRIVE KIT 61500 

MORROW DESIGNS 

FLOPPY DISK SYSTEMS 

Controller, PS. Microsoft Basic. CP/M* . A & T 
DISCUS 2D (Single Drive — 500K) 1075 00 
DISCUS 2D (Dual Drive — 1MEG) 1695 00 
DISCUS 2 + 2 (Single Drive — 1MEG)1777 00 
DISCUS 2 + 2 (Dual Drive — 2 MEG)2317 00 



r 




31°/c 



o 



FRANKLIN 

ACE 1000 1595.00 

RANA 

DISK DRIVE 449.00 

RANA DRIVE 

CONT. CARD 135.00 

EPSON MX-80 FAT 
PRINTER 695.00 

MICROBUFFER 

Wfc I\mh »■ MifcVViVAi 

NEC 12" GREEN 
MONITOR 200.00 

VERBATIM 

DISKS 45.00 

LIBRARY CASE 5.00 



Now $2352 



HARD DISK SYSTEMS 

Controller. PS. Microsoft Basic. CP/M® T A 8, T 
DISCUS M10 (10 Megabytes) 3345 00 

DISCUS M26 (26 Megabytes) 4045 00 

BARE DRIVES 

TANDON 5V4 INCH 

100-1 SINGLE HEAD 40 TRK 195 00 

100-2 DUAL HEAD 40 TRK 275 00 

100-3 SINGLE HEAD 80 TRK 250 00 

100-4 DUAL HEAD 80 TRK 369 00 

TANDON THINLINE 8 INCH 

848-1 SINGLE SIDE 379 00 

848-2 DUAL SIOE 490 00 

MICRO PRO 

APPLE CP/M® 

WORDSTAR*! 199 00 

SUPERSORT't 109 00 

MAILMERGE*? 69 00 

DATASTAR't 162 00 

SPELLSTAR't 109 00 

CALCSTAR'f 10900 

MICROSOFT 

APPLE 

BASIC COMPILER* 296 00 

Z-80 SOFTCARD 260 00 

RAMCARD 12500 



OLYMPIC DECATHLON 
TASC APPLESOFT COMPILER 



24 95 
126 00 



CP/M® 

BASIC 80 249 00 

BASIC COMPILER 299 00 

FORTRAN 80 359 00 

APPLE SOFTWARE 

MAGIC WINDOW 79 00 

BASIC MAILER 59 00 

DB MASTER 169 00 

DB MASTER UTILITY PACK 69 00 

PFS GRAPH 89 95 

PFS (NEW) PERSONAL FILING SYSTEM 85 00 

PFS REPORT 79 00 

Z-TERM PRO* 129 95 

EASY WRITER-PRO 199 00 

EASY MAILER-PRO 79 00 

EXPEDITER II APPLESOFT COMPILER 73 95 
USA 2 5 59 95 

CONTINENTAL SOFTWARE 

G/L 199 00 

A/R 199 00 

A/P 199 00 

PAYROLL 199 00 

PROPERTY MGMT 399 00 

THE HOME ACCOUNTANT 59 95 

VISICORP 

DESKTOP PLAN II 189 00 

VISIPLOT 158 00 

VISITREND/VISIPLOT 229 00 

VISIDEX 189 00 

VISITERM 79 00 

VISICALC 189 00 

VISIFILES 18900 



CP/M® SOFTWARE 

THE WORD-SPELL CHECK 69 00 

d BASE II 429 00 

SUPER CALC 189 00 

P&TCP/M® MOD II TRS-80 175 00 

COMMX TERMINAL PROG 82 50 
SYSTEM PLUS- 

G/L.A/R.A/P.P/R. 1799 00 

IBM SOFTWARE 

VOLKSWRITER 145 00 

WRITE ON 90 00 

EASYWRITER II 247 00 
HOME ACCOUNTANT 159 00 
VISICALC / 256K 189 00 
WORDSTAR 285 00 
MAILMERGE 79 00 

Call for additional software 



IBM GAMES 

DEADLINE 

ZORK I OR ZORK II 



35 00 
28 00 



TRS-80 SOFTWARE 

NEWDOS/80 2 MOD I. Ill 139 00 



LAZY WRITER MOD I. II 165 00 

PROSOFT NEWSCRIPT MOD I. Ill 99 00 

OMNITERM SMART TERM MOD I. Ill 89 95 

MICROSOFT BASIC COMP FOR MOD I 165 00 

LDOS 5 1 MOD I. Ill 119 00 

DOSPLUS 3 4 89 00 



APPLE GAMES. 

Call for games not listed 

BRODERBUND 

APPLE PANIC 23 61 

MIDNIGHT MAGIC 27 26 

AUTOMATED SIMULATIONS 

TEMPLE OF APSHAI 31 35 

HELLFIRE WARRIOR 31 35 

STAR WARRIOR 31 35 

RESCUE AT RIGEL 23 36 

CRUSH. CRUMBLE AND CHOMP 23 36 

MUSE SOFTWARE 

ROBOT WARS 32 95 

THREE MILE ISLAND 31 61 

ABM 19 46 

GLOBAL WAR 20 95 

CASTLE WOLFENSTEIN 23 36 

ON-LINE SYSTEMS 

WIZARD AND PRINCES 27 26 

MISSILE DEFENSE 27 26 

SOFT PORN ADVENTURE 23 36 

THRESHOLD 31 16 

JAW BREAKER 23 36 

TIME ZONE 77 96 

H/R CRIBBAGE 20 95 

PEGASUS II 23 36 

SIRIUS SOFTWARE 

SPACE EGGS 23 36 

GORGON 31.16 

SNEAKERS 23 36 

EPOCK 27 26 

BEER RUN 23 36 

HADRON 29 95 

PULSAR II 23 36 

EDU-WARE 

COMPU-READ 24 95 

COMPU-MATH ARITHMETIC 39 95 

MORE GREAT APPLE 
GAMES 

COMPUTER QUARTERBACK 31 16 

THE SHATTERED ALLIANCE 49 95 

POOL 15 27 26 

ULTIMA 31 16 

RASTER BLASTER 23 36 

FLIGHT SIMULATOR 26 61 

SARGON II 28 95 

SNACK ATTACK 23 36 

ROACH HOTEL 27 26 

THE WARP FACTOR 31 16 

COSMO MISSION 23 36 

WIZARDRY 37 95 

ZORK I OR ZORK II 28 00 



SUPPLIES 

AVERY TABULABLES 

1.000 V/7 x 15/16 8 49 

3.000 V/2 x 15/16 14 95 

5.000 3V? x 15/16 19 95 



FAN FOLD PAPER 

(PrlcM FOB. S.P.) 

9'/? x 11 181b WHITE 3.000 ct 29 00 

14 7/8x11 181b WHITE 3.000 ct 39 00 




lb order or for information call 

(213)7060333 

Modem order line: (213)883*8976 

We guarantee everything we sell for 30 days — no returns after 30 days Defective software 
will be replaced free, but all other software returns are subiect to 15% restocking fee and must 
be accompanied by RMA slip No returns on game software, unless defective 
We accept VISA and MasterCard on all orders. COO orders, up to $300 
Shipping charges $3 for all prepaid orders, actual shipping charges for non prepaids: S3 
for COD orders under 25lbs ($6 for over) plus a $4 surcharge, add 15% for foreign. FPO and 
APO orders Calif add 6% sales tax. L A County add 6V?% 
Prices quoted are for stock on hand and are subject to change without notice 

31245 LA BAYA DRIVE, WESTLAKE VILLAGE, CALIFORNIA 91362 
CIRCLE 105 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CP/M is a reg trademark ot Digital Research 'Requires Z-80 Sottcard tReg trademark ot Micro Pro intem,<tion,ii Corp % Trademark ot Practical Peripherals, inc 



Every Vote, continued.. . 



Figure 3a. 



STRUCTURED FLOW CHARTS (N-S DIAGRAMS) 

LEGEND 

sequence loop 

step 1 : ! condition to continui 



step 



loop body 



branch 




true 
branch 



■f al se 
branch 



refi nement 
goal of 
section 



methods 
used to 
achieve 
goal 



Figure 3b. 



Main loaic 

(numbers are subroutine locations) 



Read ballots (8COO) 

Distribute points to 
■first choices (9000) 

Calculate: sums, winners, 
quota, active candidates 
( 4GOO ) 

Print report (5000) 

while winners < vacancies 
and active > vacancies 



Find whose points are 
to be transferred 
and what -fraction of 
them (2000) 




Transfer (3000) ! 

MMMM , ui | | gi ui m !■ ■ ■! Ill I ' 

Calculate ( 4000 ) ! 

__________________ ' 

i 

Print report I 

( 5000 ) ! 



Conducting an Election 

Various sets of rules for carrying out 
the tallies are in use, and could conceiv- 
ably give different results in some elec- 
tions so it is important to adopt explicit 
rules before the election to avoid argu- 
ments afterward. One way would be to 
adopt the rules contained in the attached 
program. A copy of some rules for manual 
counting is available from the city of 
Cambridge, MA (2). 

Every group that might want represen- 
tation should have one or more candi- 
dates running. STV imposes no penalty 
on a group for nominating more candi- 
dates than it can elect. The votes of their 
losing candidates will be transferred to 
their stronger ones. You might want to 
allow as candidates everyone who has a 
certain number of petition signatures; 
everyone whose name is proposed and 
who does not decline; or even everyone 
eligible who has not declined. 

Each voter ranks the candidates 
according to his preference, for instance 
by taking a list of the candidates' names 
and marking beside each name its rank: 1 



beside the favorite, 2 beside the second 
choice, and so on (Figure 1). Ranking 
only the first few choices indicates no 
preference among the unranked candi- 
dates. If a voter's object is to make sure 
that Whyte doesn't get elected, then he 
must rank all other candidates, ranking 
Whyte last or not at all. 

You will have to decide what to do 
about various kinds of irregular ballots. 
For instance, if someone ranks candidates 
as 1, 3, and 4, but doesn't use 2, you might 
decide his 3 really meant 2 and his 4 was a 
3. If he had numbers 1, 2, 2, 3, you could 
decide at random which is 2 and which is 
3, and make the 3 a 4. Such decisions 
should be known to the voters before the 
election. 

Suppose you adopt the attached pro- 
gram as your counting rule. The program 
identifies each candidate by a number 
from 1 to the number of candidates. 
Assign candidate numbers in a random 
order, to randomize the tie-breaking 
process in the program. 

The first data statement has the number 
of positions to be filled and the number 



of candidates. Each succeeding data 
statement represents a ballot, assigning 
to each candidate numbers based on the 
preference order of that ballot, and end- 
ing with a zero. The last data statement 
contains the number -1, to signal the end 
of the data. 

Check the array dimensions. The first 
dimension of BALLOT is the number of 
ballots, the second at least one more than 
the number of candidates. Dimensions of 
SUM and Z are the number of candidates. 
The dimensions of TALLY are the num- 
ber of ballots and the number of candi- 
dates. 

The output shows what you need to 
know to tell why the program decided to 
make the transfers it did. If you requested 
detailed tallies, then you also get a table 
for each tally showing how many points 
of each ballot have been given to each 
candidate. Sums are done in real pre- 
cision, but the table is printed out rounded 
off, so the sums may sometimes appear to 
be off by one or two points. If points of a 
ballot are to be transferred from candi- 
date X but the ballot indicates no further 
choices after X, then those points become 
invalid, and are given to a fictitious 
"candidate 0." Invalid points no longer 
count in the election, so the number of 
points required to win (the "quota") 
becomes smaller. 

f 

The Sample Election 

There are five candidates to fill three 
positions, and five voters. Their ballots 
are shown in Figure 1. DATA statement 
11010 represents the first ballot, and 
shows that its first choice is candidate 
number one, Baker; second choice is 
number 5, Arnold; third is number two, 
Park; and the last two choices are num- 
bers four and three, Meyer and Moreno. 

The second tally is not displayed; it is 
identical to the first, since candidate 
number 2 had no points to transfer. From 
the final tally (Figure 2), we see that the 
winners are candidates 1, 4, and 5: Baker, 
Meyer and Arnold. The 60% majority (the 
first three ballots) got 67% of the seats, 
and the 40% minority got 33%; even 
though the minority "split their vote" 
between Meyer and Moreno. 

Program Details 

The attached program should run as is, 
or with the variable names abbreviated, 
on just about any version of Basic with 
floating-point arithmetic and two- 
subscript arrays. You can probably tune 
it up to be more efficient using features 
of your particular Basic. On a 48K Apple 
II Plus it runs as is for about 200 ballots 
for ten candidates or 300 ballots for six 
candidates, in about six to eight minutes 
for random ballots. 

The program saves time by not trans- 
ferring surplus points unless the total 



222 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



r 



GET FREE SOFTWARE FOR YOUR COMPUTER! 

HOW? JUST ORDER ANY OF THE ITEMS BELOW. AND SELECT YOUR FREE SOFTWARE FROM THE BONUS 
SOFTWARE SECTION. USING THE FOLLOWING RULE: FOR THE FIRST $10000 WORTH OF MERCHANDISE 
ORDERED TAKE 1 ITEM: FOR THE NEXT $200 00 WORTH OF MERCHANDISE ORDERED TAKE ANOTHER ITEM. 
FOR THE NEXT $300 00 TAKE A THIRD ITEM. ETC ALL AT NO COST 



HARDWARE by APPLE COMPUTER & FRANKLIN: 

APPLEII + 48K 1199 PASCAL DISK ♦ BKS 200 

ROPPVDR +CNTRlRb45 FLOPPY DRIVE 46! 

APPLE III 128K ?999 PILOT 1?5 

We carry the rest of the APPLE and FRANKLIN line at low low 
prices' CALL ' 



OTHER HARDWARE for APPLE/FRANKLIN 



DC HAYES 

Micromodemll 285 

MICROSOFT 

Z80Softcard 

MOUNTAIN COMPUTER 

Expansion Chassis 
A/D 4 D' A Card 
■ lOControiCard 
CALL FOR MORE PRICES 

CALIFORNIA COMPUTER 

CentromcsPar int 
CALL FOR MORE PRICES 

VIDEX 

80Col Bd & Softswitch 245 
Enhancer i 105 

MORE OTHER HARDWARE FOR 

SSMAIO-H 
SSM Serial ASIO 
SSMPar APIO 
Novation Apple Cat 
Versawnter Tablet 
Prac Penph Microbuff 
iT \ 



Smartmodem 
Smartmodem 1200 



269 16KRamcard 

559 Music System 
289 CPS Multifunction 
169 Super Talker 
1 WE CARRY FULL LINE' 

SYSTEMS 

1 15 Async Serial int 
' WECARRYFUIL LINE* 



225 

CAU 

119 

339 
169 
169 






115 

99 

319 

?49 



: ■ 



Enhancer II 125 

Softswitch 

APPLE/FRANKLIN 

Keybd Co Num Keypad 129 
SunshineJoysti - 
Game Paddles 

Shadow Vet 675 

SUP R MOD 29 

Prac Penph Microbuff 
1 1* ' 22'-) 



OTHER SOFTWARE for APPLE/FRANKLIN 



PERSONAL SOFTWARE/VISICORP 
Vistcaic 3 3 195 Visifiies 

CAL1 FOR MOPE PRICES' WE CARRY FULL I 

MICROSOFT 



V 



APPLE FortraniZSOi 129 

TASC Basic Compiler 139 

TlMEManaqer 125 

ALDS 99 

MICRO-PRO 

Wordstar 225 

Speiistar • : 

Super-Sort 149 

PEACHTREE BIZPackages all 

SYSTEMSPLUS BIZPackages 



APPLECobOM/80i 
MBASlCCompilen/80i 
MuMath 
M SORT 

Maii-Merqe 

Data-Star 

Calc 



all 



199 



499 

299 
199 

99 
199 

CAU 
CAU 



MORE OTHER SOFTWARE for APPLE/FRANKLIN 



DB Master 179 

ASCII Express 55 

Sorcim Super Calc 189 
HowardTaxPrep 

HowardReaiEstateAnal 129 



DBMasterforCORVUS 

PFS 

Dakm ') Bi/ Bookkeeper 

Broderbund Payroll 

BPi AccountmqPkq 1 



85 
299 
325 
32 f i 



WORD-PROCESSORS & SPELLERS for APPLE 



Wordstar CP M 225 

MagicWandCP/M 299 

Executive Secretary 199 

Letter Perfect 125 

MagicWmdow 85 
Speiiguard 



EZWnterProf Sys 
MUSE Super Text 80 
Wordpower 
Hebrew II 
Screenwriter II 
SpeiistarCP/M 



149 
150 
50 
55 
110 
149 



WordHandienGives80Coi &Lower Casewithnoboard'i 199 



PRINTERS 



EPSON 

MX80 

MXIOOw'Graftrax 
APPLE intfce/Cbl 
GRAPPLERIntfc 

C ITOH 

F 10 Daisy Wheel (Par) 
Pro WntenPar/Sen 
F 10 Tractor Option 

NEC 

PC 8023A 

QUME 

SPRINT9/45 

OKIDATA: 

Microlme82A 
Microline Tractor 
Microhne83A 

IDS 

560withgraphics 
Prism80(Basic) 
Auto Sheet Feed 
Sprint Model POOcpsi 

SMITHCORONA 



499 

729 

85 

149 

1495 
599 
225 

495 

1995 

475 

59 

799 

1095 
899 
125 
125 

689 



MX80F/T 
MX80Ribbon 
GRAFTRAX 
MXIOORibbon 



549 
15 
60 
24 



F-lODaisyWheeMSen 1495 

Pro-Wnter(Par) 499 

Printer Interfaces CALL 

NEC 7710Daisy 2345 

DIABLO 

630 R/0 2099 

Microhne80 375 

Okiqraphl 79 

Microline84iPar> 1099 

Prism-Print Software 49 

Prism 132(Basic) 1050 

PnsmColor 325 

DotPlotGraphics 85 

BROTHERHR-1 CALL 



ADD-ON MEMORY CARDS & DISK DRIVES 



FOR APPLE 



MEMORY: 

Microsoft 16KRamcard 
Leqend 128KRamcard 
Leqend64KRamcard 
SVA256K API Cache 
AX10N3P0K Ram Disk 



139 

649 

299 

1045 

1149 



Saturn 32K Card 
Saturn64KCard 
Saturn 128K Card 
Prometheus 128K 



199 
369 
525 
439 



16Kof 41 16 200NSMem 25 



APPLE-COMPATIBLE FLOPPIES by MICRO-SCI 

With Controller No Controller 

A35 Exact Replacement 460 A35 Exact Replacement 415 

A4040 Track 4HP A4040-Track 399 



A70 70-Track 



)99 A7070Track 



499 



8 FLOPPY DISK SYSTEMS 

SVA AMS8000 Dual 

SSDD 1945 

SVAZVX4QuadCntrllr 

CORVUS HARD DISKS: 

6 MB Hard Disk 2249 

UMBHardDisk 

20 MB Hard Disk 4 769 



SVA AMS8000 Dual 

DSDD 2595 

SVA Disk 2 ♦ 2Cntrllr 359 



Apple Interface 175 

OtherComputerlntfce CALL 
Mirror Rirk ■ lln 675 



MONITORS. PLOTTERS & PERIPHERALS 
MONITORS 

Zenith 1? "Green 125 

Amdek 12 Green i300Gi 175 
BMC 12 Green 119 



Zenith 13 Color 
Amdek 13 "Color 
BMC 12 Color 



PLOTTERS 

Watanabe4 Pen 1150 

Strobe Plotter 1- Pen 699 

Houston Inst DMP 3 929 



WatanabeO Pen 
Strobel Apple Intfce 
Houston Inst DMP 4 



359 
359 
34Q 

1400 

99 

1185 



FLOPPY DISKS 



nant 5 25 
SoftSSSD 'bx 25 

3M5"SoftSSD / bx 27 

Maxwell 5" Soft SSSDbx 31 
DYSANh" SoftSSSD bx 37 



Elephant 8 
SoftSSSD/6xr 
3M8 "SoftSSSD bx 
Maxwells SoftSSSD hx 
DYSAN 8 "SoftSSSD In 



29 
32 
35 
49 



COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

ATARI 

ATARI 800 1 16K i 
8lODisk Drive 

16K Ram Memory 
Microsoft Basic 
INTEC32K Ram Memory 

OSBORNE 1 

XEROX 

Full Line at Rock Bottom Prices 

NEC 

Full Line at Low Low Prices' CALL' 

HEWLETT-PACKARD 

Entire Line at Hugh Discounts' CALL 



629 


PAC-MAN 


449 


ATARI410 


89 


825 Printer 


69 


850 interface 


129 


ATARI800I48K 


1695 


•KAYCOMPII 



33 

79 

575 

169 

739 

1699 



CALL' 



SeeCORVUSSect 



HARDWARE FOR IBM PC 

AMDEKColorll Monitor 
BABYBLUERunCP/M' 
CORVUSHardDisks 
CORVUS/IBM PC intfce 
MICROSOFT 64KRAMcd 
MICROSOFT 128KRAMcd 
MlCR0S0FT256KRAMcd 
QUADRAM256K 4-FunctionCard 
PERCOM Drives 

TECMAR We carry complete line' 
TAND0N5 25 Floppy Drive SD 
TAND0N5 25 Floppy Drive DD 
SEATTLE RAM &RS232 Port 



769 

549 

on this page 

239 

395 

555 

875 

699 

CALL 

CALL 

249 

329 

CALL 



SOFTWARE FOR IBM 

ASHTON TATEdBASEM 

CONTINENTAL HomeAccountant 

iNSOFTAccountantper Module 

INFOUNLTDEasyWriterll 

MlCROPROWordstar 

SORCiMSupercalc 

VlSlC0RPVisicalC'256K 

VlSlCORPVisifiie 

VlSlCORPVisitrend'Plot 

VlSlCORPDesktopPian 



CALL 
125 
99 
259 
285 
219 
195 
219 
249 
249 



GENERAL CP/M SOFTWARE 



MICROSOFT 

Basic 80 
Basic Compiler 
Fortran 80 
Cobol80 
Macro80 

MICROPRO 

Wordstar 
Mailmerqe 
Speiistar 
Datastar 

ASHTON-TATE 

dBASEM 

SORCIM 

Super Calc 

FOX-GELLER 

Quickscreen 



275 Edit80 

299 MuMath MuSimp 

339 Mu Lisp Mu Star 

499 M Sort 

139 Multi-Plan 

275 Calcstar 

89 Supersort 

165 Custom Notes 
239 

475 dBASEHGuide 

189 



129 dUTlL 



Ouickcode 1 Writes programs for dBASE II) 



139 
199 
159 
128 
CALL 

199 
165 
275 



29 



69 
199 






BONUS SOFTWARE SECTION ! 



SUPER MESS AGE: Creates colorful, dynamic on screen messages in full page chunks 
Each message allows statements of mixed typestyles typesizes and colors, in mixed up 
per and lower case Styles range from regular APPLE characters, up to double size, double 
width characters with heavy, bold font Six colors may be used for each different typestyle 
Vertical and horizontal centering are available, and word wrap is automatic Users can 
chain pages together to make multi-page messages Pages can be advanced manually or 
automatically Multi page messages can be stored to disc or recalled instantly $50 

APPLE DATA GRAPH ZA- Plots up to 3 super imposed curves on the Hi res Screen both X & 
Y axes dimensioned Each curve consists of up to 120 pieces of data Graphs can be stored 
to disc and recalled immediately for updating Great for Stock-market Charting. Business 
Management, and Classroom instruction 1 $35 

APPLE RECORDM ANAGER : Allows records within any file to contain up to 20 fields, with 
user-defined headings Information can be string or numeric Users can browse thru files 
using page-forward, page-backward or random-search commands Records can easily be 
searched, altered or sorted at will Works with 1 or 2 drives Records or Files can be printed, 
if desired $40 

APPLE LITERATURE INDEX: Allows rapid retrieval (via keywords)of references from total 
APPLE literature thru June 1981. on 5 25' disc Each entry in the Index consists of the 
article, author-name, periodical-name, date of issue. & page nos The Index is intended to 
support large magazine files which would reguire lengthy manual searching to recover 
information Annual updates will beavailable $60 



WORDPOWER: Is a simple, powerful, low cost, ime-onented word processor program It 
offers a fast machine language FIND & REPLACE Text can be listed to screen or printer 
Lowercase adaptors are supported You can merge files, move group of lines, and easily 
add. change. ordelete lines Goodforbusmessorpersonai use $50 

LABELMAKER: Allows a given label to be generated m any quantity from 1 to 32767 The 
program generates labels not only for addresses, but also for price tags, p irt numbers, and 
mail-messages such as RUSH' . FRAGILE ". etc A self incrementing feature allow 
theatre-tickets to be produced with a date, and numbers running from aOOO to z999 A 
editor is provided for editing labels prior to printing All labels may be saved to disc for 
instant recall $35 

APPLE INVOI CER: Allows entry of price, quantity. & description of items Automatically 
calculates horizontal & vertical totals, figures in sales tax. & special handling Then it 
generates required number of invoice copies Good for people who need arithmetic done 
automatically 1 $50 

MAIL SUPREMACY: A guick n easy mail list package Allows a fifth line for foreign 
countryorcustomercode Searches & sorts rapidly Works with 1 drive $30 

APPLE FUN NYWORD: A party amusement 1 Creates endless artificial comical words on 
screen or printeri Examples IDAHEN' UPOTIJI' VUTOHEG 1 BEJATAV OKYWEXU' 
GOPAGA' Goodfunforfeeblemmded 1 $20 



Above software for APPLE DOS 3.3 only. Call for BONUSES for other systems. 

TO ORDER: Use phone or mail. We accept VISA. MCCOD's. personal checks & money orders. 
Add 4% for credit card. Customer payshandling on COD orders. Foreign orders must be in U.S. 
Dollars & include 10% for handling. Conn, residents add 7.5% sales tax. 

*Not available thru mail-order Not responsible for typographical errors Prices subiect to change without notice 



CONN. INFO. SYSTEMS CO. 
(203) 579-0472 

218 Huntington Road, Bridgeport, CT 0660A 






CIRCLE 153 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PACKER: Machine language program that edits all or 
part of your Basic program to run faster, save memory, 
or ease editing The 5 options include UNPACK— 
unpacks multiple statement lines into single statements 
maintaining logic inserts spaces and renumbers lines. 
SHORT— deletes unnecessary words, spaces, and REM 
statements. PACK— packs lines into maximum multiple 
statement lines, maintaining program logic. RENUM— 
renumbers lines, including all branches. MOVE— moves 
line or blocks of lines to any new location in program. 
On 2 cassettes for 16K. 32K. & 48K For TRS-80™ 

Mod I or III Level II or Disk Basic $29 95 

SYSTEM TAPE DUPLICATOR: Copy your SYSTEM 
format tapes Includes verify routines. The Model III 
version allows use of both 500 and 1 500 baud cassette 
speeds. 

For TRS-80™ Model I or III Level II $15.95 

CASSETTE LABEL MAKER: A mini word processor 

to print cassette labels on a line printer. Includes 50 

peel-and-stick labels on tractor feed paper 

For TRS-80™ Model I or III Level II & Printer $17.95 

PRINT TO LPRINT TO PRINT: Edits your Basic program 

in seconds to change all Prints to LPrints (except 

Print® or Prints ) or LPrints to Prints. Save edited 

version. 

For TRS-80™ Model I or III Level II $12 95 

FAST SORTING ROUTINES: For use with Radio 
Shacks Accounts Receivable. Inventory Control I. 
and Disk Mailing List Systems for Model I Level II. 
Sorts in SECONDS! You II be amazed at the time they 
can save. Supplied on data diskette with complete 
instructions 

FAST SORT for Accounts Receivable $19 95 

FAST SORT for Inventory Control I $19 95 

FAST SORT for Disk Mailing List (specify data diskette 

cassette for 1 drive system) $14.95 

ALL THREE ROUTINES $44 95 

Prices subject to change without notice Call or write 
for complete catalog Dealer inquiries invited VISA 
and MasterCard accepted. Foreign orders in US 
currency only. Kansas residents add 3% sales tax. 
On-line catalog on Wichita FORUM-80: 316-682-21 13 
Or call our 24 hour phone 316-683-481 1 or write: 

COTTAGE SOFTWARE 
614 N. Harding Wichita. KS 67208 

TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corporation 



CIRCLE 157 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

SRA Educational 
Courseware: 
"Because learning 
matters" 



Computer Drill and Instruction: 

Mathematics (Grades 1-6) 

For your Apple* and Atari* personal 

computers. 

An outstanding program of drill and in- 
struction in basic arithmetic skills. Can 
provide student placement, monitor prog- 
ress, keep performance records, and 
generate seatwork at each learner's own 
level of skill. 

Level A — Grades 1 and 2, $365.00 
Level B— Grades 3 and 4, 495.00 
Level C — Grades 5 and 6, 575.00 
Levels A-C, Complete, 1195.00 

Each level includes Binder with Lesson 
Diskettes and Teacher's Guide, plus Mana- 
ger's Pack with Teacher and Student 

Diskettes. *Ref£ist«*r*-H trademarks. 

□ Yes! I want CDI: Mathematics! 
Please contact me immediately. 
I I Send me literature. 

Name 



School 



Address. 



City, State, Zip. 
Telephone 



For faster service, call SRA toll-free: 
(800) 621-0476 



SRA 



SCIENCE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, INC. 
155 N. Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL 60606 

CIRCLE 288 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Every Vote, continued... 

Figure 3c. 

2000 Find whose votes to transfer, and what fraction of them 



Find the 
hi ahest 



! and two 
I 

1 owest 



candidates 



Summarize 



Decide whether 
to transfer 
surplus of 
hiqn candidate 
or el iminate 
low. calculate 
fraction to 
transfer, set 
status. 



Set high and low to first 
active candidate, 2d low 
to fake one with quota 



! 



for 



\t of candidates 




if higher than high, 
change high. 

if lower than L2, 
change L2 



if low, L2 are out of I 
I order, change them. I 



calculate difference of 
two lows,, print summary 




yes — ^^^-^^ no 


giver ■» high 1 giver "low 


calculate 1 fraction ■ 1 


transfer 1 status ■ -1 



print facts I print facts 



Figure 3d. 



3000 transfer giver's points 
for each ballot I 




find rank of giver I 
on this ballot I 



find next eligible 
choice on this 
ballot (or 0) 

transfer fraction 
of giver's points 
to next eligible 
choice 



Figure 3e. 



4000 calculate 



find sum for each 
candidate and sum 
of all valid points 



calculate quota 



find number of 
winners, number of 
active candidates, 
total surplus 



set grand sum to 
for each candidate 

set his/her sum to 




add his/her points! 
from all ballots I 

» 
add to grand sum I 



calculate quota 



set winners, active, total 
surplus all to zero. 

for each candidate 

Lver quota? 




add surplus to 
total surplus 



increment winners if 
status ■ 1 

increment active if 
status is not -1 



224 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



CONSUMER 

DISCOUNT 

PRICES 



BUY DIRECT 

PURE RADIO SHACK EQUIPMENT 
LOW DISCOUNT PRICES 



BUY DIRECT 

SAVE 

MONEY 



MICRO MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, INC 



TRS 80 



TRS-80 
Color Computer 

PRICED FROM 



acaaKfittfr 



BUY 
DIRECT 



BUY 

DIRECT 

SAVE 



TRS-80 Model III 
Computer 

PRICED FROM 



BUY 
DIRECT 



Smith Corona TP-1 
Daisy Wheel Printer 

PRICED FROM 

1 

BUY 
DIRECT 



NEW! 

Radio Shack TRS-80 
4MR HARD DRIVES ft ft 
For Model I & 
Call For Prices 



BUY 
DIRECT 



TRS-80 Model II 
Computer 

PRICED FROM 

2988 



In 



BUY 
DIRECT 



TRS-80 
Model 16 Computer 

PRICED FROM 

4158 



CALL US TOLL FREE FOR YOUR DISCOUNT PRICES! 

♦WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG* 



A ATARI 



CEriTRonics 



i 



TRS-80 

PERSONAL COMPUTERS 

PRINTERS 

SOFTWARE 

smith-Corona 

DAISY WHEEL 



i® 



SONY. 

FRANKLIN 

fz. commodore 

COMPUTER 



MICRO MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, INC 

PARCEL DIVISION - DEPT. NO. 3 
2803 Thomasville Road East • Cairo, Georgia 31728 

GA. & INFO 912-377-7120 

All TRS-80 Equipment is Pure Radio Shack Factory Built. Free copy of Radio Shack 
Warranty available upon request, tm - Tandy corporation 

ORDER TOLL FREE 1-800-841-0860 



CIRCLE 217 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



TRS-80 

Model 16 2 Drive 
128K 



by Radio Shack 

Save over 
$1 000. 

Also available new 
TRS-80 DMP-200. 
DMP- 400. DWP-410 
and DMP-500 

Call For 
Prices 

Price — We have the best price. Check 
the others, but call us. 
Selection — ATARI • APPLE • TRS-80 
• EPSON • OKIDATA • C. ITOH. etc. 
Service — Most Items In stock for 
immediate shipment. Call or write for Free 
40 page catalog of over 600 items. 

15 Marshall Hill Road 




Computer 
Discount 

of America 



West Milford Mall 

West Milford. NJ 

07480-2198 

In New Jersey call 

201-728-8080 



CALL TOLL FREE: 800-526-5313 

CIRCLE 143 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



\ferbatim 

flexible disks 

Call Free (800) 235-4137 for 

prices and information. Dealer 
inquiries invited. COD. and 
charge cards accepted. 




VISA' 



PACIFIC 
EXCHANGES 

100 Foothill Blvd. 
San Luis Obispo, CA 
93401. InCal. call 
(800) 592-5935 or 
(805) 543-1037 



CIRCLE 240 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




A ATARI 



EnttrUinerKit 88 00 

Programmer Kit 56 00 

CommwrNcalff Kit 345 00 

MicrotoM Basic 7200 



Atari 800 16K 735 00 

Atari 400 16K 359 00 

Atari 410 Cassette 80 00 

Atari 810 Disk 480 00 



ALL ATARI SOFTWARE 20% OFF 

Plus Loads of 3rd Party Software! 

V0TRAX TYPE'N'TALK: 340 00 

ALSO EPSON A CENTRONICS PRINTERS 

ZENITH * TELEVIDE0 TERMINALS 

BBI Mail Order is a company made up of com 
puter professionals We are able to provide 
low prices as well as technical support Give 
us a call and find out why we consider the 
Atari the best home computer on the market 
today You won't be disapomted 

BBI Mall Order 

Specializing m Atari Home Computers 
PO Box 365 

Newton Highlands. MA 02161 
(617)964 3080 




Every Vote, continued... 



Dictionary Of Variables 

AMOUNT: Amount of this candidate's vote to be transferred. 

BLTNO: Number of this ballot. 

B9: Total number of ballots. 

BALLOT (BLTNO,RANK): Number of candidate ranked RANK 

on ballot number BLTNO. 
CNDNO: Number of this candidate. 
C9: Total number of candidates. 
C8: Number of candidates not eliminated. 
DFF: Difference between sums of two lowest candidates. 
D$: Detail flag: "Y" means print details of tallies. 
FRACT: Fraction of GIVER's vote to be transferred. 
GIVER: Number of candidate whose votes are to be transferred. 
HIGH: Number of candidate with highest sum. 
ITER: Iteration number (tally number). 
KOLUMS: Column width for print subroutine. 
K2: Counter for print subroutine. 
LOW: Number of candidate with lowest sum. 
L2: Number of candidate with second lowest sum. 

QUOTA: Quota. 

RANK: Position on someone's ballot. 

SUM: Total of all valid points. 

SUM (CNDNDO): Total points for candidate number CNDNO. 

S2: Total surplus of winners. 

TALLY (BLTNO, CNDNO): Number of points of ballot BLTNO 

being counted for candidate number 

CNDNO. 
VACANCIES: Number of positions to be filled by the election. 
WINNERS: Number of candidates already declared winner. 
X: Value to be printed by subroutine. 
Z (CNDNO): "Ztatus" of candidate number CNDNO: 

-1 eliminated 

still eligible, not elected 

1 elected 



Listing 1. 



1 00 


REM 


SINGLE TRANSFERABLE 


110 


REM 


VOTE 


12G 


REM 


COUNTING PROGRAM 


1 30 


REM 


J T PARR MAY 1982 


14C 


REM 


PERMISSION TO USE, 


ISO 


REM 


NOT SELL. 


160 


REM 


REFERENCE: 


170 


REM 


HOW DEMOCRACIES VOTE 


180 


REM 


BY ENID LAKEMAN, 


190 


REM 


FABER l< FABER 


192 
195 


REM 
REM 


LONDON 1974 




210 


REM 


ALL VARIABLES MAY BE 


211 


REM 


SHORTENED TO FIRST 


212 


REM 


LETTER OR LETTER 


2 1 3 
290 


REM 
REM 


AND DIGIT. 




500 


DIM 


BALLOT (31. 14) 


510 


DIM 


SUM(14> 


520 


DIM 


TALLY (31, 13) 


540 


DIM 


Z (13) 


550 
1 000 


LET 
REM 


KOLUMS = 5 




1010 
1 020 


REM 
REM 


CONTROL 




1 050 


PRINT "DISPLAY DETAILED TALLIES 


1 060 


INPUT D* 


1 1 OO 


REM 


READ VOTES 


1110 


GOSUB BOOO 


1 1 50 


REM 


1ST CHOICES 



<Y/N) "; 



CIRCLE 120 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



226 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 




pick up 
g bargain 



TO ORDER, 
CALL TOLL-FREE: 

-227-4587 

In California 800-622-0678 

CA residents add sales tax. 

OR WRITE: 

SOFTWARE, INC 

185 Berry Street, Suite 6820, San Francisco, CA 94107 

n Purchase orders accepted. 

D Prompt UPS 3 day Blue Label service. 

G Call for shipping charges. 



CIRCLE 169 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Every Vote, continued... 



surplus exceeds a "threshold" of ten 
points, and is enough to allow the trailing 
candidate to catch up to the next one. In 
the sample election, if surplus had been 
redistributed whenever it was over ten 
points, there would have been ten tallies 
instead of six. If the threshold had been 
one point instead of ten, it would have 
taken 14 tallies. 

History 

The most flexible method of propor- 
tional representation, the Single Trans- 
ferable Vote, was invented independently 
by Andrae in Denmark in 1855 and by 
Thomas Hare in England in 1857. It is 
used in public elections in the Republic 
of Ireland, Northern Ireland, Australia, 
New Zealand, several cities in Canada, in 
the Church of England, and in many 
private societies. 

In the United States, proportional rep- 
resentation in the form of STV has been 
used notably in municipal elections in 
Cincinnati, New York City and 
Cambridge, MA. It is still used in Cam- 
bridge and in the New York City school 
board elections. 

Cincinnati and New York have similar 
histories in the use of proportional repre- 
sentation. Both adopted STV as part of a 
reform in reaction to a party machine 
that held power out of proportion to its 
numbers. In both cases, on the council 
elected under STV, seats were held by 
the machine and other groups in pro- 
portion to their voting strength. In both 
cases, the machine attempted repeatedly 
to repeal STV, succeeding finally when 
voters were alarmed by an unpopular 
group gaining a seat. New York used STV 
for ten years, Cincinnati for 33. 

Some Pros And Cons 

The ideal of democracy is the entire 
population debating and voting on issues. 
STV comes close to that ideal by pro- 
viding a representative body in which 
opinions on major issues are present in 
the same proportions as in the population. 
It provides an automatic responsiveness 
to new issues and new coalitions. How- 
ever, it is harder to explain to voters, and 
more complicated to carry out. 

A small city is perhaps an ideal place to 
try STV. Most city councils are elected 
either at large or from wards. The usual 
at-large election can allow a plurality to 
win all the seats. Using wards or districts 
guarantees representation to some groups 
that are concentrated geographically, but 
a large minority spread evenly through 
the city could still be without repre- 
sentation. Elections at large by STV 
would assure them representation regard- 
less of where they live. 

A state legislature would be too large 
for a single ballot. One could group 



VOTE 
N E R S 



1E15 

VACANCIES 

GIVER 



.5 THEN 
L Y 



1 800 



1 1 60 GOSUB 9000 

1200 REM COUNT 

1201 REM S< W I N 
1210 GOSUB 4000 
1220 REM R E P R 
1225 LET ITER = 1 
1230 GOSUB 5000 
1300 FOR ITER - 2 TO 
1305 IF WINNERS > ■ 
1310 REM FIND 
1320 GOSUB 2000 
1330 IF SUM (GIVER) < 
1600 REM R E T A L 
1610 GOSUB 3000 
1620 REM SUM UP 
1630 GOSUB 4000 
1640 REM REPORT 
1650 GOSUB 5000 
1800 NEXT ITER 
1 900 REM 
1999 STOP 

REM 

REM 

REM 

FOR CNDNO ■ 

IF Z (CNDNO) 

NEXT CNDNO 

LET HIGH - CNDNO 
LOW ■ CNDNO 
L2 - C9 + 1 
SUM(C9 ♦ 1) ■ QUOTA 
CNDNO ■ CNDNO + 1 TO C9 

- 1 THEN 2200 
* SUM(HIGH) 



OR C8 



VACANCIES THEN 1900 



2000 
2010 
2020 
2030 
2040 
2050 
2060 
2070 
2080 
2090 
2 1 00 
2110 
2120 
2130 
2140 
2150 
2 1 60 
2170 
2 1 80 
2190 
2200 
2210 
2300 
2310 
2320 
2330 
2340 
INT 



FIND HIGH, LOW 



1 

> 



TO C9 
- 1 THEN 



2060 



LET 

LET 

LET 

FOR 

IF Z (CNDNO) - 

IF SUM (CNDNO) 



THEN 2140 



SUM(L2> THEN 2200 



SUM(L2) THEN 2200 



(S! 



it 



2350 
2360 
2370 
2400 
2410 
2420 
2430 
2440 
2450 
2460 
2500 
2510 
2520 
2530 
2600 
2610 

3000 
30 1 

3020 
3060 
3070 
3075 
3100 
31 lO 
3120 



LET HIGH * CNDNO 

REM 

IF SUM (CNDNO) > 

LET L2 » CNDNO 

IF SUM (LOW) < ■ 

LET L2 ■ LOW 

LET LOW ■ CNDNO 

REM 

NEXT CNDNO 

REM 

PRINT "HIGH ■ "jHIGH? 

PRINT " } LOWS - "SLOW?" " ; L2 

LET DFF ■ SUM(L2) - SUM (LOW) 

PRINT "TOTAL SURPLUS » "? INT 

(DFF ♦ .5) 
REM HIGH OR LOW? 

IF S2 > DFF AND S2 > 10 THEN 2500 
REM 

REM NO SURPLUS; DROP LOW 
LET GIVER - LOW 
LET Z(LOW) = - 1 
LET FRACT - 1 

PRINT "ELIMINATE CANDIDATE " * LOW 
GOTO 2600 
REM 

REM RED I ST HIGH 
LET GIVER - HIGH 

LET FRACT - 1 - QUOTA / SUM (HIGH) 
PRINT "DISTRIBUTE EXCESS OF CANDIDATE 
REM END OF BRANCH 
RETURN 

REM 

REM TRANSFER POINTS 

REM 

FOR BLTNO - 1 TO B9 

IF TALLY ( BLTNO „ GIVER) < .5 THEN 3340 

REM 

REM FIND BLTNO" S NEXT 

REM ELIGIBLE CHOICE 

REM AFTER GIVER. 



ii 



DIFFERENCE 



it 



HIGH 



228 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



DISCOUNT SOFTWARE HOOSE 



TM 



OUR PRICES ARE UNBEATABLE ! 

LIST TOUR 

LOOK AT THESE TYPICAL VALUES FOR THE APPLE: price cost 

ON-LINE TIME ZONE 99.95 65.95 

ON-LINE FROGGER 34.95 19.95 

CONTINENTAL THE HOME ACCOUNTANT 74.95 49.95 

QUALITY SOFTWARE BAG OF TRICKS 39.95 26.95 

STONEWARE D.B. MASTER 229.00 151.95 

T.G. PRODUCTS JOYSTICK 59.95 39.95 

D.C. HAYES MICROMODEMII 379.00 269.95 

INSOFT ELECTRIC DUET 29.95 19.95 

HAPP ELECTRONICS HI-FI ADAPTOR 25.00 17.95 

BRODERBUND CHOPLIFTER 34.95 23.95 

CALL OR WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG 

- SPECIFY COMPUTER TYPE - 

AT THESE PRICES, WE MUST HAVE A 50.00 MINIMUM ON ALL ORDERS 

VISA & MASTER CHARGE ACCEPTED - ADD 4% 

PERSONAL CHECKS & MONEY ORDERS - ADD $ 2.00 FOR SHIPPING 

WISCONSIN RESIDENTS ADD 5% SALES TAX 

WE WILL SHIP UPS. FOB, COD 

IISCIINT SOFTWARE HIKE p.o. box 93 winnebago, Wisconsin 54985 (414)231-1696 



CIRCLE 314 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SWEET-TALKER, 

IT GIVES YOUR COMPUTER AN 

UNLIMITED VOCABULARY. 





Parallel Version 

Apple II Version 

As Featured in Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar, 
Byte Magazine. September 1981 

The Sweet -Talker voice synthesizer allows you to add speech of 
unlimited vocabulary to your computer Utilizing the Votrax SC-OIAchip, 
you can output any message by programming individual phonemes 
Comes in two versions, one plugs directly into your Apple II. the other 

connects to any computer with an 8 bit parallel printer port + 12 volts 

and + 5 volts required for parallel board 

• Contains 64 different phonemes ST01 Sweet Talker Parallel 
accessed by a 6 bit code Port Board A & T $139.00 

• Automatic and manual mflec- ST02 Sweet Talker Apple II 

tion modes plug in board 149.00 

• Parallel port driven or plug-in ST06 Text-to-Speech 
compatible with Apple II algorithm on disk 

• Super text-to-speech algorithm for Apple II 35.00 

on disk for Apple II Makes SC01A Votrax Speech 

Sweet -Talker equivalent to Synthesizer chip 50.00 

units 3 times the cost 40.00 In 100' 8. 

• On board audio amplifier UPS01 Universal Power Supply 
•Sample program on cassette A 4 T 35.00 

with Apple II board Add $20 o for shipping & handling 

•Optional power supply for ^^^^^^^^^ 

parallel board ^^k ^^^ 

To Order Call Toll Free 1-800-645-3479 ^A^^^ ^^^V\ 

(In NY State Call 1516-374-6793) Ar /^ ^^XfA. 
For Information Call 1516-374-6793 £U / ^ > / Vl^^^^ 

MICROMINTINC MW f / S^ X^tS^ 

917 Midway MM I / / ♦^ 

WoodmereNY 11598 M / / /. _^ ___ 

■ / / / Largest US distributor of Votrax chips 

CIRCLE 218 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



FREE CATALOG 

WORLDS LARGEST SELECTION OF 
COMPUTER WP SUPPLIES AMD ACCESSORIES! 



One-Stop Shopping. More than 
2000 products - from line-printer 
paper to connectors and cables - 
to help keep your minicomputer 
or word processing system up 
and running 

Quick, Convenient Ordering. 
Expert assistance By mail, 
phone or TWX Your verbal PO s 
are always welcome 
Fast Delivery. Your order shipped 
in 24 hours from the Inmac Center 
nearest you Overnight emergency 
shipments also available 



Risk-Free Trial. Work-test any pro 
duct in the catalog for 45days If 
not satisfied, return for full refund 
Guaranteed Quality. Field tested 
for precision performance and 
compatibility Backed by warran 
ties ranging up to 10 years - and 
some with Lifetime Guarantees 



tnmac 

Catalog Dept 2465 Augustine 
Drive, Santa Clara, CA95051 



SEND TODAY FOR YOUR FREE 100-PAGE 
INMAC CATALOG OR PHONE (408) 727-1970. 

Please RUSH my copy of the Inmac Catalog 



Name 


Title 


Company 


Phone 


Adaress 



City 



State 




11/82 



CIRCLE 189 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Every Vote, continued. . . 



several (say, five) of the present districts 
into "super-districts" in which five repre- 
sentatives would be elected at large by 
STV. 

Summary 

STV is a system which holds consider- 
able promise for providing better repre- 
sentation in many kinds of elections. If 
you have questions about how it would 
operate under certain circumstances, 
make up a set of ballots and run the 
program to find out. If you find the system 
attractive, maybe you can start it in your 
organizations. □ 

References 

1. Citizens Forum on Self-Government, 
47 E. 68th St., New York, NY 10021. 

2. City of Cambridge, MA. Rules for 
Counting Ballots under Proportional 
Representation, 1941, and addendum 
Transfer of Surplus Votes, 1973. 

3. Common, John R. Proportional 
Representation, Augustus M. Kelley, New 
York, 1976. 

4. Garrett, Charles. The La Guardia 
Years, Machine and Reform Politics in 
New York City, Rutgers, New Brunswick, 
NJ, 1961. 

5. Gosnell, Harold F. and Smolka, 
Richard G. American Parties and 
Elections, Charles Merrill, Columbus, 
1976. 

6. Hermens, F. A. Democracy or 
Anarchy?, University of Notre Dame, IN, 
1941. 

7. Lakeman, Enid. How Democracies 
Vote, Faber & Faber, London, 1974. 

8. Mackenzie, W. J. M. Free Elections, 
Rinehart, New York, 1958. 

9. Nassi, Isaak and Shneiderman, Ben. 
"Flowchart Techniques for Structured 
Programming," Department of Computer 
Science, SUNY at Stony Brook; also 
SIGPLAN Notices, Aug. 1973. 

10. O'Leary, Cornelius. Irish Elections 
1918-77, St. Martin's Press, New York, 
1979. 

11. Straetz, Ralph A. PR Politics in 
Cincinnati, NYU Press, 1958. 

12. Zeller, Belle and Bone, Hugh A. "The 
Repeal of PR in New York City -Ten 
Years in Retrospect," The American 
Political Science Review, vol. XLII, Dec. 
1948, pp. 1127-1148. 



3130 
3140 
3150 
316G 
3170 
3 1 80 
3 1 90 
3200 
32 1 
3220 
3230 
3240 
3300 
3310 
3320 
3330 
3340 
3350 
3360 

4000 

4001 

4002 

4003 

4010 

4020 

4030 

4040 

4O50 

4060 

4070 

4080 

4090 

4099 

4 1 00 

4 1 1 

4 1 20 

4 1 30 

4 1 40 

4150 

4160 

4170 

4 1 80 

4 1 90 

4200 

4210 

4220 

4230 

4240 

4250 

4260 

4270 

4280 

4290 

5000 
500 1 
5002 
50 1 
5020 
5030 
5040 
5090 
5 1 00 
5110 
5120 
5130 
5140 
5 ISO 
5160 
5170 
5 1 80 
5190 
5200 
5210 
5220 



FOR . RANK - 1 TO C9 

IF BALLOT (BLTNO, RANK) 

NEXT RANK 

REM GIVER NOT ON BALLOT 

GOTO 3340 

REM GIVER FOUND AT RANK 

FOR RANK ■ RANK + 1 TO C9 + 1 

LET CNDNO = BALLOT (BLTNO, RANK) 

IF Z (CNDNO) > - 1 THEN 3240 

IF CNDNO = THEN 3240 

NEXT RANK 

REM 



- GIVER THEN 3180 



REM 

LET 

LET 

LET 

REM 

NEXT BLTNO 

RETURN 



GIVE SURPLUS TO CNDNO 
AMOUNT ■ FRACT * TALLY (BLTNO, GIVER) 
TALLY (BLTNO, CNDNO) ■ TALLY (BLTNO, CNDNO) 
TALLY (BLTNO, GIVER) ■ TALLY (BLTNO, GIVER) 



AMOUNT 
AMOUNT 



TOTALS, QUOTA AND 

WINNERS. 



REM 
REM 
REM 

REM 

LET SUM = 
FOR CNDNO = 1 TO 
LET SUM (CNDNO) ■ 
IF Z (CNDNO) = - 
FOR BLTNO ■ 1 TO 
LET SUM (CNDNO) = 
NEXT BLTNO 
LET SUM = SUM 
NEXT CNDNO 
REM 

QUOTA 
QUOTA ■ 10 + 



C9 

O 

1 THEN 4090 

B9 

SUM (CNDNO) ■ 

SUM (CNDNO) 



TALLY ( BLTNO , CNDNO ) 



REM 
LET 
REM 
REM 
LET 
LET 
LET 
FOR 
IF 



SUM / (VACANCIES 



1) 



WINNER 
WINNERS ■ O 
C8 = O 
S2 ■ 

CNDNO ■ 1 TO 

(SUM (CNDNO) < 

Z (CNDNO) = 1 



C9 
QUOTA) 



THEN 4210 



LET 

LET 82 <■ 82 + SUM (CNDNO) - QUOTA 

REM 

IF Z (CNDNO) 

LET WINNERS 

REM 

IF Z (CNDNO) 

LET C8 ■ C8 

REM 

NEXT CNDNO 

RETURN 



< 1 THEN 4240 

■ WINNERS + 1 

= - 1 THEN 4270 
■h 1 



REPORT 



REM - 
REM 

REM 

PRINT 

PRINT "TALLY NUMBER " 5 ITER 

LET KOLUMS = 5 

IF D* < > "Y" THEN 5220 

REM 

REM DETAILS 

PRINT 

FOR BLTNO = 1 TO B9 

LET X ■ BLTNO 

GOSUB 7000 

PRINT "5 "s 

FOR CNDNO = 1 TO C9 

LET X = TALLY (BLTNO, CNDNO) 

GOSUB 7000 

NEXT CNDNO 

PRINT 

NEXT BLTNO 

REM 



230 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



H 
E 



CQHIPIJTHQUICS 



H 



EVERYTHING FOR YOUR TRS-80™ • ATARI'" • APPLE'" • PET" • CP/M" • XEROX 1 " • IBM'" • OSBORNE' 

* TRS-80 is a trademark of the Radio Shack Division of Tandy Corp ■ ATARI is a trademark of Atari Inc 'APPLE is a trademark of Apple Corp * PET is a trademark of Commodore 
* CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research 'XEROX is a trademark of Xerox Corp * IBM is a trademark of IBM Corp * OSBORNE is a trademark of Osborne Corp 



BUSINESS PAC 1 00 




ro c«sed within 24-Hours 
* 30-Day money 



1 00 Ready-To-Run 
Business Programs 



(ON CASSETTE OR DISKETTE) Includes 128 Page Users Manual 

Inventory Control Payroll Bookkeeping System Stock Calculations, 

Checkbook Maintenance.. ...Accounts Receivable Accounts Payable 



BUSINESS 100 PROGRAM LIST 



NAME 

1 RULE78 

2 ANNCJl 

3 DATE 

4 DAYYEAR 

5 LEASEJMT 

6 BREAKEW 

7 DEPRSL 

8 DEPRSY 

9 DEPRDB 

10 DEPRDDB 

11 TAXDEP 

12 CHECK2 

13 CHECKBK1 

14 MORTGAGE/A 

15 MCILTMON 

16 SALVAGE 

17 RRVARJN 

18 RRCOMST 

19 EFFECT 

20 FVAL 

21 PVAL 

22 LOATHPAY 

23 REGW1TVI 

24 SIAAPDISK 

25 DATEVAL 

26 AJNNCIDEF 

27 MARKUP 

28 SINKFCIND 

29 BONDVAL 

30 DEPLETE 

31 BLACKSH 

32 STOCVAL1 

33 WARVAL 

34 BONDVAL2 

35 EPSEST 

36 BETAALPH 

37 SHARPE1 

38 OPTvVRITE 

39 RTVAL 

40 EXPVAL 

41 BAYES 

42 VALPRINF 

43 VALADINF 

44 UTIUTY 

45 SIMPLEX 
4b TRANS 

47 EOQ 

48 QUEUE 1 

49 CVP 

50 CONDPROF 

51 OPTLOSS 

52 FQUOQ 

53 FQEOWSH 

54 FQEOQPB 

55 QUEUECB 

56 NCFATSAL 

57 PROFIND 

58 CAP1 



DESCRIPTION 

Interest Apportionment by Rule of the 78s 

Annuity computation program 

Time between dates 

Day of year a particular date falls on 

Interest rate on lease 

Breakeven analysis 

StraightJine depreciation 

Sum of the digits depreciation 

Declining balance depreciation 

Double declining balance depreciation 

Cash flow vs. depreciation tables 

Prints NEBS checks along with dairy register 

Checkbook maintenance program 

Mortgage amortization table 

Computes time needed for money to double, triple 

Determines salvage value of an investment 

Rate of return on investment with vanable inflows 

Rate of return on investment with constant inflows 

Effective interest rate of a loan 

Future value of an investment (compound interest) 

Present value of a future amount 

Amount of payment on a loan 

Equal withdrawals from investment to leave over 

Simple discount analysis 

Equivalent & nonequivalent dated values for oblig 

Present value of deferred annuities 

% Markup analysis for items 

Sinking fund amortization program 

Value of a bond 

Depletion analysis 

Black Scholes options analysis 

Expected return on stock via discounts dividends 

Value of a warrant 

Value of a bond 

Estimate of future earnings per share for company 

Computes alpha and beta variables for stock 

Portfolio selection model ie what stocks to hold 

Option writing computations 

Value of a nght 

Expected value analysis 

Bayesian decisions /' 

Value of perfect information 

Value of additional information 

Denves utility function 

Linear programming solution by simplex method 

Transportation method for linear programming 

Economic order quantity inventory model 

Single server queueing (waiting line) model 

Cost volume-profit analysis 

Conditional profit tables 

Opportunity loss tables 

Fixed quantity economic order quantity model 

As above but with shortages permitted 

As above but with quantity pnce breaks 

Cost benefit waiting line analysis 

Net cash flow analysis for simple investment 

Profitability index of a project 

Cap Asset Pr Model analysis of project 



etc 



59 WACC 

60 COMPBAL 

61 DISCBAL 

62 MERGANAL 

63 FINRAT 

64 NPV 

65 PRJNDLAS 

66 PRINDPA 

67 SEAS1ND 

68 TIMETR 

69 T1MEMOV 

70 FUPRINF 

71 MAILPAC 

72 LETWRT 

73 SORT3 

74 LABEL 1 

75 LABEL2 

76 BUSBUD 

77 TIMECLCK 

78 ACCTPAY 

79 INVOICE 

80 INVENT2 

81 TELDIR 

82 TIMUSAN 

83 ASSIGN 

84 ACCTREC 

85 TERMSPAY 

86 PAYNET 

87 SELLPR 

88 ARBCOMP 

89 DEPRSF 

90 UPSZONE 

91 ENVELOPE 

92 AUTOEXP 

93 INSFILE 

94 PAYROLL2 

95 DILANAL 

96 LOANAFFD 

97 RENTPRCH 

98 SALELEAS 

99 RRCONVBD 
100 PORTVAL9 



Weighted average cost of capital 

True rate on loan with compensating bal required 

True rate on discounted loan 

Merger analysis computations 

Financial ratios for a firm 

Net present value of project 

Laspeyres price index 

Paasche price index 

Constructs seasonal quantity indices for company 

Time senes analysis linear trend 

Time series analysis moving average trend 

Future pnce estimation with inflation 

Mailing list system 

Letter writing system links with MAILPAC 

Sorts list ot names 

Shipping label maker 

Name label maker 

DOME business bookkeeping system 

Computes weeks total hours from Omeclock info 

In memory accounts payable system storage permitted 

Generate invoice on screen and pnnt on printer 

In memory inventory control system 

Computerized telephone directory 

Time use analysis 

Use of assignment algorithm for optimal job assign. 

In memory accounts receivable system storage ok 

Compares 3 methods of repayment of loans 

Computes gross pay required for given net 

Computes selling pnce for given after tax amount 

Arbitrage computations 

Sinking fund depreciation 

Finds UPS zones from zip code 

Types envelope including return address 

Automobile expense analysis 

Insurance policy file 

In memory payroll system 

Dilution analysis 

Loan amount a borrower can afford 

Purchase pnce for rental property 

Sale leaseback analysis 

Investor s rate of return on convertable bond 

Stock market portfolio storage- valuation program 



□ TRS-80 Cassette Version $99.95 

D TRS-80 (Mod-I or III), Pet, Apple 

or Atari Versions $99.95 

D TRS-80 Mod-ll, IBM, Osborne 

and CP/M Versions $149.95 

ADO S3 00 FOR SHIPPING IN UPS AREAS 

ADO $4 00 FOR COD OR NON-UPS AREAS 

AOD SS 00 TO CANADA AND MEXICO 

ADD PROPER POSTAGE OUTSIDE OF US. CANADA AND MEXICO 



NC * TOLL. 

•SSSSSfim 



ICQMPuTRQMCS 





MAn-e^A'lA, MWI^'ir*. '^I».H 



SO N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 



ASK FOR OUR 64-PAGE CATALOG | 




HOVJR 
OA ORDER 
*^ LINE 

(9 14) 425-1535 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



ALL PRICES * SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE 
DELIVERY SUBJECT TO AVAILABILITY 



CIRCLE 151 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Scotch Diskettes 

Rely on Scotch diskettes to keep your valu- 
able data safe. Dependable Scotch diskettes 
are tested and guaranteed error-free. The low 
abrasivity saves your read/write heads 
They're compatible with most diskette drives 




(800)235-4137 



Dealer Inquiries 
invited 




PACIFIC 
EXCHANGES 

1411 h«.«h,ii Hk.j 

S*n 1 uM ' frutfv . ( A 
<m<il lr(^. „ 
iMMMtVIZ S^<S ,f 
H(iSi r .4 1 |lli7 



Every Vote, continued... 



CIRCLE 240 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



$ $ 3> 

$ 

$ 



ill,.. 



D/Punch? 



3> 3> 2> 
$ 
$ 



HOW WOULD YOU LIKE A 500% RETURN 
ON INVESTMENT IN 10 MINUTES'' IN 
ACTUALITY YOUR ROI INCREASES EACH 
TIME YOU USE D/PUNCH D/PUNCH IS 
SPECIALLY ENGINEERED TO MAKE IT 
EASY FOR YOU TO PUNCH A CUTOUT 
ON YOUR FLOPPY DISKS THEREBY 
ALLOWING YOU TO WRITE (SAVE) ONTO 
THE OTHER SIDE WHEN YOU SEND US 
YOUR ORDER BE SURE TO TELL US 
YOUR SYSTEM CONFIGURATION 

a) D/PUNCH 6 95 

b) LABELS (100) 3 00 
<:) WRITE PROTECT STICKERS (105) 2 65 
d) DISK SAVER 5' 4 10 99 
p) DISK SAVER RINGS (50) 5 25 

ADD $2 00 FOR SHIPPING & HANDLING 

MA RESIDENTS ADD 5"., TAX 

SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER TO 



D/Punch Co. 



$ 
$$ $ 



P.O. BOX 201 

NEWTON HIGHLANDS. MA 02161 

(617)964-2126 

ALLOW 4-6 WEEKS FOR DELIVERY 



$ 

$ 

$$ $ 



CIRCLE 166 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Finally . . . Programmers Can Express 
Themselves Wilh ^vector she rts' 




6.95 + 

I .(Ml |><»Nl;it>t* 



A Great Way To Meet Other Computer-People 
Hand-screened quality 50/50 shirts 

Colors Blue. Green. Lavender. Red. Orange. 
Yellow. Gray. Tan & White 
Sizes S (32-34). M (36 38). L (42-44). XL (46) 
ALSO — Bumper Stickers - 1 50 • 50 postage 



> VECTOR 

C ENTERPRISES 



IVO KO\ 



HUM. i ( I. ( \ I \S\l ()| \. p\ | WIT.' 



5500 

5510 
5520 
5530 
5540 
5550 
5560 
5600 
56 1 
5620 
56 30 
5640 
5650 
5710 
5720 
5730 
5740 
5750 
3760 
5770 
7000 
7002 
7003 
7004 
7010 
7020 
7030 
7040 
7050 
7060 
70 70 

8000 
80 1 
8020 
8030 
8040 
8050 
8055 
8060 
8070 
8080 
8090 
8 1 00 

8 1 1 
8120 
8130 
8140 
8 1 50 
8 1 60 
8165 
8168 
8 1 70 
8180 
8 1 90 
8200 

82 lO 
8220 
9000 
90 1 
9020 
9030 
9040 
9050 
9060 

1 0000 

1 000 1 
10002 
1 OOO 3 
1 OOO 4 
1 0005 
1 0006 
1 OOO 7 
1 0008 
55550 
55555 



"CAND"s 



QUOTA: "5 

C9 

1 THEN 5 



750 



1 THEN 7050 



REM SUMMARY 

PRINT TAB( KOLUMS) j "SUM 

FOR CNDNO = 1 TO C9 

LET X ■ SUM (CNDNO) 

GOSUB 7000 

NEXT CNDNO 

PRINT 

PRINT TAB( KOLUMS) 

FOR CNDNO = 1 TO C9 

LET X = CNDNO 

GOSUB 7000 

NEXT CNDNO 

PRINT 

PRINT "QUOTA = " 

FOR CNDNO = 1 TO 

IF Z (CNDNO) < > 

PRINT CNDNO 5 " "5 

NEXT CNDNO 

PRINT 

RETURN 

REM 

REM PRINT NUMBER IN 
REM KOLUMS 

REM 

LET X = INT (X ♦ .5) 

FOR Kl = 1 TO KOLUMS 

IF X > - lO - Kl - . 

PRINT " ": 

NEXT Kl 

PRINT X; 

RETURN 

REM 

REM READ DATA 

REM 

READ VACANCIES,C9 

PRINT 

PRINT "BALLOTS" 

LET KOLUMS =» 2 

FOR BLTNO = 1 TO IE 13 

FOR RANK ■ 1 TO C9 + 1 

READ CNDNO 

IF CNDNO < = THEN 8120 

LET BALLOT (BLTNO, RANK) = CNDNO 

NEXT RANK 

REM 

IF CNDNO < THEN 8200 

PRINT BLTNO; TAB ( 3);":"; 

FOR RANK = 1 TO C9 

LET X ■ BALLOT (BLTNO, RANK) 

GOSUB 7000 

IF X < = THEN 8180 

NEXT RANK 

PRINT 

NEXT BLTNO 

REM NO MORE DATA 

LET B9 = BLTNO - 1 

RETURN 

REM 

REM INIT TALLY 

REM 

FOR BLTNO = 1 TO B9 

LET TALLY (BLTNO, BALLOT (BLTNO, 1) ) ■ 

NEXT BLTNO 

RETURN 

REM 

DATA STATEMENTS 
VACANCIES, 

CANDIDATES. 
EACH BALLOT, END- 
ING WITH O. 
-1 AT THE END OF 
THE BALLOTS. 



" ; W I NNERS ; " W I NNERS 



ii 



1 OOO 



REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM ■ 

DATA 

END 



CIRCLE 308 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



-1 



232 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



H it N T II N GTC N C € /H IP L T II N © 



I 




ATARI 



You can always tell which things we sell tor Apple and which are 
for Atari. All Apple prices end in a "9" and all Atari prices in a 4 
For example, a S30 game would cost $25 44 for Atari and $25.39 
for the Apple. 



Finally - Time for the Great Grandma 

Listed below are some items from an up-and-coming company - Unntinntnn cawinnc rnntoct vA/innorc r rt n 

Swifty Software, inc What we ve seen of the.r products, so far. Huntington sayings contest winners. Con- 



looks very good 



#1400 
#1401 
#1402 
#1403 
#1404 
#1405 
#1406 
#1407 
#1408 
#1409 
#1410 
#1411 
#1412 
#1413 
#1414 
#1415 
#1416 
#1417 
#1418 
#1419 
#1420 



Space Chase (cass.) $ 1 3.54 

Space Chase (disk) $15.14 

Timebomb (cass.) $13.54 

Timebomb (disk) $15.24 

Space Shuttle Adv. (disk) 

Trivia Trek (disk) 

Fun n Games (cass.) $14.1 



Fun n Games (disk) $21.14 

File-It (disk) $29.44 

File-It C (cass.) $21.14 

File-It 2 (disk) $42.44 

Family Financier (cass.) $21.14 

Diskette Inventory System (disk) $21.14 

Datalink (disk) $33.44 

Tach-Master (disk) $25.44 

Programming Aids I (cass.) $12.44 

Programming Aids I (disk) $14.44 

Swifty Utilities (disk) $25.44 

Disk Sentry (hardware) $33.44 

800 black dust cover $12.44 

810 black dust cover $11.44 

MORE ATARI 
All APX, including Eastern Front, Attank 1 , Wordmaker, Number 
Blast, 747 Landing Simulator, and many more available at 1 5% 
off list price (most available in cassette and disk) 



$34.44 



The I Chmg (Alternate Reality Software) 

(This is an excellent program) 
Hodge Podge $14. 



a 

I 

IS 


I 


IS 

I 

I 

l! 
IS 
IS 
IS 

IS 

IS 



IS 
I! 

B 



BPost Office Box 1 297 
Corcoran, California 93212 

B Foreign Orders 209-992-4481 
In California Ann.-nQ9.A1dn 



In California 800-692-4146 



Softlights 

By Fred Huntington 



#1300 

#855 

#257 

#290 

#290 

#277 

#1020 

#658 

#920 

#742 

#373 

#371 

#362 

#370 

#369 

#880 

#1210 

#1080 

#980 

#1270 

#481 

#1100 

#468 

#461 

#460 

#560 

#1171 

#1143 

#1141 

#1192 

#668 

#667 

#666 

#665 

#664 

#663 

#662 

#660 

#501 



Pacman 
Caverns of Mars 

Centipede 

Star Raiders 

Raster Blaster 

Pornopoly 

Kayos (disk) 

Darts/Tilt 

Shooting Arcade (disk) 

Clowns and Balloons (disk) 
Pacific Coast Highway (disk) 
Pacific Coast Highway (cass.) 

Canyon Climber (disk) 

Pool 1.5 

Alien Swarm (disk) 

Deadline 

K-razy Shootout (cart.) 

Mastertype 

Letter Perfect ... 
Megalegs (cass.) 



$34.14 
$33.44 
$34.14 
$34.14 
$34.44 
$33.44 
$34.74 
$31.44 
$25.44 
$25.44 



$33.44 
$33.44 
$34.74 
$34.44 
$43.44 



$33.44 

$127.44 

$34.44 

Frogger 1 3% •## list 



Wizard and the Princess (disk) 
SoftPorn Adventure (disk) 

Ah Baba (disk) 

Deluxe Invaders (cart.) . . . 

Cyclod (disk) 

Space Eggs 

Black Forest (disk) 

Nautilus tcass j 

Nautilus (disk) 

Chicken (cass ) 

Chicken (disk) 

Protector (cass ) 

Protector (disk) 

Disk Manager (disk) 

File Manager 800 (disk) . 
VisiCalc (disk) 



$37.44 
$34.34 
$34.44 
$33.44 
$25.44 
$25.44 
$31.14 
$25.44 
$35.44 
$35.44 
$25.44 
$35.44 
$35.44 
$35.34 
$44.34 
$144.44 



Generic Computer 
Games (disk) 

(Apple #8109) 

$9.99 

Dealer inquiries tolerated 



gratulations to Hartley Lesser of New Hamp- 
shire and L. R. Bergsieker of St. Louis. They 
each win a geunine Epson watch. 

Here are some of the sayings L. R. Berg- 
sieker submitted: 

Great Grandma Huntington says: 

• A barking drive never bytes. 

• Hell hath no fury like an accidental reset. 

• All good things come to he who jumps to 
SFCA8. 

• There are a number of things that can fail, 
but they re usually in hex. 

• All family trees have at least one bad branch 
error. 

• You can t get serial output from a cornflakes 
box. 

And now some of the repartee from Great 
Grandma Huntington courtesy Hartley Lesser: 

• Said Great Grandma Huntington of her 
grandson upon the day of his birth, My good- 
ness, he s a bit off the old chip. 

• There is absolutely no truth to the rumor that 
Great Grandma is too involved in computing. 
Just because all were invited to a Thanksgiving 
turnkey dinner means nothing. 

• Great Grandma Huntington was in a real fix. 
She has lust completed entry an important let- 
ter into a word processor, but couldn t get the 
printer to function properly. Exasperated, she 
finally shrugged her shoulders and gave up. 

Someday my prints will come, she muttered 
on her way for help. 

Many thanks to all those who entered. We II 
be printing more Great Grandma sayings in the 
future. Look next year for our first book publish- 
ing effort, The First Collection of Great 
Grandma Sayings. 

If you still have some good sayings or jokes, 
send them in and the best ones will be used in 
the forthcoming book. Any sayings used will 
earn a Great Grandma Tee-shirt for its author. 
All entries become the property of Huntington 
Computing and will not be returned 



ELEPHANTS $17.99 

We are totally sold on the Elephant Memory 
Systems disks. We sell thousands of them ev- 
ery month and almost never run across a bad 
one. 

We want people to try them out to see how 
good they really are. So, until Nov. 30 (absolute 
deadline), we'll sell Elephant disks ten for 
$1 7.99 (plus two dollars postage for up to five 
boxes - foreign extra). The postage for six or 
more boxes is $4.00 (foreign extra). 

Here's a super incentive. Buy ten boxes for 
$175 (plus postage). 

These disks are 100% certified and come 
complete with hub rings and a lifetime 
guarantee. They work with Apple and Atari but 
not with IBM PC. 



APPLE 



$34.34 
$14.44 



#6950 
#1968 
#1970 
#1971 
#9580 
#7650 
#7501 
#7504 
#7368 
#2560 
#8480 
#9360 
#2030 
#3108 
#8907 
#9740 
#6709 
#6365 
#1920 
#1913 
#8420 
#6452 
#4951 
#6529 
#1164 
#2453 
#9010 
#9012 
#9014 
#9882 
#3652 
#9060 
#6380 



#2260 

#12 

#1477 

#1475 

#1115 

#6761 

#1759 

#2181 

#4252 

#4206 

#2005 

#860 

#997 

#998 

#1018 

#1409 

#9220 

#1220 

#1213 

#1820 

#5623 

#9121 

#3501 

#8181 

#115 

#116 

#3112 

#1975 

#1972 

#8482 

#8122 

#4701 

#4700 

#7960 

#8940 

#8560 

#8562 

#8260 

#5209 

#5208 

#5680 

#8280 



$335.44 
$25.39 
$39. 
$34. 
$33.49 
$35.39 
$55.19 

$137.39 
$79.14 
$43.44 
$35.34 
$35J 
$13.< 
$35.34 
$ 



$35. 

$33. 
$33.49 



$2*. 



We stock almost 2,000 different products for the Apple, plus we 
special order others. Obviously, we can't list all we carry in the 
limited space we have here. Here is a sampling of what we carry. 
These are our everyday prices - not sale prices 

#9408 Self -Concept and Work 

#9669 Hodge Podge 

#3259 Apple Mechanic 

BPI General Ledger 

Star Blazer 

Chop Lifter 

Serpentine 

The Menu II (C&H) 

Pornopoly 

Financial Manag./Ck Writer (CMS) . . . 

Financial Management III (CMS) 

SAMP (Conduit) 

Home Accountant 

Human Fly 

Menu Generator (Crane) 

Dinosaurs (Cross) 

MIRV(Dakin5) 

Kids and the Apple (book) 

Volcanoes 

Physics/Free Fall (Ed Courseware) . . . 

Critical Reading 

Algebra III 

Rendevous 

Apple Training Tapes (Fliptrack) 

Spanish Hangman 

H&H Auto Stock Tracker 

Clock (Hartley) 

Pie Writer (80-col.) 

The Tool 

The Wurst SALE 

Understand Yourself 

Computer Almanac 

Deadline 

Electric Duet 

Mathemagic 

Crossword Magic 

ALL MECC IN STOCK!!!!!! 

SAT English I 

MIMCO Joystick 

Castle Wolfenstem 

Robot Wars 

Marauder 

20,000 Leagues 

Graphics Magician 

Zoom Graphics 

Star Blaster 

German Vocab Drill 

Bag of Tricks 

R & H Super Fan 

Cytron Master 

Galactic Gladiator 

Pursuit of Graf Spree 

Graphics Combo Pack 

Quest for the Holy Grail 

Apventure to Atlantis 

Global PLE 

VisiCalc 

Apple Basic Data Files (book) 

Space Mouse 

Nykrom Super Diagnostics ♦ (SALE) 



$55. 

Bez-Man $19.49 

$37. 

$34.44 

$34.99 

$35.39 

$39.49 

$44.39 

$31.19 



A2D Joystick 2001 

A2D Paddles 

Fantasy Combo 

Hardhat Noah 

HIRES #1 Deadly Secrets 

CPU Auto Atlas 

Word Race 

Pro Football 

Win at the Races 

Business Pack 100 

Exec Briefing System . 

Transend I 

Transend II . $129. 

Tai Pan $33.44 

Basic Conversions Handbook $7. 

Softside Sampler (book) $7. 

Nibble Express II (book) $1 1.59 

The Accountant (DSS) $ 



Cdll Toil-Free 800-344-5 1 06 (outside California) 



We take MasterCard, American Express or VISA (Include card # and 
is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, inc expiration date) California residents add 6°o tax Include S2 00 for postage 



Apple 

Pet ' is a registered trademark of Commodore 
TRS-80 ' is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp 
Atari " is a registered trademark of Atari, Inc 

Outside Calif. 800-344-5106 



Foreign and hardware extra Foreign (excluding Canada) remit US cur- 
rency, checks on US banks, use listed charge cards, or make direct wire 
transfers through Security Pacific Bank. Corcoran, for a S6 00 charge All 
overseas orders shipped by air Send for free catalog Prices subject to 
change without notice 



9 



I 


HI 



I 
30 

HI 



33.69 mr 

io.ooH 

24.95 ffl 


s| 

12 

IS 


I 

333.89 IM 

$53.19 11 

$199.00 k? 

si 

30 

I 



HI 

si! 

89 3^ 

-8 

*...S9 " 
109.S9 LV 


I 




$33.89 
$127.39 
$333.69 

$ 

$24.95 

$24.95 

$42.30 

$25.39 

$80 

$39 

$25.49 
$59.95 
$25.39 
$33.39 
$30.00 
$30.00 
$33.30 
$33.30 
$33.30 
$31.10 
$**3.89 



$33.39 
$33.89 
$30.30 
$101.70 
$33.30 
$33.30 



$11.66 



$30. 

$100. 

$75. 




CIRCLE 185 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





TJEZ 


f"-x»— 












■■•tl 
•■ n 








J^ 


JU- 




V 


M 


T 


W 


T 


F 


S 




2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 




\ 9 


10 


11 12 


13 


14 




\* 


17 


18 19 


20 


21 


* 


S 


24 

&.\ 


25 26 


27 


28 



K% 



\* 



9 



\© 



*o 



\» 



A* 



a* 



a* 



** 



*» 



*» 



*» 



»<> 



Z^T 








L*» ^y> 


•S 




\\fjf~ 






s 








— 






M 


T 


w 


T 


F 


S 






1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 31 














S M 


T W T F 


S 






2 


3 4 


5 6 7/g^j 




10 11 


12 13 1</ UYs 




17 18 


19 20 ^sQSgr 




24 25 


26 27 y ^^^ 





Using Step 

Functions 

in Microsoft 

Basic 




A little known feature of Microsoft 
Basic interpreters is their ability to treat 
boolean expressions as numbers. For 
example, the statement: 

PRINT (1 = 1), (2 <1) 
yields the results -1 and 0. When told to 
print the expressions, Basic arrives at the 
boolean result and returns it to the PRINT 
statement as a number. True expressions 
return - 1 because the interpreter repre- 
sents true as 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 binary, and that is 
the numerical value for -1. False expres- 
sions return because false is represented 
asO. 

This feature can be used to build 
compact step functions. A step function 
is an equation that is built in increments 
of 1. 

Step functions are valuable tools for 
mathematicians because you can approx- 
imate any curve with a step function if 
you make it long enough. For example, a 
square wave is a crude approximation of 
a sine wave. You can improve the approx- 
imation by using shorter and shorter steps, 
until you arrive at a sine wave that looks 
like a staircase. Continue the process and 
eventually the eye cannot tell the differ- 
ence between the sine function and the 
step function. 

Bar graphs are all step functions. Step 

Daniel Smith, DCS Software Products, 2729 
Lowery Ct., Zion, IL 60099. 



Daniel Smith 

functions are commonly found in mathe- 
matical modeling and statistical analysis. 
In fact, whenever you are trying to fit a 
curve to data with a computer, it is often 
easier and more accurate to represent it 
with a step function than with a formula. 

So, how do you use boolean arithmetic 
to build a step function? Boolean expres- 
sions return or 1. (In our case -1, but we 
can drop the sign several ways.) Consider 
the expression X* (Y <(5). If Y is less than 
5, X will be multiplied by and vanish. If 
Y is 5 or more, the expression reduces to 
-X. 

To demonstrate how useful this tech- 
nique can be, let's use it to convert dates 
from month-day-year format to Julian 
dates. (For example, February 17 is day 
48 in Julian format.) 

We begin with an approximation. The 
average month is about 30.42 days long. 
Let M=month, D=day, Y=year, and 
J = Julian day. The Julian date should be 
about: 

J=INT((M-1)*30.42) +D 

Next we look at specifics. February 28 
is Julian 59, but our formula yields 58, so 
we add a day for February dates. Note 
that we subtract to convert that pesky -1 
to 1. You may prefer to use an ABS 
function. 

J=INT((M-1)*30.42) -(M=2) +D 

Now we notice that if the month is 
between March and July, our formula 

234 



yields a date one day too big. We com- 
pensate: 

J=INT((M-1)*30.42-(M=2)+ 

(M>2 ANDM<8)+D 

Now the formula works unless it is a 
leap year. If it is a leap year and the 
month is March or later we need to add a 
day: 

J=INT((M-l)*30.42)-(M=2mM>2 
AND M<8)-(M>2 AND 

INT(Y/4 *4=Y)+D 

There. A one line Julian conversion 
equation. 

In business applications we often need 
to find the distance between two dates. 
In fact, entire legions of programmers are 
planning a one year leave of absence 
commencing December 31, 1999, when 
their date routines crash into the new 
century. 

Say you want to prepare a 30-60-90 day 
aging report. Julian dates are clumsy to 
work with in the period from November 
to February. One way to handle the 
problem is to convert the date into the 
number of days from a common reference 
point, say the start of the century. Call it 
C. 

C=J+365*Y+INT((Y-l)/4)+l 

Given C, we can derive other useful 
functions, including functions to convert 
back into month-day-year format. 

To demonstrate the technique, we 
prepared a short program that prints 

November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



Smith Corona TP-1 TEXT PRINTER Hayes Smartmodem 




$59988 UPS DELIVERED 



120 words/min (12 cps) with full letter-quality 
Either parallel or RS-232C interfacing available (specify) 
10 or 12 pitch (characters per inch) available (specify) 
Friction feed on 10 1 /a" printable line; takes 4-part forms 



Okidata Printers 

MICROUNE 80 *349 M 

MICROUNE 82A *439 M 

80/82A TRACTOR «59 M 

MICROUNE 83A «694" 

OKIGRAPH ROM *44 M 

RS-232C 2K BUFFER *159 M 

MICROUNE 84 Parallel 

200 cps $ 1044 M 

MICROUNE 84 RS-232C 

200 cps *1 164~ 

Anadex Printers 

DP-9500A $ 1469" 

DP-9510A *1469 M 

DP-9620A $ 1569 w 



TEC Printers 




Brother Printers 

DAISYWRITER 2000— Includes 
Parallel, RS-232C, IEEE488, 
& Current Loop interfacing 

standard $ 1089 M 

CABLES *49» 

TRACTOR *149 M 

Centronics Printers 

CENTRONICS 122. *979 M 

CENTRONICS 739 

Parallel Interface $ 564» 

CENTRONICS 739 

RS-232C Interface $ 679 M 

739 COLOR OPTION *79 M 

IDS Printers 

PRISM 80 $ 999 88 

Includes Sprint Mode, Dot Plot, 
and Cut Sheet Guide 

PRISM 132 $ 1699 M 

4-Color Graphics, Sprint Mode, 
Dot Plot, and Cut Sheet Guide 

CALL FOR PRICES 

On NEC Spinwriters, Qume & 
Diablo Daisywheels. QUANTEX, 
DATASOUTH, DIP, MPI and other 
printers available. 



DMP85 $ 469 M 

Generic version of NEC & 
Prowriter printers. Features 120 
cps, bi-directional, logic-seeking 
1 .3K buffer. 5 fonts, 8 sizes on 
9x9 matrix, w/ proportional print, 
true descenders, & Greek/ Math 
font. 160 x 144 dots/ inch Hi-Res 
graphics matrix, 1/144" line feed. 
Friction & tractor standard^ rear 
paper path. Parallel only. 

NEC PC-8023A-C *509" 

CJTOH PROWRITER *499 M 

C.ITOH PROWRITER 

Parallel & RS-232C *614 M 

CJTOH PROWRITER 2 *734 M 

CJTOH PROWRITER 2 

Parallel & RS-232C *794 M 

F-10/40 STARWRITER 40cps 
Parallel or RS-232C .... $ 1499 88 
F-10/55 PRINTMASTER 55cps 
Parallel or RS-232C .... $ 1799 M 
F-10 TRACTOR *289 M 

Cables & interfaces available for 
the Apple, Atari, CBM/Pet, IBM PC, 
Osborne and TRS-80S 




HAYES SMARTMODEM . . . $ 229 88 
HAYES 1200 BAUD 
SMARTMODEM $ 574 M 



MODEMS 



HAYES MICROMODEM II $ 299 M 

SIGNALMAN MARK I $ 89 M 

NOVATION AUTO CAT . . *224 M 
NOVATION APPLE CAT . . $ 334 M 
NOVATION 1200 BAUD 

AUTO CAT *569 M 

NOVATION 1200 BAUD 

APPLE CAT *579 M 



USI Pi Series 




20 MHz bandwidth, 1000-line-at- 
center resolution, 80 columns by 
24 lines— the USI Pi-3 with amber 
screen redefines quality. Amber 
makes any display easier to read all 
day, every day. Used by THE 
BOTTOM LINE'S president, the 
USI Pi-3 Amber Monitor comes with 
his personal recommendation. 

USI Pi-1 (9" Green) *l44 M 

USI Pi-2 (12" Green) .... *174 M 

USI Pi-3 02" Amber) . . . $ 199 M 

USI Pi-4 (9" Amber) M69 88 

Amdek Monitors ~~ 

AMDEK 300G 13" $ 179 M 

AMDEK Color I *379 M 

AMDEK Color II 

High Resolution RGB f 799 88 

AMDEK Color III (RGB) . . $ 499 M 

Zenith Monitors 

ZENITH ZVM-121 

(12" green) M39 M 



IBM Products 

Quadram 

QUADBOAROS 

Memory in 64K blocks (up to 
256K), a Centronics-compatible 
parallel I/O with haro\vare to an 
external port, an asynchronous 
RS-232C communications port 
(DB-25 male external), and a 
clock/ calendar with on-board 
battery— all of this on one 
QUADBOARD. Exceptional quality 
& design leaving remaining IBM PC 
slots free for other applications 

64K QUADBOARD *439 M 

1 28K QUADBOARD $ 539 M 

192K QUADBOARD *629 M 

256K QUADBOARD *719 M 

64K MEMORY CHIPS 

(PKG.9) *99" 

QuCeS Inc. 

Big Blue for the IBM PC features 
a Z80 microprocessor running at 
5.5 MHz, 64K memory, a Cen- 
tronics-compatible parallel 
port, the RS-232C port, an 
on-board calendar/clock, & a 
hard disk interface. 

BIG BLUE *519 M 

QuCeS Hard Disk subsystems for 
the IBM PC. 

6mB HARD DISK $ 2489 wr 

12mB HARD DISK *2839 M 

24mB HARD DISK $ 4229 M 

Xedex 

BABY BLUE *539 M 

• 

64K RAMcard *274 M 

64K MEMORY CHIPS 

(PKG. 9) «99- 

Maynard Electronics 

FLOPPY DISK 

CONTROLLER $ 189» 

Tandon Drives 

40 TRACK, SS ^29" 

40 TR ACK, PS »319 M 

IBM PC Software 

We carry a full line of IBM PC 
Software. Also Apple/Franklin 
software. Ask about our Software 
Society discounts. 



Orders & Information: CALL (603)-673-8857 

Orders Only: CALL (800)343-0726 

No Hidden Charges 

No surcharse for credit cards-No charge for HIGH TECHNOLOGY AT AFFORDABLE PRICES 

UPS shipping— Stock shipments next day 
All equipment shipped factory fresh with 
manufacturer's warranty— We accept CODs 
Open PO's not accepted— $50 minimum 
order— No foreign orders accepted 

Prices subject to change— call for quotes 



- ■(Mil 




MasterCard 



HE BOTTOM 

LINE 

Milford NH 03055-0423 



CIRCLE 124 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SRA Educational 
Courseware: 
"Because learning 
matters" 



Computer Drill and Instruction: Fact 
Track™ (Grades 1-6) 
For your Apple*, Atari*, IBM* and Radio 
Shack* personal computers. 

Fact Track gives timed drill on the facta 
of addition, subtraction, multiplication, 
and division and reports student speed and 
performance. Choice of difficulty level. 
Choice of competitive or noncompetitive 
format. Choice of drill type: facts, mixed 
practice with facts, extension skills. Bin- 
der with Diskette and Teacher Guide, 
8100.00. 

•Registered trademarks. 

□ Yes! I want Fact Track! 
Please contact me immediatelv. 

□ Send me literature about Fact Track. 



Name_ 
School. 



Address. 



Step Functions, continued... 

calendars. You supply a year between 
1900 and 1999. The program was devel- 
oped on an OSI C3-OEM, but it should 
work on any computer that uses a Micro- 
soft Basic interpreter— Apple, TRS-80, 
PET, etc. 

Statements using boolean expressions 
have been flagged with remarks. Notice 
that the FOR-NEXT loop in line 1070 
identifies leap years with a step function. 



The program requires only 27 lines of 
code. 

Of course, while other languages do 
allow boolean expressions as part of 
arithmetic equations, it is not a standard 
feature of Basic. You should use the 
technique with care, and document each 
occurrence with a remark. But the tech- 
nique is simple, easily understood, and 
can save you many lines of code. □ 



City, State, Zip. 
Telephone 



For faster service, call SRA toll-free: 

(800) 621-0476 
Or mail this coupon to: 



SRA 



i® 



SCIENCE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, IV 
155 N. Wacker Drive, Chicago, IL MM)*) 

CIRCLE 289 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



1000 REM CALENDAR - PREPARES 
1010 DATA JANUARY, FEBRUARY, 
1020 DATA SEPTEMBER, OCTOBER, 
1030 DIM M0$(12) : FOR 1=1 TO 
1040 INPUT"ENTER YEAR (1900-1 
1050 D=1 :M=1 :G0SUB 2000:REM 
1060 PRINT#P,TAB(20) ; 1900+Y : 
1070 FOR I=C TO C+364 -(Y=INT 
1080 C=I :G0SUB 3000 :REM GET 
1090 IF D=1 THEN PRINT#P :PRI 
1100 W=I-INT(I/7)*7-7*(I=INT( 
1110 PRINT#P,TAB( (W+1 )»i») ;D; 
1 120 NEXTI 
1130 END 

2000 REM GIVEN M,D,Y RETURN J 
2010 J = INT(30.ll2»(M-1 ) ) -(M = 2 
2020 C=J+365*Y+INT( (Y-1 )/4)+1 
2030 RETURN 

3000 REM GIVEN C=#DAYS SINCE 
3010 L=INT(C/1461. 1 ):REM #LEA 
3020 Y = L»4-(C>(L»m6l)+366)*( 
3030 J=C-Y»365 -INT(Y/4)+(Y>0 
3040 M=J +(J>59 AND INT(Y/4)» 
3050 M=INT(M/30.42)+1 -(M=60) 
3060 D=1 :I=C :J1=J :G0SUB200 
3070 D=I-C+1 
3080 RETURN 



CALENDARS USING STEP FUNCTIONS 
MARCH, APRIL, MAY, JUNE, JULY, AUGUST 

NOVEMBER, DECEMBER 

12 :READ M0$(I) :NEXT 
999) tt ;Y :Y=Y-1900 

GET JULIAN AND #DAYS SINCE 01/01/1900 

PRINT#P,TAB(21 )" » 

(YM)»4) : rem STEP 

M,D,Y 
NT#P :PRINT#P,TAB(20) ;M0$(M) 
I/7)*7) :REM STEP 

:IF W=7 THEN PRINT#P 



=JULIAN DAY AND C=#DAYS SINCE 01/01/1900 
) +(M>2 AND M<8) -(M>2 AND INT ( Y/4 ) »4=Y ) +D 



01/01/1900, RETURN J=JULIAN, 
P YEARS SINCE 1900 

INT ( (C-L» 1461 -366 )/365.1)+1) 
) -(INT(Y/4)»4=Y) 
4 = Y) 
+ (M = 3D -(M = 91 OR M=121 OR 



M,D,Y 

:REM STEP 
:REM STEP 
:REM STEPS 
M=152 OR M=182) 



:J=J1 :REM FIND C FOR 01/M/Y 



Pardon Hie, But 
Did Vour Apple 
Ju5t...5peaK ? 



Muse gives your compu- 
ter the power of speech with 
The Voice. Use the vocabu- 
lary provided to create thou- 
sands of phrases; or put your 
own words in the Apple's — 
aah — mouth. 

Add sound effects to 
your own computer games. 
Greet visitors. Leave mes- 
sages. Use your imagination. 
The possibilities are actually 
endless. 

Each disk stores up to 
80 words and phrases, 
which can be sorted for 
quick reference. And, The 
Voice allows your Apple to 
speak from any Basic Pro- 
gram through your Print 
Commands. 

The Voice from Muse. 
For your... amusement. 
($39.95) 

For Apple IT or Apple II 
Pius with 48K. Write or 
call Muse for information 
and the dealer nearest 
you. 

Apple II is a trodemark of Apple 
Computer Corp. 



PROTECT YOUR KEYBOARD 
WITH 

PLEXA-LOK 

• PLEXA-LOK slips up and over the keyboard - then 
gently snaps into position. 

• PLEXA-LOK allows your secretary to go on break 
without having to worry about visitors accidentally 
destroying their hours (and your $) of work. 




' fltiHHr^ 1 



MUSE 

SOFTWARE' 



jarles St. Baltimore, MD 21201 (301) 659-7212 



PLEXA-LOK 



ENHANCES looks of your 
system 

PROTECTS Keyboard from 

dust 

30-DAY GUARANTEE 

ALLOWS computer to remain 

on wrhiie unattended 

KEYBOARD protected from 

kids 

HIGH QUALITY 

Acrykc 

SCHOOLS - A MUSTI 



PLEXA-LOK COVERS 



APPLE II 
TRS 80 MOO III 
XEROX 820 
APPLE III 
FROSTY APPLE 



St 9 95 
1995 
24 95 
24 95 

f 50 extra 



CA Residents Add 6% Tax 
Allow 4-6 Weeks Delivery 

Dealer Inquiries Welcome 

MasterCard and Visa Accepted 



+: 



I AST KLK< TRUNKS 

PO BOX 1300 

SAN ANDREAS CA 95249 

(209) 754-1800 

Introductory Special - Prepaid UPS. Continental USA 



CIRCLE 228 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 198 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



FROM HIGHER 

INTELLIGENCE 




Apple Ki 

Cybernation 
Delta Squadron 
MIC Fighter 

Atari 

Adventure of the 

Baby Sea Turtle 

Das unterseeboot 

journey 

maze Master 

superbowl Football 

ISM PC 

Superdowl Football 








■<*jvi 



also offer you 
the fast pace of 



,ent of arcade 

, the tr 



*»MT-*i 



r rir TT '»5r 






N3CV, 



CORPORATION 

P.O. BOX 26468, San FranciSCO, CA 94126-6468 (415) 387-5800 



CIRCLE 231 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Computer Program 
Books for Beginners 

Everything you need to start programming your own computer. 

ATARI 400/800 Computers 

101 ATARI Computer Programming Tips & Tricks, learn-by-doinp 
instruction, hints, secrets, shortcuts, techniques, includes 101 
ready-to-run programs, 128 pages $8.95 

31 New ATARI Computer Programs For Home. School & Office. 
practical type-n-run software, 96 pages $8.95 

ATARI Computer BASIC Coding Form. 40-sheet tablet with stiff 
back, makes writing programs, fun, easy $2.95 

TIMEX 1000/Sinclair ZX-81 

101 TIMEX 1000/Sinclair ZX-81 Programming Tips & Tricks. 

secrets, hints, shortcuts, techniques, learn-by-doing 
instruction, 101 ready-to-run programs, 128 pages $7.95 
37 TIMEX 1000/Sinclair ZX-81 Computer Programs For Home. 
School & Office, useful type-n-run software. 96 pages $8.95 
TIMEX/Sinclair ZX-81 BASIC Coding Form. 40-sheet tablet with 
stiff back, makes writing programs easy $2.95 

APPLE Computer 

101 APPLE Computer Programming Tips & Tricks, secrets, hints, 
shortcuts, techniques, includes 101 ready-to-run programs. 
128 pages $8.95 

33 New APPLE Computer Programs For Home. School & Office. 
practical type-n-run software. 96 pages $8.95 

APPLE Computer BASIC Coding Form. 40-sheet tablet with stiff 
back, makes writing software fun. easy $2.95 

TRS-80 Color Computer 

101 Color Computer Programming Tips & Tricks, learn-by-doing 
instructions, hints, secrets, techniques, includes 101 
programs. 128 pages $7.95 

55 Color Computer Programs For Home. School & Office, practical 
ready-to-run software, colorful graphics. 128 pages $9.95 
55 MORE Color Computer Programs For Home. School & Office. 
handy companion, packed with different useful type-n-run 
software, colorful graphics. 112 pages $9.95 

Color Computer Graphics, complete guide, how to make the most 
of Color Computer video graphics, many complete programs. 
128 pages $9.95 

The Color Computer Songbook. 40 favorite pop. classical, folk, 
seasonal, type-n-run music programs to play on color 
computer. 96 pages $7.95 

Color Computer BASIC Coding Form. 40-sheet tablet with stiff 
back, makes writing software easy, fun $2.95 

TRS-80/Sharp/Casio Pocket Computers 

99 Tips & Tricks For The New Pocket Computers, for 

PC-2/PC-1500, all new useful graphics & business/home/ 
education software, 99 ready-to-run programs, 128 p $7.95 
Pocket Computer Programming Made Easy, fast new easy read-n- 
learn way to quickly understand BASIC, how to make 
PC-1 /-2/PC-121 1 / -1500/FX-702P work for you, 128 p $8.95 
101 Pocket Computer Programming Tips & Tricks, secrets, hints, 
shortcuts, techniques, includes 101 type-n-run programs, for 
PC-1/PC-2/PC-1211/PC-1500, 128 pages $7.95 

35 Practical Programs For The CASIO Pocket Computer, useful type- 
n-run software for FX-702P, 96 pages $8.95 
Pocket Computer BASIC Coding Form. 40-sheet tablet with stiff 
back, makes writing programs a breeze $2.95 

Order direct from this ad. Send check, money order, or Mastercard or 
VISA account number and expiration date. Include $1 shipping for 
each item ordered up to a maximum of $3. Or write for our free 
catalog. Mail to: 

ARCsoft Publishers 



POST OFFICE BOX 132 M 
WOODSBORO, MARYLAND 21798 

(301)663-4444 



VISA 



Customers wanting airmail send US S4 postage per item ordered Sorry, no COD 
CIRCLE 113 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



I NT BASIC LIVES! 



A while back, Creative Computing 
showed how to move the mini- 
assembler so it could be used in an 
Apple II Plus without a language card. 
Here we describe how to move the 
rest of Integer Basic. 



Wally Hubbard 



"Unfair!" I thought. My DOS 3.3 
System Master disk had a program called 
INTBASIC on it, but no way to run it. I 
had a 48K Apple, but no language card to 
stick into it. Just typing BLOAD INT- 
BASIC produced nothing worthwhile. But 
there it was. INTBASIC. Smiling at me 
every time I typed CATALOG. Would I 
ever find out what Applevision was? Or 
survive without charting my Biorhythms? 
Or play Animals? 

Actually, moving INTBASIC and get- 
ting it to work somewhere else in memory 
is a kind of puzzle any computer hacker 
would enjoy (at least the first time 
through). So thanks, Apple, for putting it 
on the disk. 

I now have a working version of Integer 
Basic that resides at $6C00 and works 
with DOS. A collection of the information 
needed for you to get the same thing 
follows. 

There are four listings. The first is a 
machine language program that makes 
most of the changes that are needed. 
Listing 2 shows the changes that must be 
made next. Listing 3 shows the changes 
that must be made to DOS 3.3. The last 
listing shows a HELLO program that can 
be used to INIT a new diskette, which 
you must do to record the altered DOS. 

Wally Hubbard, 3174-321 Pheasant Run Drive, 
LaFayette, IN 47905. 



Each listing shows exactly what you 
should type for a 48K Apple II Plus. I 
shall explain later what to change to use 
INTBASIC elsewhere. 

Listing 1. First make sure you have a 
good copy of DOS 3.3 in memory then 
put INTBASIC into the memory area 
starting at $3000. Enter the monitor and 
key in the machine language program. It 
will work anywhere, but I show it being 
entered at $300 to $35C. Check to make 
sure you copied it correctly, then start it 
running. 

Listing 1. 

3BL0AD INTBASIC, A*3000 
DCALL-151 

*300:A9 4A 85 FB A3 00 85 FA 

»308IA0 80 Bl FA 10 05 38 E9 

♦310:64 91 FA C8 DO F4 84 FC 

♦318:84 3A A9 60 85 FD A9 30 

♦320 : 85 3B A5 25 20 CI FB AG 

♦328:28 8G FE A6 29 8G FF 20 

♦330 : DO F8 A0 OE A9 C3 Dl FE 

♦338! 90 10 20 53 F9 85 3A 84 

♦340 :3B C4 FD DO DD C5 FC 90 

♦348 :D9 GO A0 02 Bl 3A 38 E9 

♦350 :G4 91 3A 20 DO F8 20 8E 

♦ 358 ."FD A9 00 F0 DD 
♦300G 

The machine language program does 
two things. First it changes a jump table 
that Integer Basic uses to find where it 
must go to perform a command. The high 
address bytes in the table are now stored 
between $4A80 and $4AFF. 

Since INTBASIC will be moved so that 
its starting address is $6C00 instead of 
$D000, the difference, $6400, is sub- 
tracted from each address in the table. 
The process is simplified by just subtract- 
ing $64 from each high byte and leaving 



the low address bytes (located from $4A00 
to $4A7F) alone. 

Next, in a four-minute extravaganza, 
the INTBASIC program is disassembled 
on your screen. Whenever a three-byte 
instruction is displayed and the third byte 
is greater than or equal to $D0, $64 is 
subtracted from it. Each time this hap- 
pens, the revised instruction is re- 
displayed and followed by a blank line. 
When the program is finished, it has made 
936 changes to INTBASIC. 

Listing 2. Unfortunately, the work done 
in Listing 1 is defective. Some of the text 
and jump table bytes are changed, and 
some jump table bytes that should have 
been changed were missed. The dis- 
assembler can't tell instructions from 
jump tables or text. Sixteen corrections 

Listing 2. 



♦31EEIF4 
♦31Fi:D4 
♦3410."D8 
♦3481 :F5 

♦34ao:dc 

♦3CF9:D0 
♦40B0:89 
»4494:44 
*4A0D:E2 
♦4A5A:D8 
*4B0E:D3 
♦ 4BU !D4 
♦4B25:DO 
♦4D6A:EC 

♦4dbi:dd 

♦4DD8:F7 
*5010:A9 
♦5A19:F4 
♦5A88:EA 
♦5A95:7C 
♦5AFE:9G 
♦5B00:7C 
*5B1D:D3 
♦5EA8:99 
»5FBF:9A 

♦5FFD:96 
♦5FFF:9G 



6C 85 4D DO 0C 



EA 



238 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



The experts are excited about QR AMMAT1R 

Seldom does a new software product receive the universal praise from the 
experts of major microcomputer magazines that Grammatik has. Read for yourself: 



Alan R. Miller, Interface Age, May 1982: 

"The entire manuscript of my Fortran book was given to 
Grammatik. Grammatik flagged many locations throughout 
the book. Several doubled words were correctly flagged. Other 
flagged passages truly needed attention. ""Grammatik found a 
eery important pattern; the expression 'in this case' appeared 
b'6 times. This phrase expressed four different concepts, and 
most of the examples were reworded." "Profile can be used to 
determine the frequency of word usage in a docutnent." 
"Grammatik is a useful aid for professional writers. It is the 
perfect complement to a spelling checker." 

A. A. Wicks, Computronics , June 1982: 

"The manual for Grammatik is better than average. The gen- 
eral text and explanations are thorough, detailed, and con- 
cise. " "When the program was 'test run' on some old articles of 
mine still on disk, I was embarrassed by some of the over- 
worked, wordy, or trite phrases that I had used. Nevertheless, I 
had to agree with what Grammatik was saying, and vow to 
avoid these pitfalls in the future. " "Th is is one of the most inter- 
esting and useful programs that I have had the pleasure to re- 
view. All functions operated as stated with no problems, or 
even a hint of a problem. And no guessing was required about 
exactly what some of the directions implied. Anyone involved 
With word processing in any way, whether writing manuals, 
letters, brochures, newscopy, reports, etc. is encouraged to get 
this excellent program." 

Stephen Kimmel, Creative Computing, June 1982: 
"I don't get excited about many programs. I am excited about 
Grammatik. " "It is difficult to imagine the program being any 
easier to use. " "I had decided that the program would be useful 
to a professional writer if only because it checks for double 
words." "I have a higher enthusiasm threshold than that. 
Grammatik can also be expanded to include phrases of parti- 

GRAMMATIK + 



cular significance to you. It can become your personal editor 
and English coach. I love to start sentences with 'and'. That's 
not a particularly good idea. So I added the phrase '. And' with 
the note to be careful not to overuse it. Now I get a reminder 
every time I do it. There are other words that I use too often. My 
copy of Grammatik checks for them, too, and gently tells me to 
watch out. " "I like Grammatik a great deal. It is a worthy and 
useful addition to your word processing software." 
Bob Louden, InfoWorld, December 7, 1981: 

"Grammatik is the next step beyond spell i ng checking for seri- 
ous word processors. Grammatik analyzes writing style at the 
word and sentence level while, at the same time, it checks for 
subtle spelling and typographical errors that go beyond the 
capabilities of conventional spelling-checking programs. If 
you use a word processor and a spelling checker, then you 
should investigate the unique capabilities of this program." 
"Although skeptical at first, I proceeded to run several of my 
published articles through Grammatik, None were free of 
errors." "Grammatik is a surprisingly fast and easy tool for 
analyzing writing style and punctuation." 

Dona Z. Meilach, Interface Age, May 1982: 
"The programs together (Aspen Softwares spelling checker 
Proofreader and Grammatik) offer a dynamic tool for compre- 
hensive editing beyond spelling corrections. It can begin where 
your college English teacher left off and help you analyze your 
documents in a way you may never have thought possible." 

Eric Balkan, The Computer Consultant, Vol 2 No 9: 
"As a reviewer, I'm impressed the most with the imagination 
that went into this product. With all the me-too software on the 
market, it's good to see something original come out. It's also 
good to see that the program author allowed the user as much 
freedom as he did — you can use your own imagination to ex- 
tend the uses of the program." 




T M 



= NO ERRORS 



Together, Grammatik and the Aspen Software Company spelling checker Proofreader form an unequalled document proof- 
reading system. Proofreader features an official version of the RANDOM HOUSE® Dictionary for a word list that you can trust! It 
also features immediate on-line access to the dictionary for spelling help while making corrections interactively. Proofreader is the 
best spelling checker available. Write or call for more details. (On-line dictionary not available on TRS-80 version.) 



CP/M and IBM-PC DOS: Grammatik - $150.00, Proofreader - $129 00. Both - $250 00 TRS-80 Model II 
$59 00, Proofreader - $89 00, Both - $139 00 Manuals only $8 00 each, $15 00 both 



Grammatik - $99 00; Proofreader - $99 00; Both - $179 00 TRS-80 Model I III Grammatik 



IMPORTANT ORDERING INFORMATION: You MUST specify computer model, operating system, memory size and format 

and number of disk drives when ordering either software or manuals alone All U S . Canada and Mexico orders include first 

class shipping in price We accept cash, check, money order. VISA and Master Card Cost on manual only orders can be 

credited to final purchase NM residents add 4% sales tax 

(Dealer and OEM inquiries welcome) 

Random House is a registered trademark of Random House. Inc Other registered trademarks CP M Digital Research. TRS-80 

Tandy Corp MS-DOS Microsoft IBM IBM Proofreader Grammatik Aspen Software Co 



Distributed By: 

SOFTI/M- 

SOFTl/WE 

DIGITAL /MARKETING 

''t/VWPKtllL ' 




INTBASIC, continued... 



are needed, along with a few more 
changes and some new instructions. 

At $5010, new instructions are inserted 
that will automatically set HIMEM at 
$6C00 instead of 5C000. This is necessary 
so that INTBASIC won't be wiped out 
the first time a program is loaded. The 
instructions at $5A88 eliminate cold re- 
starts of your Apple from Integer Basic 
(unexpected rebooting of the disk). 

Listing 3. Integer Basic is now in great 
shape for cassette use, but DOS isn't ready 
to deal with it yet. DOS will still look for a 
language card, and, not finding one, insist 
LANGUAGE NOT AVAILABLE if you 
try to run Integer Basic. That is where 
Listing 3 comes in. 

The jump table at $9D62 must be 
changed. The instructions at $A5B2 and 
$A5BB must be changed so that DOS will 
check at the right memory location for 
INTBASIC and think it is there. 

The message at $B3B0 (DISK 
VOLUME) is changed to reflect the fact 
that the DOS has been customized. The 
message will now read I/A DOS VOL 
each time the disk is CATALOGed. I/A 
stands for Integer/Applesoft. The change 
at S9D01 combined with the cold restart 
of DOS provided by the command 9D84G 
will cause DOS to stick its buffers below 
INTBASIC. That way you can change 
the number of buffers with the MAX- 
FILES command and not worry about 
having INTBASIC wiped out. 

Figure I. 



Listing 4. Now it is time to taste the 
fruits of your labor. Enter the program 
shown, insert a new disk, and type INIT 
HELLO. Once the disk is initialized, type 
BSAVE INTBASIC 6C00, A$3000, 
L53000. Then to test it all, type PR#6 (or 
whatever it takes to boot a disk on your 
system) and you should be using Integer 
Basic. 

If you are not familiar with Integer 
Basic, you may be in for some confusion, 
since many of the Applesoft commands 
you have grown accustomed to are not 
available or have different spellings. 
Apple does offer a manual for Integer 
Basic that will be extremely helpful. 

Moving INTBASIC Elsewhere 

If you BLOAD INTBASIC somewhere 
besides $3000, you must adjust all of the 
addresses in Listing 2 accordingly. In 
Listing 1, change the bytes at $301, $3 IB 
and $3 IF. They contain the high bytes of 
the jump table, and start and end address- 
es in INTBASIC as it is currently located. 

If you want to use INTBASIC some- 
where besides $6C00, you must change 
the bytes at $310 and $350 in Listing One. 
Add $01 for each $100 decrease in the 
starting address. INTBASIC will not work 
anywhere. The starting address must have 
the form $XY00, where Y is even and X 
is any number. 

You will have to change some of the 
bytes in Listings 2 and 3 also. Subtract 



$01 for each $100 decrease in the starting 
address. The addresses at which the bytes 
will have to be changed are shown in 
Figure 1. 

By putting INTBASIC at $6C00 I have 
left a hole from $9C00 to $9CFF which 
may be used for machine language pro- 
grams. 

When I first got INTBASIC running I 
tried out the Integer programs on the 
Master disk. I can report that I was 
impressed by Apple vision, bored by Ani- 
mals, and amused by Biorhythm. I don't 
believe this attempt to chart biorhythms 
is very dependable. The program draws a 
chart that shows the day I was born was 
just an average day. I don't remember it, 
but I doubt that it was. □ 



References 

Beneath Apple DOS, Don Worth and 
Pieter Lechner, Quality Software, 6660 
Reseda Blvd., Suite 105, Reseda, CA 
91335. Pages 7-3 and 8-32 show how to 
rebuild buffers and where the DISK 
VOLUME message is located. Many de- 
tails about DOS. 

Apple II Basic Programming Manual, 
Apple Computer Inc., 10260 Bandley Dr., 
Cupertino, CA 95014. The cover looks 
similar to the Applesoft tutorial, but this 
one shows what the Integer commands 
do. Mine cost about $10. 



$40B0 

$5011 

$5A95 

$5AFE 

$5B00 

$5EA8 

$5FBF 

$5FFD 

$5FFF 



(Subtract $01 from the contents of 
each locations for each $100 decrease 
in the starting address of INTBASIC.) 



$9D63 

$9D67 

$9D69 

$9D6B 

$A5BC 

S9D01 



($A5B6) 
($A5BF) 



(As above but these addresses will be 
different if DOS is not in 48K. If the 
addresses are different, you must also 
change $A5B6 and $A5BF. They 
contain the high byte of an address 
in DOS itself. Subtract $01 for each 
$100 decrease in memory size below $C000 
(48K).) 



$4494 



(The contents of this address must be 
determined by a formula: 
$4494 = ($40BO-l)/2. 
Example: If $40BO contains 89, $4494 
must contain (89 - 1)/2 = 44. This 
is the reason for the restriction on 
the location of INTBASIC— $40B0 contains 
the high byte of an address and must be odd.) 



Listing 3. 



*9DG2I36 84 E5 A4 E3 7F 00 7C 03 7C 
*A5B2!A2 EO 8E 9G 9D C9 4C FO OA 
*A5BBIA2 7C 8E 9G 9D C9 20 GO EA EA 
*B3B0:CC CF DB AO D3 CF C4 AO CI AF C9 
*9D0i:6B 
»9D84G 



Listing 4. 



no HOME 

]20 print "loading intbasic at *6c00" i 
print i print "to use the mini-a 
ssembler:" 

130 print " #92660 or": print " 

3CALL 37478" 
335 PRINT I PRINT "HIMEM IS NORMALLY SE 

T AT $6500" 
]40 PRINT CHR* (4); "BLOAD INTBASIC 6C0 

Or A*GCOO" 
]50 HOME 
160 PRINT CHR* (4) J "INT" 

(NOW INSERT A NEW DISK AND TYPE!) 

3INIT HELLO 

3BSAME INTBASIC GC00 , A*3000 , L*3000 

Note that if you try to run the mini- 
assembler from Integer Basic using CALL 
37478, you will get an error message. 
Integer can handle only numbers between 
-32767 and 32767. Use CALL -28058 
instead. 



240 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



Pssss tt. 





(Jingle Bells, Jingle 
Bells, Jingle All The...) 



We're really not rushing the season. We 
wouldn't even mention it if we didn't think 
you'd want to know. 

The Strictly Soft Ware Holiday Catalogs 
(Apple & IBM) are going to be ready early 
this fall. More software than ever. Same 
great prices. And with a customer service 
and technical support program that's so 
good that. . .well, let's just say someone at the 
North Pole is on our mailing list. 

If you're already on the Strictly Soft Ware 



." 



." 




list, you'll automatically receive our Holiday 
Catalog. If you're not on the list, call us (toll- 
free) at 1-800-848-5263. Bulk mailing starts 
Oct. 1. 

Don't be left out in the cold by not order- 
ing the free Strictly Soft Ware Holiday 
Catalog. It may be the nicest present you get 
this year. 



Holiday 
Gift Idea #1 

The Strictly Soft 

Ware Subscription 
Plan. Prepayment 
allows the account to 
be drawn upon for 
whatever you want, 
whenever you want. 
When we send the 
package, we'll provide 
a balance statement as 
well. Here's a gift that 
can last all year long. 



SPECIALS 



Sensible Speller . . $99.99 

Apple 21 $19.95 

Draw Poker $23.95 

Galactic Gladiators . . $29.95 
Computer Bismark . $44.95 
Adv. to Atlantis $29.95 



IBM • SPECIALS • IBM 



Visicalc $189.99 

Visidex $189.99 

Desk Top Plan $189.99 

Personal Fin. Prog. . $74.95 



PFS Graph $89.95 

Mathmagic $69.95 

ProPix $19.95 

Casino $23.95 

Terrapin Logo $119.95 

World Series $23.95 

Write-On $99.99 

WordStar $239.99 

Volkswriter $159.99 

Data Capture 4.0 . . $74.95 



Holiday 
Gift Idea #2 

The Strictly Soft 

Ware Gilt Certificate. 
Here's the perfect way 
to take the guesswork 
out of holiday giving. 
A gift certificate and 
the Strictly Soft Ware 
holiday catalog guar- 
antee the perfect gift 
for everyone on your 
holiday list. 



Above Specials In Effect Until Nov. 1, 1982 




VfSA 



We take Master Card or VISA (include card 
# and expiration date). Ohio residents add 
5.5°/o tax. Include $2.00 for postage. 3% 
discount if check accompanies order. 

Send for free catalog. Prices subject to 
change. Hrs.: 9-9 weekdays; 9-6 Sat. 



Strictly Soft Ware 

Post Office Box 338 
Granville, Ohio 43023 
order by phone 800-848-5253 
in Ohio 614-587-2938 




Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 

IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corp. 



W^ 



CIRCLE 293 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Build a Paddle Control for Your 
TRS-80 Color Computer 



David H. Ahl 



For playing games which require move- 
ment in only one direction a potentio- 
meter, sometimes called a paddle control, 
tends to provide more precise control 
than a joystick. This is because a joystick 
rotates through an arc of about 70 degrees 
compared to a potentiometer with 300 
degrees of rotation. 

Playing any of the Invaders/Galaxian 
family of games with the TRS-80 Color 
Computer joystick tends to be an exercise 
in frustration. You know you could do 
better were it not for that darned joy- 
stick. 

Faced with this frustration, I decided 
to build a set of paddles for the TRS-80 
Color Computer. The cost is modest— 
about $8.25 each or $16.50 for a pair. 
Most of the parts are readily available at 
your neighborhood Radio Shack or elec- 
tronics dealer. You might have trouble 
finding the 5-pin 240° D.I.N, male plug. If 
you order by mail, be sure to specify a 
240° plug as the 180° one is much more 
common. The 240° plug is used on some 
CB rigs and is sometimes available with a 
5-conductor microphone cable already 
attached. This is perfect, although it will 
cost more than if you make your own. 

The existing joystick schematic is 
shown in Figure 1. Figure 2 shows a circuit 
with one potentiometer that can be 
switched to replace either the X or Y 
direction with the SPDT slide switch. This 
is adequate for most uses. 

However, if you want to use the paddle 
control to play a game such as Bustout, 
you would have a problem. Bustout nor- 
mally uses a joystick and, while the game 
permits movement in all directions, the 
main movement is usually along one axis. 
Hence, it would be desirable to set one 
direction of movement at an extreme, say 
the bottom of the screen, and use the 
paddle to control right-left movement. For 
this, you will need the circuit shown in 
Figure 3. In this circuit, a 100K ohm 
trimmer potentiometer is used to "per- 
manently" set one direction while the 
regular potentiometer controls the other 
direction. 



V5v 






WWt+C 



-rarr 




lOOk. 



<3rrou«* d 

Figure 1. Existing TRS-80 Color Computer joystick schematic. 



+ 5v 




loo W-a 



Figure 2. Schematic diagram for one potentiometer replacing one joystick direction. 
Unused direction is not connected. 



45V 



Pv>$h 




loot TL 
(Trm*»*«r) 



6r*oi*d 



Figure 3. Schematic diagram for replacing joystick with regular and trim potentio- 
meters. 



242 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 









* 



^ 





Completely Redesigned. 
Now, the Grappler + . 

The original Grappler was the 
first graphics interface to give 
you hi-res screen dumps from 
your keyboard. The new 
Grappler + with Dual Hi-Res 
Graphics adds flexibility with a 
side-by-side printout of page 1 
and page 2 graphics. 

Interfacing the Grappler + to a 
wide range of printers is easy 
as changing a dip switch. 4K of 
exclusive firmware makes the 
Grappler + the most intelligent, 
full-featured Apple® Printer 
Interface made. And, the 
Grappler + is Apple III compatible* 

The imitations are many, so 
insist on the #1 Apple Graphics 
Interface on the market. Insist 
on the Grappler + . Available 
now at most Apple dealers. 

'Requires additional software driver. 
"Requires graphics upgrade. 

Orange Micro, Inc. 1982 





ACTUAL APPLE II PRINTOUT USING GRAPPLER AND EPSON MX100 

WHhThe 

Grappler + 

Printer Interface 




The Grappler + Features: 

• Dual Hi-Res Graphics • Printer 
Selector Dip Switch • Apple III 
Compatible* • Graphics Screen 
Dump • Inverse Graphics 

• Emphasized Graphics • Double Size 
Picture • 90° Rotation • Center 
Graphics • Chart Recorder 

Mode • Block Graphics • Bell 
Control • Skip-over-perf • Left and 
Right Margins • Variable Line 
Length • Text Screen Dumps. 

The Grappler + works with Pascal 
and CPM. 

The Grappler + Interfaces with 
the following printers: 

• Anadex • Centronics • Datasouth 

• Epson* * • IDS • NEC • C-ltoh • Okidata * ' 



OS 



Orange micro 

^ Inc. 



CIRCLE 263 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



3150 E. La Palma, Suite G 
Anaheim, California 92806 
(714) 630-3620 

CPM is a registered trademark of Digital Research. Inc. 
Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc 

Foreign Dealer Inquiries Welcome TX18351 1 CSMA 



Paddle, continued... 




Parts for one paddle control: cable, box, 
potentiometer, slide switch, resistor, dis- 
assembled D.I.N, plug. 

Building the control is quite simple. 
Drill three pilot holes in the small plastic 
"project box," one in each end and one in 
the center of the top. With larger drills, 
enlarge the holes for the push button 
switch and potentiometer until they fit. 
With a small file, make a rectangular hole 
in one end for the slide switch. Drill 
mounting holes and secure the switches 
and pot. 

If you are building the more exotic 
version in Figure 3, mount the trimmer 
pot on either the right or left side of the 
box. 

Use a knife or rat tail file to notch the 
box on the side near the slide switch for 
the cable. 

Using short pieces of hook up wire, 
make all the connections except those 
from the cable. Then strip about two 
inches of outside insulation from the 
cable, strip and tin each wire and make 
these connections. Be sure to solder all 
connections securely — no cold solder 
joints please. 

Connect the wires to the potentiometer 
as shown in Figure 4. This will insure that 
objects will move on the screen in a 
direction corresponding to potentiometer 
rotation. 

Attach a small cable clamp to the cable 
where it exits the side of the box and 
screw the cover back on. 




Parts List (2 Paddle Controllers) 

2 5-pin, 240° D.I.N, male plug 

2 5-foot lengths 5-conductor stranded 
cable 

2 100K ohm linear taper potentiometer 

2 SPST momentary contact push button 
switch 

2 SPDT slide switch (optional DPDT) 

2 Mounting box (1 1/4x2x2 3/4) 

2 1" diameter round knob 

2 100K ohm linear taper trimmer poten- 
tiometer (optional) 

4 6-32 screws and nuts 

2 Small cable clamp 

Strip about 1 1/2" of outer insulation 
from the other end of the cable. Strip 
about 1/16" from each wire. Disassemble 
the D.I.N, plug. Place the cable sheath 
over the cable, solder the connectors, 
and reassemble. Figures 1 to 3 show the 
D.I.N, connector viewed from the inside 
(cable side). 

Plug in your new joysticks and test them 
with the following simple program: 




5 CLS 
10 PRINT 
20 PRINT 
30 PRINT 
40 PRINT 
60 GOTO 



@0JOYSTK(0) 

@8JOYSTK(l) 

©16JOYSTK(2) 

©24JOYSTK(3) 

10 



Use wires in 5-conductor cable for most 
internal connections. 

JOYSTK and 1 correspond to the 
right port while 2 and 3 are the left one. 
The slide switch should allow you to 
switch the right potentiometer between 
and 1 and the left between 2 and 3. As 
you rotate the pot, the screen should show 
values between and 63. If you built the 
circuit in Figure 2, the unused direction 
will generally hover between values 20 to 
40. Since the connector is hanging loose 
and not terminated, this value is unde- 
fined. 

If everything is working, get out that 
game of Invaders and prepare to rack up 
the highest score youVe ever seen. D 



filmic 





Figure 4. Rear view of potentiometer con- Finished paddle control can be hand held 
nections. or used on a table top. 



Push button switch, potentiometer and 
slide switch are mounted as shown. 




"I used to change channels and open garage doors, but then I was replaced by an enzyme-activated 
device surgically implanted in the owner's brain. " 



244 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 




BEAT COIN-OP 






* 



► 





GET THE NEW CREATIVE COMPUTING 
GUIDE TO THE VIDEO ARCADE GAMES! 



Here's the book coin-op game fanatics have been waiting for! 
The CREATIVE COMPUTING GUIDE TO THE VIDEO 
ARCADE GAMES is an all-new, field-tested manual filled with 
savvy advice and sound tips on how to get the most from all 
those quarters! 

Authors David Lubar and Owen Linzmayer spent thou- 
sands of hours playing games, taking notes, and finding the 
most effective strategies for winning. The result is a player's 
guide to the 20 most popular games, from Donkey Kong and 
Pac-Man to Mousetrap and Centipede. 

The GUIDE TO THE VIDEO ARCADE GAMES helps begin- 
ners avoid being wiped out in seconds, find places to hide, 
learn how to shoot and move. For advanced players, there's a 
wealth of hard-won intelligence on exploiting programming 

oversights to prolong the 
action and rack up record 
scores. The detailed illus- 
trations—at least two for 
each game — will help 
readers on every level to 
better understand the ac- 
tion and tactics described. 
Save money on prac- 
tice sessions and be the 
envy of your fellow game- 
players— with the GUIDE 
TO THE VIDEO ARCADE 
GAMES. Order your copy 
today! 

ONLY $3.95! 

4 3 / 16 "x6%" 
Softcover, 112 pages. 

For faster service, 
PHONE TOLL FREE: 

800-631-8112 

(In N J call 201-540-0445) 




In the GUIDE TO THE VIDEO ARCADE GAMES, you'll learn 
about: 

• Collisions, and how various games deal with them. The 
differences are important to you. 

• Bonuses, and why you should be cautious about going for 
some of them. Many bonuses are real benefits, but others 
are decoys. 

• Rates of fire, and how they vary from game to game. 

• Wraparound, and how to judge exactly where an object 
will reappear on the screen. 

• Horizontal and vertical motion, and when to take advan- 
tage of diagonal movement. 

• Distractions and why they are dangerous. 

• Goals, and why it's important to know what they are for 
each game. 



creative computing Dept. cn26 

39 East Hanover Avenue, Morris Plains, NJ 07950 



Send me 



copies of the GUIDE TO THE VIDEO 



ARCADE GAMES, at $3.95, plus $1 postage and handling * 
each.(#14A) 

□ PAYMENT ENCLOSED $ (N J residents add 

5% sales tax.) 

"'All foreign orders (except Canada and Mexico) add $3 to postage and 
handling shown. Shipped air mail only. 

□ CHARGE MY: 

□ American Express □ MasterCard [] Visa 

(Charge and phone orders: $10 minimum.) 



Card No. 



_Exp. Date. 



Signature. 



Mr. /Mrs. /Ms. 
Address 



(please print full name) 



.Apt. 



City. 



JState. 



^Zip- 



Institutions only— purchase orders under $50 not accepted. 



OUR PRICES ARE OUR SUCCESS 

MOST ECONOMICAL SOURCE TO BUY FLOPPY DRIVES — FROM ONE OF THE LARGEST 

DEALERS IN THE WORLD! NOW YOU CAN BUY TANDON, QUME, TEAC, SHUGART, 

MPI, SIEMENS, REMEX, YANKEE, APPLE, EPSON, DEC, CDC, CIPHER, NEC, 

TALLY, ALTOS, ATARI, DATAPRODUCTS, IBM AND MORE . . . 

... AT LOW COST!! IMMEDIATE SHIPPING!! 



APPLE 



100% Apple compatible; runs 
DOS 3.3, PASCAL, CP/M etc. 

15% more storage by using enhancer diskette. 

300% faster track-to-track speed. 



S* 



N* 



$ 10 INTRODUCTORY $259 

PRICE 

SUGGESTED RETAIL PRICE 
$329.00 



APPLE II ♦ Complete System: APPLE II + Computer, 
disk drive and controller 12" monitor 
green screen $1599 

APPLE II ♦ compatible Winchester drives 
5 MB... $1795 10 MB . . . $1995 

Includes controller, cables, software for CP/M, 
DOS or PASCAL. 

8" drive, controller, power supply, cables, cabinet 
and software $1595 

APPLE Drive 5%" 70/80 Track $389 

Enhancer Diskette 35 TD 40 Tracks $389 

APPLE II plus 64K, Z80 card, 80 column card, 
controller hardware diagnostic, DOS 3.3, 
disk drive 163K, green monitor — runs DOS 3.3, 
CP/M and PASCAL $1950 

OTHER PRODUCTS FOR APPLE II 

Description Sale Price 

VERSAcard-multifunction board $169 

BSR Transducer $19 

Applications/Demo Disk $25 

Parallel Printer Card $69 

PRT-1 with cable $75 

PRT-1 with EPSON 80/100 screen graphics 
dump with cable -Graffitti card- $99 

PRT-1 with NEC8023 or C-10th 

PROWRITER screen Dump Graphics $99 

1 6K ram card $89 

32K ram card $175 

64K ram card including DOS 3.3 

disk emulator $279 

128K ram card including DOS 3.3 

disk emulator $369 

PASCAL disk emulator $39 

DOS 3.3 disk emulator $39 

Visicalc Expand Program $59 

VERSAbox Spooler/buffer 16K 

Centronics Input/Output $199 

VERSAbox Spooler/buffer 16K 

Centronics and RS232C $239 



VERSAbox Real Time Clock/ 

Display option $129 

16K Memory Modules for VERSAbox $39 

Standard 6' Centronics Parallel Cable 

for EPSON, C-ITOH, NEC, ANADEX, 

and others $22 

Standard 6' Paper Tiger or Prism 
Printer cable. Parallel Centronics 
Male DB25 $26 

Miscellaneous cables for various printers. 

Please specify for Qume, Diable, Votrax 

NEC Spinwriter or other $26 

80 Column card $169 

Z80 card (no CP/M software included) $149 

Controller for Apple II including 

hardware diagnostics $95 

PC with 256K memory, disk drive 
D IWI controller, 2 drives and a green 
IDIfl 12" monitor $2799 

Floppy drive controller $189 

Controller with one serial interface $249 

Board with one parallel and two serial interface 

(no controller) $249 

Big Blue Card (multifunction card) $489 

Single side single density drive 5 1 /4 M $195 

Double side double density drive 5 1 /4 M $249 

Tandon TM 100-1 5 1 /4" SS SD drive 

250 KB capacity $208 

Tandon TM 100-2 5 1 /4 M DS DD drive 

500 KB capacity $269 

Tandon TM 100-4 5 1 /4" 96 TPI drive 

1MB capacity $379 

MEMORY: 

64K — $189 128K — $289 
256K — $499 51 2K — $799 



a APPLE COMPATIBLE COMPUTERS a 
^ BASIS & FRANKLIN AVAILABLE ♦ 



CompuShrck 



800 ATARI computer and disk 
ATA P| drive $1099 

II I fllll 400 ATARI computer and disk 

drive $799 

Double side double density drive $649 

Add on drive $399 

VIC 20 $299 

NEC computer PC8000 call 

Xerox computer 820 call 

DISK DRIVES 

TANDON: 

TM 100-1 $208 

TM 100-2 $269 

TM 100-4 $379 

TM 848-1 $399 

TM 848-2 $499 

TM 602 - 5 MB $899 

TM 603 - 10 MB $1049 

SHUGART: 

SA 400 $215 

450 $281 

800/801 $379 

850 $535 

SIEMENS: 

FDD 100-5 $199 

200-5 $259 

100-8 $349 

200-8 $449 

QUME: 

DT-5 $279 

DT-8 474 

TEAC: 

FD50A $199 

FD50B $299 

FD50E $299 

FD50F $399 



CABINETS/POWER SUPPLY 

Dual 8" disk drive cabinet with power supply $249 
Cabinet/power supply for single 8" drive . . $179 
Dual 5 1 /4 M disk drive cabinet with power supply $99 
Single S%" disk drive cabinet with 

power supply $69 

2 single side double density 8" disk drives, 

cabinet/power supply $895 

MONITORS & PRINTERS 

NEC 12" green $169 

BMC 12" green $95 

BMC 12" green (high res.) $149 

BMC 13" color monitor $289 

C. ITOH Prowriter parallel $499 

C. ITOH Prowriter serial $599 

C. ITOH Prowriter 15" carriage . . . Parallel . $699 

Serial . . $799 

F10 Daiseywheel letter quality $1495 

OKIDATA 

82A $459 83A $730 

84AP $999 84AS $1099 

EPSON MX-80 $469 

MX-80 FT $539 MX-100 $699 

BROTHER HR1 $799 

SMITH CORONA TP1 $599 



ATTACHE: 

The 18-pound portable, compact turn key computer 
system, by OTRONA contains: Z80A processor, 
DMA processor, 2 double size double density 
drives, high resolution graphics, built-in 
diagnostics, CP/M, Wordstar plus, Basic 80, 
Valet, and other items included. DC operator and 
battery backup. Multifunction expansion 
(optional) $3999 



Soon Opening Retail Stores Throughout U.S.A. 
FRANCISE INQUIRIES WELCOME 

PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 



ALL FLOPPIES 

REPAIRED QUICKLY 

AT LOW COST 



24-HOUR ORDERING SERVICE 

TOLL-FREE TELEPHONE NUMBERS 

Outside California: 800-854-8428 

Inside California: (714) 730-7207 or (408) 973-1444 

Telex: 18-3511 Answer Back CSMA 



CompuShrck 

Computers - Video Games 

2630-H Walnut Avenue 
Tustin, CA 92680 



CIRCLE 140 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



RanaSystems 

Your Apple computer can 

grow from ordinary to awesome 
in a matter of^minutes. 

The Elite disk drive Series by Rana 
Systems gives you that kind of magic. 
Quickly, easily and cost-effectively. 

This superb family of sophisticated 
floppy drives was designed and per- 
fected by a team of industry-respected 
engineers expressly for Apple* com- 
puter owners who have long been de- 
manding more disk drive for their money. 

Now they have a drive that makes 
an Apple perform the way it should. 
For example; 

Elite One. the most economical 
Rana drive, delivers 15^ more storage 
capacity than Apple's drive. The top- 
of-the-iine Elite Three will provide an 
astonishing four- rimes more storage, 
approaching hard disk performance. It's 

done through exclusive high-density 
single and double-sided disks and heads. 



APPLEWRITErV EXTENDED 
additional capabilities 



•o column 

VIOtO CANOS 

LOW! N CASK 
AOAPTtat 



APPLE SOFTWARE 
V APPLE ACCESSORIES 



Attach SYSTEM 

SAVER 
to your 
Apple II 



CALL TOLL FBtE 



»jv» tftf 



lr«re ( jijIok 



MowoftMO SoNcart 
Mcroaoft 1«K Ramcard 



For specific software not listed. 
CALL 1-800 368-2260 

■Gold 
Disk 

Tel. 1 -800-368-2260 

VlSA/MC/Check/M 
Free BASF disk 



FREE DATA 
DISK WITH 
EVERY U9 
WORTH 
OF 
PURCHASE 




INTf HFACC CAMOS 



[F 


The Grappler 

Apple Graphics Interface 




GRAPPLCR '. 

WrUTMt, lllllllllllll ■ 






■ 

1 " • 1 

V> O a^. ITlli.o • ■ ..... ,{ 


The most intelligent Apple Interface available. 
EPROM chip makes high-resolution graphics 
easy Versions to accommodate the Anadex, 
Epson Series', IDS Paper Tigers. Centronics 
739. NEC 8023. C' Itoh Prowriter. Okidata 
Series' and more 

'Requires Graphics Upgrade. 



Trie MlCR0M00(M M « I complete commuiwuitio" Jyslem <o< 
fie Aaptt II It cm \t*r\vn-\ over me lelepfionc <m*s 0JU Betw e en 
you' AppM and ottie' compuifs mywfwft in No* A/nerici " 
toanar me Apple can be usad is t 'emote mm.n^i to »norx 
compute Tut DOMifriitiei iff rnOMss 



HAYES MODEMS 




Smartmodem 




• Auto Aniwef • AuioDul • Repeat 

• Programmable ■ UM Any Language 

• Touch-Tone and Pulse Dialing 

• Audio Monitoi - Listen to Connection 

• FCC-Approved D"ect Connect 

• Full or Half Duplet 0-300 Baud 

• RS-232C interlace • 7 Status LED s 

• Two Vtar Limited Warranty 



Corvus 

The PKASO Interface lV at "JMi 

Gray scale printing 
Snapshot screen dump 

support for the Apple Z-80 CP'M 
Apple ///compatibility 

The master pkaso 
printer interface 
at a very low cost 




TG Products 

JOYSTICK 



Wr««Juc»*| COWUTUIN a is/^ isMt aia<te»«* Umi awatln *a» <• 'Mate re** i 
ramajMie* , 4 < (■-**«% at* mmrmtm *• ant fjemttem r«u «•»»'•- S* ******* « aeaowa COMfnj ' 
taffeta* rev catteaute* it aula **e» fcay+Jaa* < at iw tteajartaaa ajaf eVacts t*a waaaaiei tea aaar 
*—**>%. COMfnj-TuflN haaat ye*- §at IN* -»*>w esa*. a4 vex* tmtm ml eamaaiaee t* r ■<■»■«■ iiaaajaa* 
a* ciufMty raacK^tg du> is a* >n ae»m*awa«J uMt. Lett raw •re'*™ l*Ua« r*w wSmt f m* fejy gay ».t* 

computus**. 

AM •*»»>» i«» wh -, »«*« COMfHJ-TLrSM alas craatae aaata* feme aeav.ng a>twai*aaa» lav ttal 
famrfy vvaaa ueaag +•"** • a* "a Mart m »e.a*Hi 

FEATIRES 





■ l/%- vli4 M«ck «Maiflw> 

' H(t.| *rt t M>-W«^ IK ll l ll 

i M^vti «aiit? cam Melon 

■ II" ■ !•" t«p p4a(t«v 

U.c*»u «•»*•. J «ak-*i«« * KMMMrl 
•*»•»■ koiiom runx far mm i«ilKlKf 

■ M«r*-ifc>d. iar«-KT«lc*) f»lt t^ttm l«*t see* 

■ *• MM««Mr ravjuirM. 



ONLY S JQf5 

1 eajrTTf rated erete 



The EXECUTIVE SECRETARY 



Ail th« usual DkO'd processor function* 
40 or SO columns teioclabi* 
Roai shift **> without soldering 
Full formal Control 
Full lormt handling 
Keyboard input at print iimi 
Supports any pnnl*r 

Built m Card File «'Aepo-t Genarator 
Access to eitemai daiabase* such at 

Data Factory and otnars 
Bunt m Electronic Mai* 



GOLD DISK- Software 

Box 102 

Glen Arm, Md. 21057 

TOLL FREE 1-800-366-2260 

END OF SUMMER 

SPECIAL DISCOUNT 

FOR ALL STUDENTS 

AND PARENTS OF STUDENTS' 




CaedPanattv 

1^800-368-2260 (In Maryland, Call 592-5949) apples a traocmabk of apple computer 1NC 



CIRCLE 180 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



DON'T BUY SOFTWARE THAT'S 

LOCKED UP! 





UTIIaJTY CelTY 

21 UTILITIES ON ONE DISK 

by Bert Kersey 

LIST FORMATTER makes custom listings with 
page breaks; each statement on new line, if- 
then's called out and loops indented MULTI- 
COLUMN CATALOG in any page- width Put 
invisible commands in programs. Alphabetize 
& store info. Make trick & invisible file names 
Append programs Convert hex. Dump text to 
printer Auto-post Run Number/Date in pro- 
grams. More: 21 LISTABLE PROGRAMS Total! 

$OQ80 Includes Apple Tip Book *3 
and Peeks 6* Pokes Chart 




ALPHA PLOT 

HI-RES GRAPHICS/TEXT UTILITY 

by Bert Kersey & Jack Cassidy 

HI-RES DRAWING: Create pictures and 
charts on both hi- res pages; all appendable to 
YOUR PROGRAMS Relocate any portion of a 
picture. Compress hi- res, store images in 1 3 
DISK SPACE Superimpose images too 

HI-RES TEXT: Upper lower case with des- 
cenders PROPORTIONAL SPACING No tab li- 
mitations. Adjustable letter height, spacing 6? 
color Multidirectional typing for graphs 

$»TQ80 Includes Apple Tip Book *4 
O JLf a^d peeks & Pokes Chart 



All Beagle Bros Apple Utilities are 
BACKUP-JkBLE, LISTABLE, CUSTOMIZABLE 
and fully compatible with normal Apple DOS. 




APPLl 

MECHANTC b yBe rt 

SHAPE WRITER ZAP UTILITY Kersey 

SHAPE EDITOR: Add professional hi res 
animation to your programs Design shapes & 
custom type characters, automatically written 
into shape tables. Many type fonts on disk & 
listable demo programs showing how to use 
shape tables for games & impressive hi- res 
CHARTS & GRAPHS A valuable time-saving 
utility and Apple learning tool. 

BYTE ZAP: A MUST utility Rewrite any byte 
on a disk Optional Hex/Decimal/Ascii display 
and input Create illegal file names Restore 
deleted files Inspect, repair and protect disks 
Change DOS. Clear illustrated instructions 
show how data is stored and how to access it 

MORE : A disk PACKED with useful music, text 
& hires tricks for use in YOUR PROGRAMS 

$OQ80 Includes Apple Tip Book *8 
and Peeks & Pokes Chart 




DOS BOSS 

DISK COMMAND EDITOR 

by Bert Kersey & Jack Cassidy 

A classic utility you will ENJOY Rename com- 
mands/error messages PROTECT PROGRAMS 
( unauthorized save-attempt produces "Not 
Copyable" message). LIST-PREVENTION too. 
One-key program- run from catalog. Change 
Disk Volume heading to your title with or with- 
out volume number. Fascinating documenta- 
tion Hours of good reading <S? experiments 

All changes may be appended to your programs, 
so that anyone using your disks ( booted or not ) 
will be using DOS the way YOU formatted it. 

00 Includes Apple Tip Book *2 
and Peeks 6* Pokes Chart 



*24 




TIP DISK #1 

100 programs from Beagle Bros Tip Books 1 , 2, 
3£? 4— Hi-Res/Lo-Res/Text/Sound. All listable, 
copyable and changeable; each teaches another 
fascinating Apple programming trick! 
a> n f* f±f* Note No Tip Book with Tip Dish • I 

*#6U UU With Peeks cV Pokes Chart 



GOTO your Apple Dealer. 

Most Apple Dealers carry our software. 
If yours doesn't, he can have it in his 
store for you within just a few days 
through Beagle Bros or Softsel. 

nationwide- ©W 822-1800 «t.8ff 

C^ornia B °%£%B*Z** Z «* ^ 

Maska. Hawaii OUW « $3 qO 

ORDERSONiYj^^ 

Or Mall lis a check: 

Visa IfC No tf Exp Date i 

D Alpha Plot □ Utility City 
D Dot Boss G Apple Mechanic 
□ Tip Disk D Game Pick 1-4 

EACH DBK Inciudae Add II 50 shipping | on any size order | 

and a different ■ ??Af ^ BROS / *>•!*. C 

Apple Tip Book. 4 3 x 8 Sierra Vlarts 

each one a Gold Mine | San Diego, Ca 98103 

of juicy Apple info 1 please add W ' il outside North America. 




CIRCLE 121 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Computer Art 

for the 
Tektronix 4052 



Joe Jacobson 



These pictures were generated on a 
Tektronix 4052 intelligent terminal. This 
device, when used in stand-alone mode, 
functions as a microcomputer not unlike 
most home computers. The main differ- 
ences are that the CRT is a storage tube, 
screen resolution is very high, and you 
can easily obtain hardcopies of anything 
that is displayed on the screen. 

The programs that were used are coded 
in Basic. However, the plotting commands 
(MOVE, WRITE, WINDOW, VIEW- 
PORT), which are typical of graphics 
packages plot statements, are not standard 
Basic commands. 

The program listings are reproduced 
here. However, you will not be able to 
make these pictures on your home com- 
puter unless you have either a mechanical 
plotter or high enough CRT graphics 
resolution to draw thin lines. As home 
computers evolve and improve, more and 
more people will acquire systems wth good 
graphics capability and computer art will 

flourish at the grass roots level. For now, 
I hope you like my pictures. □ 



Joe Jacobson, 675 E. Street Rd., Apt. 1009, 
Warminster, PA 18974. 

November 1982° Creative Computing 



89 REM NOUA 

188 PAGE 

189 SET DEGREES 
118 WINDOW -1888,1888,-1898,1090 

111 VIEWPORT 28,118,15,85 

112 PAGE 

114 L-15 

115 PAGE 

128 FOR BM88 TO 588 STEP 58 
138 FOR A*8 TO 368 STEP 5 
148 GOSUB 188 

145 IF A>8 THEN 158 

146 MOUE X,Y 
14? GO TO 168 
158 DRAW X,Y 
168 NEXT A 
178 NEXT B 

188 R»B*<1-SIN<L*A>> 
198 X*R*C0S<A> 
288 Y*R*SIN<A> 
218 RETURN 
228 END 



89 REM CURLICUE MOIRE 
98 PAGE 
83 BM 

85 SET DEGREES 

86 PAGE 

87 K=8 

18 WINDOW -1888,1888,-1888,1888 
11 UIEWP0RT 28,118,15,85 
28 FOR C*8 TO 338 STEP 38 
38 FOR X*8 TO 1888 STEP 5 

31 IF K=8 THEN 148 

32 IF K>1 THEN 198 

33 U=-X*C0S<X-C> 

34 GO TO 158 
48 U*X*C0S<X-C> 
58 U=X*SIN<X-C> 

55 IF X>8 THEN 168 

56 MOUE U,U 

57 GO TO 178 
68 DRAW U,U 
78 NEXT X 

88 NEXT C 

81 IF B=l THEN 183 
S2 GO TO 198 

83 K*K+1 

84 GO TO 128 
98 END 




249 




Art, continued. 



100 REM STANDING UAUES 

Hi PrIKt *4h\W$ INITIftL ^ITUDE, «•« ■ 
183 INPUT B 

105 SET DEGREES 

106 WINDOW 0,1440,-10,10 

107 UIEWPORT 20,110,15,85 
110 PAGE 
11? FOR A*B TO 10 STEP 0.5 

119 NOME 0,0 

120 FOR X«8 TO 1440 STEP 5 
130 Y«A*SIN<X) 
140 DRAW X,Y 
150 NEXT X 

160 IF A»>10 THEN 178 

165 NEXT A 

178 END 



-18 OR B-8.5" 





•• 



•• 



THIS PROGRAM MAKES OSCILLOSCOPE-TYPE PATTERNS. TO SEE" 

WHAT EACH PARAMETER REPRESENTS, REFER TO A LISTING OF THE" 

PROGRAM. A DECENT SAMPLE OUTPUT IS GIUEN BY:" 

<J, M, PI, K,N)«<28, 16,8,8,8) AND" 

<I,G,P2,H,L)»<28, 17,35,8,8) AND D«.5" 

TO START THE PROGRAM, HIT CARRIAGE RETURN." 



98 REM LISSAJOUS 

180 PAGE 

181 PRINT 

182 PRINT 

183 PRINT 

184 PRINT 

185 PRINT 

186 PRINT 

187 INPUT A$ 
118 PAGE 

128 PRINT "ENTER X PARAMETERS: J, M, PI, K.N. 

125 INPUT J,M,P1,K,N 

126 PAGE 

138 PRINT "ENTER Y PARAMETERS: I , G,P2,H,L. 

131 INPUT I,G,P2,H,L 

134 PAGE 

135 PRINT "ENTER D. "| 

136 INPUT D 
148 PAGE 
158 SET DEGREES 
168 A*8 
178 X«J*SIN<M*A*P1 )*K*C0S<N*A>*65 

188 Y*I*SIN<G*A*P2)*H*C0S<L*A)*58 
198 IF A>8 THEN 220 
208 MOUE X,Y 
218 GO TO 238 
228 DRAM X,Y 
238 IF A<368 THEN 250 
248 END 
258 A«A+D 
268 GO TO 178 



I 



"1 




250 



November 1982 • Creative Computing 



IF YOU'RE WAITING FOR THE 

PRICE OF WORD PROCESSORS 

TO FALL WITHIN REASON. 




Qr cof^oindorf 



CBIV1 




Everyone expected it would happen 
sooner or later. . .with WordPro PLUS T 
it already has! Now all the marvelous 
benefits of expensive and advanced 
word processing systems are available 
on Commodore computers, America's 
largest selling computer line. WordPro 
PLUS, when combined with the new 80 
column CBM 8032, creates a word pro- 
cessing system comparable to virtually 
any other top quality word processor 
available— but at savings of thousands 
of dollars! 



New, low cost computer technology is 
now available at a fraction of what you 
would expect to pay. This technology 
allowed Commodore to introduce the 
new and revolutionary CBM 8032 
Computer. 

WordPro PLUS turns this new CBM 
8032 Computer into a sophisticated, 
time saving word processing tool. With 
WordPro PLUS, documents are dis- 
played on the computer's screen. Edit- 
ing and last minute revisions are simple 
and easy. No more lengthy re-typing 
sessions. Letters and documents are 
easily re-called from memory storage 
for editing or printing with final drafts 
printed perfectly at over five hundred 
words per minute! 




Our nationwide team of professional 
dealers will show you how your office 
will benefit by using WordPro PLUS. At 
a price far less than you realize. 



Invest in your office's future. . . 
Invest in WordPro PLUS. . . 
Call us today for the name of the 
WordPro PLUS dealer nearest you. 



Professional Software Inc. 

166 Crescent Road 
Needham, MA 02194 
(617)444-5224 
TELEX- 95 1579 

CIRCLE 250 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Art, continued... 



90 REM CONNECTED WEB 
100 PACE 



"THIS PROGRAM, CONNECTED WEB. WAS DEVELOPED AND CODED BY" 
"JOE JACOBSON, AND IS BASED ON A SUGGESTION BY CHRIS" 
"KUEBLER. PARAMETER N GIVES THE • OF VERTICES. P GIUES THE" 
"# OF IMAGINARY TIC MARKS ON EACH VERTEX AXIS. AO IS THE" 
"INITIAL ROTATION ANGLE. R0 IS THE OUERALL RADIUS. THE" 
-OVERLAY ENHANCES THE PICTURE. FOR EXAMPLE, TRY:" 
"<N,P,A0,RO>=<16, 20,0,50) AND REQUEST AN OVERLAY WHEN ASKED." 
"THIS GIUES A FAIRLY NEAT PATTERN." 
"TO START THE PROCESS, HIT CARRIAGE RETURN." 



101 PRINT 

102 PRINT 

103 PRINT 

104 PRINT 

105 PRINT 

106 PRINT 

107 PRINT 

108 PRINT 

109 PRINT 

110 INPUT A* 

111 PAGE 

112 SET DEGREES 

113 PRINT "ENTER N,P.A0«R0." 
120 INPUT N,P.A0.R0 

122 PAGE 

123 PRINT "ENTER 1 FOR SINGLE PATTERN* 2 FOR OVERLAY." 

124 INPUT K 

125 PAGE 
130 D'RO'P 
140 A9=360/N 
145 L=l 
150 1=0 
160 J=0 
170 A=A0+J*A9 

180 R«<<P-I)*<l~ltJ)*<X*l)*<l~lt<J*l)))*<0^2> 

190 X«65*R*C0S«CA> 

200 Y=50*R*SIN<A> 

210 IF J»8 THEN 240 

220 DRAM X,Y 

230 GO TO 250 

240 MOVE X,Y 

250 IF J«N THEN 280 

260 J«J41 

270 GO TO 170 

280 IF I-P-l THEN 310 

290 1*1*1 

300 GO TO 160 

318 IF K*2 THEN 322 

320 END 

322 IF L*l THEN 330 

323 GO TO 320 
330 AO=H0*A9''2 
340 L=2 
350 GO TO 150 





252 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 




o 







I » 



COMM 



POWER TO YOUR s »9.« 5 



• lit 



RE COMPUTER 



POWER produces a dramatic improvement in the 
ease of editing BASIC on Commodore's computers. 
POWER is a programmer's utility package (in a 4K 
ROM) that contains a series of new commands and 
utilities which are added to the Screen Editor and the 
BASIC Interpreter. Designed for the CBM BASIC 
user, POWER contains special editing, programming, 
and software debugging tools not found in any other 
microcomputer BASIC. POWER is easy to use and is 
sold complete with a full operator's manual written by 
Jim Butterfield. 

POWER'S special keyboard 'instant action' features 
and additional commands make up for, and go beyond 
the limitations of CBM BASIC. The added features 
include auto line numbering, tracing, single stepping 
through programs, line renumbering, and definition 
of keys as BASIC keywords. POWER even includes 



new "stick-on" keycap labels. The cursor movement 
keys are enhanced by the addition of auto-repeat and 
text searching functions are added to help ease pro- 
gram modification. Cursor UP and cursor DOWN 
produce previous and next lines of source code. 
COMPLETE BASIC program listings in memory can 
be displayed on the screen and scrolled in either direc- 
tion. POWER is a must for every serious CBM user. 

Call us today, for the name of the Professional 
Software dealer nearest you. 

Professional Software Inc. 

166 Crescent Road 

Need ham, MA 02194 

Tel: (617) 444-5224 Telex #951579 

CIRCLE 249 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The Graph Paper 



Part Five: ROM Routines 



David Lubar 



There is a great deal of interest in the 
internal graphics routines found in ROM 
Applesoft, mostly because people believe 
this is one of the keys to fast animation. 
While these subroutines are not used in 
modern games, it is instructive to take a 
look at them and learn how they can be 
accessed by user programs. The majority 
of this article will be devoted to these 
routines and ways to access them. 

Dedication 

First, what are ROM routines? When- 
ever you give a command from Basic, the 
Apple must contain subroutines to carry 
out your wishes. When you type in PRINT 
"HELLO," the Apple calls a subroutine 
which contains machine language instruc- 
tions that put text on the screen. These 
routines are found in the Applesoft ROM 
and in the system monitor. 

Likewise, any graphics command, such 
as HPLOT 20,20, is carried out by a 
subroutine in ROM. The computer passes 
parameters to the subroutine. A program- 
mer can do the same thing, thus bypassing 
Basic. In part, you are taking the role of a 
Basic interpreter. You know what you 
want done, and you know which routine 
will do it. So you skip over Basic. 

This results in faster code, since the 
program is in machine language. But two 
factors prevent this method from being 
ideal. First, as mentioned before, the 
ROM routines are not super efficient. 
They had to be written in a limited 
amount of space, and thus often sacrifice 
speed of execution for compactness. 



Also, the routines are generalized 
instead of being dedicated. For instance, 
all shapes are drawn with one set of 
subroutines. But if you were to write a 
program with just one shape in it, a 
dedicated routine which drew that shape 
at top speed would be much faster than a 
general shape-drawing routine. We'll see 
examples of dedicated routines in later 
articles. 

While the intent of this series is not to 
provide a tutorial on assembly language, 
I want to digress slightly into that area to 
allow those not familiar with assembler to 
use the following material. If you are 
already familiar with assembly language, 
skip the next section. 

Talking in Numbers 

Strictly speaking, the terms "assembly 
language" and "machine language" have 
different meanings. Assembly language is 
written using mnemonics. These are short 
"words" that represent commands. The 
mnemonic for jumping to a subroutine is 
JSR, while that for returning from the 
subroutine is RTS. Code written on an 
assembler is a combination of mnemonics, 
addresses, numbers, and, in most cases, 
labels. Programs published in magazines 
take this form. 

When the code is assembled, it 
becomes machine language. Machine 
language consists entirely of numbers. 
Where the programmer has written JSR 
$6000, the assembled code would be 20 
00 60. This final product is the actual 
machine language program. 

254 



While it is possible, and was once fairly 
common, to write code in machine lan- 
guage, the process is tedious, error prone, 
hard to modify, and basically just not fun. 
Thus an assembler of some sort is almost 
mandatory. There is no reason to make 
life any harder than necessary, and there 
is no special glory to be found in hand 
coding. 

If you have an Apple with Integer 
ROMs, you already have a mini assem- 
bler. It accepts mnemonics, but doesn't 
allow labels. In other words, it will accept 
JSR $6000, but won't understand JSR 
DRAW. There are many assemblers on 
the market, and the argument over which 
is best is approached with religious fervor. 
I won't proselytize, but I will mention 
that I am presently using Merlin at work 
and find it excellent for short programs. 

At home, since my system doesn't have 
a language card, I am using TED II. Some 
of my co-workers use EDASSEM from 
the DOS toolkit while others swear by 
Lisa. Each assembler has strong points 
and weaknesses, and personal preference 
seems to be based mostly on which one a 
person first learned to use. 

There are two main ways to enter the 
programs that will be listed in this and 
future articles. If you have an assembler, 
you can just type in the labels, operators 
and operands as listed. If you have no 
assembler, the machine code in the 
second, third and fourth columns (the 
first column shows the memory location 
of the code) can be entered directly into 
the monitor. 

November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



WE'RE EXPOSING OURSELVES 

With these shamelessly low 



prices on atcippic' Software! 




mountain 



GREAT SERVICE 

GREAT PRICES 

WHAT ELSE YOU 

WANT? 



OVER 1,000 ITEMS IN STOCK — STOCK ITEMS 
SHIPPED SAME DAY — ASK FOR FREE CATALOG 



HARDWARE SPECIALS 
D Smarterm 80 Column board 345 00 

□ Z-Card (Z-80. CP/M) 27900 

D ALF 9-Voice Card w/Sottware 199 50 

D Low Res Color Monitor 449 00 

□ RGB Color II Interlace 199 00 

D Dana Cooling Fan 49 95 

D Elephant Diskettes (Box of 10) 39 95 

□ Hand Controller (Paddles) 29 95 

D Numeric Keypad 149 50 

O Z-80 Softcard with CP/M 399 95 

D CPS Multifunction Card 239 95 

D Music System 395 00 

□ NEC 12' Hi-Res Green Monitor 285 00 

U The Grappler (Specify printer) 149 95 

D 16k Ramcard 195 00 

D Game Paddles 39 96 

D Joystick 59 95 

D Expand-a-Port 59 95 

□ Thunderclock Plus 139 00 

G Station II 129 95 

UTILITY PROGRAM SPECIALS 

□ Hi-Res Secrets 124 95 

□ Dos Boss 24.00 

□ Utility City 29 50 

□ Alpha Plot 39 50 

D Tip Disk #1 20 00 

□ 3-D Graphics System 39 95 

□ Home Money Minder 34.95 

□ Home Accountant 74.95 

D TASC Compiler 175.00 

D The Voice 39 95 

D Master Diagnostics 50.00 

□ The Locksmith 99 95 

□ Lisa Assem Lang Dev Sys 79.96 

D Expediter II 99 95 



D The Manipulator 



34 95 



Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 



Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 
Now 



28050 

23950 

17050 

38950 

18950 

4250 

2450 

28.50 

139.50 

299,50 

18950 

339.50 

18950 

139.50 

11150 

32.50 

40.50 

4950 

129.50 

119.50 



8050 
21.50 

2550 
3450 
1750 
3450 
2950 
6450 
152.50 
3450 
4550 
8550 
8950 
87.50 
2950 



DYNOMITEDEAL *\ 

Kensington Microware 

SYSTEM 
SAVER 

REGULAR $89 95 

now $ 69 50 



Q Graphics Magician 59.95 

D Special Effects 39 95 

D Super Disc Copy 30.00 

D Disk Recovery (The Scanner) 30.00 

G Dos Plus 25.00 

C Back It Up (Nibble Copier) 59 95 

G Original Quick Loader 24.95 

□ E-Z Draw 3.3 49 95 

G Data Capture 4 0/80 (Videx) 89 96 

G ASCII Express 64 95 

a Z-Term (Req CP/M 99 95 

G Z-Tcrm Professional (Req CP/M) . ... 149 95 

G Speed Star 134 95 

G A2-3D Graphics Package 59 96 

G Program Line Editor 40.00 

G Higher Graphics II 35 50 

E0UCATI0NAL PROGRAM SPECIALS 

a Auto Atlas 47 50 

G Compu-Math Arithmetic 49 95 

i I Compu-Math Fractions 39 95 

G Compu-Math Decimals 39 95 

G Algebra 1 39 95 

G Statistics 3 29 96 

G Spelling Bee w/Reading primer 39 95 

G Counting Bee 2995 

G Pythagoras and the Dragon 39 95 

G Isaac Newton. Fig Newton 49 95 

O Master Type 39 95 

G Englash SAT #1 30 00 

O US Constitution Tutor 30 00 



Now 


5250 


Now 


3150 


Now 


2550 


Now 


25.50 


Now 


2150 


Now 


52.50 


Now 


2150 


Now 


39.50 


Now 


7550 


Now 


6150 


Now 


92.50 


Now 


125.50 


Now 


11050 


Now 


5250 


Now 


3250 


Now 


27.50 


Now 


41.50 


Now 


3050 


Now 


3150 


Now 


3150 


Now 


3150 


Now 


25.50 


Now 


3450 


Now 


2450 


Now 


35.50 


Now 


4150 


Now 


3450 


Now 


2150 


Now 


2150 



G Typing lutor II 24 95 Now 22.50 

G Division Skills 44.95 Now 3050 

G Mixed Numbers 44 95 Now 3050 

G Vocabulary (Preifx, Suffix. Roots) 44 95 Now 36.50 

G Punctuation (Commas) 44 95 Now 3050 

G Elementary Math Edu-Disk 39 95 Now 38.50 

G Lisa Educational Sys 119.95 Now 9050 

DYNOMITE DEAL *l 

Silicon Valley 

WORD 
HANDLER 

REGULAR $249 96 

now $ 159 50 

BUSINESS PROGRAM SPECIALS 

G CPA #1 General Ledger 250.00 Now 19050 

G CPA #2 Accounts Receivable 250.00 Now 18OS0 

G CPA #3 Accounts Payable 250.00 Now 19050 

G CPA #4 Payroll 25000 Now 10O50 

G The Budget Planner 150.00 Now 12550 

G Tax Beater 129 95 Now 10150 

G Real Estate Analysis Program 129 95 Now 10150 

G Financial Partner 175.00 Now 15150 

G Apple Pie (All Versions) 129 96 Now 100.50 

G Tax Preparer 150 00 Now 13150 

G Creative Financing 150 00 Now 13150 

G Datadex Data Base Manager 150.00 Now 129.50 

G Datafactory 5.0 300.00 Now 24050 

G Time Manager 150.00 Now 12710 

G Screenwriter II 129.95 Now 109.50 

G The General Manager 99 95 Now 8150 

G Dictionary 99 95 Now 8150 

G Executive Speller 75 00 Now 8050 

G Magic Window Word Proc 99.95 Now 8450 

G Magic Mailer 69.96 Now 5710 

G Magic Words 69 95 Now 5750 

G PFS Personal Report Sys 95 00 Now 7050 

G IFO Database Manager 120.00 Now 10150 

G Inventory System 33 20000 Now 17450 

G 0-B Master 22995 Now 18050 

G D-B Utility Pack 99 95 Now 8050 

G D-B Utility Pack #2 (May) 99.95 Now 8050 

G Visacalc 3.3 250.00 Now 208.50 

G Visifile 250.00 Now 20950 

GAMES SPECIALS 

U Eliminator 29.96 Now 2150 

G Temple of Apshai 39 96 Now 3210 

G Crush. Crumble and Chomp 29.95 Now 2450 

G Ricochet 19.95 Now 1710 

G Zero Gravity Pinball 29 95 Now 2150 

□ Star Blazer 31 95 Now 2150 

□ Labrmth 29.96 Now 2150 



A 



r 



G Dueling Digits 29 95 Now 2150 

□ Bug Attack 29 95 Now 2150 

G Apple Barrel II (20 Programs) 34.95 Now 2O50 

G Snack Attack 29 95 Now 2450 

G County Fair 29 95 Now 2150 

d Casino 39.95 Now 3450 

D The Prisoner 29 95 Now 2150 

G Rendezvous (April) 39.95 Now 3210 

G Alien Ambush 24 95 Now 1050 

G Horizon V 34 95 Now 2150 

□ Sargon II 34 95 Now 2O50 

G Reversal (Othello) 34 95 Now 2O50 

□ Zork II 39 95 Now 3210 

G Robot Wars 39 95 Now 3450 

G ABM 24 95 Now 22.50 

G Three Mile Island 39.95 Now 3450 

G Castle Wolfenstein 29 95 Now 2150 

G Wizard and the Princess 32 96 Now 2050 

G Hi-Res Soccer 29 95 Now 2150 

G Threshold 39 95 Now 3150 

G Time Zone 99 95 Now 8150 

G Marauder 34 95 Now 2150 

G Microchess 2.0 24 95 Now 22.50 

G Gammon Gambler 24 95 Now 22.50 

G Falcons 29 95 Now 2150 

G Star Blaster 29 95 Now 2150 

D Congo 32.95 Now 2150 

G Fastgammon 24.95 Now 21.50 

G Beer Run 34 95 Now 2050 

DYNOMITE DEAL # 3 

WHILE THEY LAST! 

Buy 1 Edu-Ware "Space" at $29 95 
Get "Space II" (Reg. $24.95) 

FREE! 

G Kabul Spy 34 95 Now 2150 

G Bandits 34 95 Now 2150 

G Draw Poker 29 95 Now 2450 

G Computer Baseball 39 95 Now 3150 

G Tigers in the Snow 39.95 Now 3450 

G Computer Air Combat 59 95 Now 4O50 

G Napoleons Campaign 59 96 Now 4050 

G Road to Gettysburg 59 96 Now 4950 

D Pursuit of th Graft Spee 59 95 Now 49.50 

G Flight Simulator 33 .50 Now 2O50 

G Odyssey 30 00 Now 2450 

G Adventure to Atlantis 40 00 Now 3450 

G Space Raiders 29 95 Now 2150 



OFFER 

—Your Choice — 

Original 

Adventure Game 

or Applesoft™ 

Tutorial 

on disc with 

purchase of 

Any 3 Programs! 



DEDUCT 3°'o if payment accompanies order. WE PAY SHIPPING on all soft 
ware order* OVER $50 in Continental U.S. (Foreign ft Air Extra). ADD $2.50 
SHIPPING ft HANDLING on order* under $50. CALIF. RESIDENTS ADD 6% 
SALES TAX. We accept MASTER CARD and VISA. CODS ADD $5.00. 



1 



NAME 



STREET 



CITY 



STATE ft ZIP 



CARD «. 



EXP DATE 



SIGNATURE 



518 E. ECHO CT., SAN BERNARDINO, CA 92404 
Outside Calif. Call (800) 854-5649 
Calif. Residents Call (714) 886-0761 



Price* Subject to Change without Notice 
CIRCLE 220 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Graph Paper, continued... 

The best way to understand exactly 
what is going on is to read a book on 
machine language. In many ways, it is 
simpler than Basic since there are rela- 
tively few things that can be done. Most 
operations involve placing a value in 
memory, changing a value in an arith- 
metic or logical manner, or controlling 
program flow. 

The first few programs will be docu- 
mented well enough so even those who 
are new to assembly language should be 
able to follow what is going on and make 
use of the techniques. Let's get on with it. 

Taking Control 

Each Applesoft graphics command can 
be accessed as a ROM subroutine, but 
there is not exactly a one-to-one corre- 
spondence when programming. For 
instance, when you use an Applesoft 
command such as DRAW 1 AT 20,20, 
you are actually accessing both a drawing 
routine and a positioning routine. 

When working from assembly language, 
these routines will be handled separately. 
But the general approach to using the 
routines is similar to the approach used 
from Basic. The first step in Basic is HGR. 
In assembly language, you would use JSR 
$F3E2. This subroutine performs the 
initialization of page 1 of hi-res. To set up 
page 2, use JSR $F3D8. 

Once graphics has been initialized, 
there are several things the programmer 
can do: position the hi-res cursor, plot a 
point, draw a line, or draw a shape. We'll 
take a look at the subroutines for each of 
these actions. 

If you are interested in how the routines 
work, the best place to start is in the back 
of the Programmer's Aid manual from 
Apple. This contains a documented dis- 
assembly of the graphics routines from 
the Programmer's Aid chip. Since these 
routines use page three of memory for 
storage of most variables, the code won't 



Listing 1. 



:A3M 












1 


HPOSN 


EOU *F411 




2 


* 








3 


* 


THE 


FOLLOWING THREE VARIABLES 




4 


• 


ARE 


PROGRAM VARIABLES THAT 




5 


* 


WOUl 


..D BE USED TO HOLD THE 




6 


* 


COORDINATES RASSED TO HROSN 




7 


* 








8 


VERT 


EOU *FD ;ANY FREE LOCATION 




9 


HORLO 


EOU *FE ;WILL DO 




1 


HORN I 


EQU *FF 




1 1 


• 








12 


* 


PUT 


VERTICAL POSITION IN 




13 


* 


THE 


ACCUMULATOR 




14 


* 






7000: A5 F-D 


15 
16 


* 




LDA VERT 




17 


* 


PUT 


LO BYTE OF HORIZONTAL IN X 




IS 


* 


AND 


HI BYTE IN Y 




19 


* 






7002: A6 FE 


20 






LDX HORLO 


7004: A4 FF 


21 


* 




LDY H0RH1 




*7>~T 


* 


CALL 


. THE ROM SUBROUTINE 




24 


* 






7006: 20 1 1 F4 


25 






JSR HPOSN 


END ASSEMBLY - 









TOTAL. ERRORS: • 


:» 








9 BYTES GENERATED 


THIS 


> ASSEMBLY 



be exactly the same as the Applesoft 
ROM, but it is close enough to help show 
how the routines work. (The Applesoft 
routines use more zero-page storage. 
Since commands accessing this area of 
memory are only two bytes long, while 
commands accessing any other area of 
memory are three bytes long, the Apple- 
soft routines are slightly shorter.) 

Most of the ROM routines make use of 
parameters. These parameters are passed 
by the accumulator and the X and Y 
registers of the 6502. Also, at times, 
parameters are held in memory. For 
instance, location $E7 holds the scale for 
drawing shapes. 




"We'll take it." 



First, we'll look at HPOSN, the routine 
that sets the hi-res cursor. As mentioned 
in an earlier article, the hi-res cursor 
determines where on the screen a point 
will be plotted or a shape drawn. 

As you might have guessed, HPOSN 
requires two parameters, a horizontal 
value and a vertical value. These could 
be referred to as X and Y locations, but 
that would cause confusion with X and Y 
registers (the two have nothing in com- 
mon), so the terms "horizontal" and 
"vertical" will be used. The vertical 
location, as in Basic, ranges from to 
191. 

Horizontal values go from to 279. 
Since the 6502 registers are only eight 
bits, with a maximum value of 255, the 
horizontal value cannot be contained in 
one register. Instead, the lo byte is placed 
in the X register and the hi byte is placed 
in the Y register. The vertical value is 
placed in the accumulator. Sample code 
for positioning the hi-res cursor can be 
found in Listing 1. 

HPOSN is not very exciting since it 
doesn't put anything on the screen. This 
can be done with the HPLOT subroutine. 
It is set up just as HPOSN, but also 
requires a color. This is where things get 
interesting. Location $E4 holds the color 
value. But this value isn't in the range of 1 
through 7 as it would be in Applesoft. 
Instead, it is a byte mask which handles 
the oddities of Apple colors. But the 
programmer doesn't have to worry about 
it. 



256 



November 1982 ° Creative Computing 



COMPUTERS 
PERSONAL 

COMPUTERS 



OMEGA DELIVERS 
FOR LESS 



OKIDATA MICROLINE 83A 



COMPUTERS 



Amdek Video-300 149.00 

Amdek Color-I Monitor 329.00 

Atari 81 Disk Drive 449.00 

Atari 800 16K 669.00 

Daisywriter 2000 1049.00 

Diablo 630 2095.00 

Epson MX-80 w/Graftrax 439.00 

Epson MX-80 FT w/Graftrax 549.00 

Epson MX-100 FT Printer 695.00 

Hayes Smartmodem 225.00 

IDS 560 Paper Tiger 1099.00 

IDS Prism 80 (Color) 1379.00 

IDS Prism 132 (Color) 1559.00 

Mannesmann Tally MT 1802 1499.00 

Microtek 32K Ramboard for Atari 400 & 800 . . 1 19.00 

Microsoft Soft Card (Z-80) 279.00 

Microsoft Soft Card Premium System for Apple 579.00 

Microsoft Ramcard 64K for IBM-P.C 369.00 

NEC 3510 or 3530 Spinwriter 1675.00 

NEC 771 or 7730 Spinwriter 2295.00 

NEC PC-8023 Printer 489.00 

NEC GREEN JB1 201 M — 1 2" Monitor 1 69.00 

Okidata Microline — 80 Matrix Printer 329.00 

Okidata Microline — 82A 449.00 

Okidata Microline — 83A 729.00 

Okidata Microline — 84 Parallel 1095.00 

Sharp PC-1500 Pocket Computer 239.95 

Sharp CE-1 50 Color Printer/Cassette l/F 199.95 

Smith-Corona TP-1 649.00 

Televideo 910 559.00 

Televideo 925 725.00 

Televideo 950 929.00 

Videx Videoterm 80 Column Card for Apple II . 259.00 



EPSON MX-100 FT 



YOUR CHOICE 
$695.00 



SOFTWARE 

Omega carries software by the following companies: 

• American Business Systems • Ashton Tate • Dakin 5 

• Innovative Software • Micropro • Microsoft 

• Sorcim • Stoneware • Visicorp (Personal Software) 
MAGNETIC MEDIA 

Omega carries diskettes (5Va" or 8 ") by listed companies: 

• Dysan • Maxell • Scotch • Verbatim 

ACCESSORIES 

Omega carries accessories for the Apple II by the following 
manufacturers: 

• D.C. Hayes • Microsoft • Tymac 

• M & R Enterprises «Videx 

CALL TOLL FREE! 



: • • 



343-0873 



PRICES ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE 
WITHOUT NOTICE 

We carry the complete line of Atari Hardware, Software & 
Peripherals. 

We will try to match or beat any price with similar purchase 
conditions. 



OMEGA SALES COMPANY 

430 PEARL STREET, STOUGHTON, MA 02072 

(617)344-6645 TOLL FREE (800) 343-0873 



CIRCLE 236 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Graph Paper, continued... 

Obviously, Applesoft requires a routine 
to change the Basic HCOLOR value to 
the proper color mask. This routine is 
also in ROM. Just place the desired color 
number in the X register and JSR $F6F0. 

Once you are able to plot a point, you 
can do all sorts of things, just as we did 
with the Applesoft HPLOT command. 
Data stored in tables can be used to draw 
figures or plot functions. And, just as the 
HPLOT routine in Applesoft can also be 
used to draw lines, there is a monitor 
routine to do this task. 

To draw a line, first set the starting 
point with the HPLOT or HPOSN sub- 
routine, as described above. Next, the 
other end point must be defined. For some 
reason, while it requires the same para- 
meters, they are passed in a different 
fashion. The vertical coordinate goes into 
the Y register. The lo byte of the horizon- 
tal coordinate goes into the X register 
and the accumulator gets the lo byte. 
The routine is located at SF53A. 

The DRAW and XDRA W subroutines 
are next on the list. Before drawing 
anything, the hi-res cursor must be posi- 
tioned. This is done with HPOSN. Also, 
color and scale must be defined. Scale is 
determined by the value in location $E7. 
As in Applesoft, scale increases from 1 to 
255, and a value of gives the largest 
possible scale. Rather than use an index 
into the shape table, each shape can be 
referenced by its actual location, which 
allows one, if he wants, to scatter shapes 
through memory. The Y register contains 
the hi byte of the shape location while the 
X register holds the lo byte. The accumu- 
lator contains the rotation. The address 
of DRAW is SF601, and XDRAW is at 
SF65D. 

As an example of how to use these 
subroutines, Listing 2 contains a program 
that draws spirals on the screen. It uses a 
small shape consisting of a single dot, and 
draws larger lines by changing the scale. 
The routine takes advantage of the fact 
that when a shape is drawn, the hi-res 
cursor ends up wherever the last com- 
mand in the table left off. In this case, 
where the table just contains a command 
to plot and then move, the cursor will 
always be found at the end of the line. 

Animation using the ROM routines is 
done in the same fashion as animation 
from Applesoft. A shape is drawn, then it 
goes through a sequence of erases and 
draws. Page flipping can be used, with 
the value in location $E6 determining 
which page is accessed. A value of $20 is 
used for page 1 , while a value of $40 puts 
you in touch with page 2. 

A Bit of Philosophy 

This month's prize-winning question 
(the prize is a copy of Shape Master) 
comes from Mike Cameron who writes, 



Listing 2. 



: ASM 











1 




ORG 


%\ . n_U | 










mm 


HGR 


EQU 


*F3E2 










-T 


HPOSN 


EQU 


*F4il 










4 


DRAM 


EQU 


*F601 










tr 

3 


HCOLOR 


EQU 


*FfcF 










6 


SCALE 


EQU 


•E7 










7 


FULLSCI 


RN EQU 


*C052 










8 


* 














9 


* FOLLOWING VARIABLES ARE 










10 


* PROGRAM VAR 


I ABLE S AND NOT 










11 


* PART 


OF THE 


ROM ROUTINES 










12 


* 














13 


COLOR 


EQU 


$FE 










14 


ROT 


EQU 


*FF 










15 


TABLE 


EQU 


•300 










16 


• 






1 000 : 


20 


E2 


F3 


17 




JSR 


HGR ; I N I T I AL I Z E GRAPH I CS 


1 003 : 


8D 


52 


CO 


18 
19 


* 


STA 


FULLSCRN ;SET FULL SCREEN MODE 










20 


♦SET UP SMALL 


SHAPE DEFINITION 










21 


* 






1 006 : 


A9 


04 








LDA 


#*04 ; VECTOR FOR PLOT AND 


1008: 


8D 


00 


03 


'"IT 




STA 


TABLE ;MOVE UP. 


1 OOB : 


A9 


00 




24 




LDA 


#*0 ;MARK. END OF SHAPE 


1000 1 


8D 


01 


03 


25 
26 


* 


STA 


TABLE+1 










27 


* STORE 


COLOR 


VARIABLE 










28 


* 






1 1 : 


A9 


03 




29 




LDA 


#*03 ; WHITE 1 


1012: 


85 


FE 




30 
31 


* 


STA 


COLOR 










32 


♦ GIVE 


I N I T I AL 


POSITION 












♦ AT CENTER SCREEN 










34 


* 






1014: 


AO 


00 




35 


L00P1 


LDY 


#*0 ; HORIZONTAL HI BYTE 


1016: 


A2 


8C 




36 




LDX 


#*8C ; HORIZONTAL LO BYTE 


1018: 


A9 


60 




37 




LDA 


#*60 ; VERTICAL COORDINATE 


101 A: 


20 


1 1 


F4 


38 
39 


* 


JSR 


HPOSN ;SET HI-RES CURSOR 










40 


•SET COLOR 












41 


* 






1 1 D : 


A6 


FE 




42 




LDX 


COLOR 


1 1 F : 


20 


FO 


F6 


43 
44 


* 


JSR 


HCOLOR 










45 


♦ SET INI IAL 


SCALE 










46 


* 






1022: 


A9 


Ol 




47 




LDA 


#*01 ; SMALLEST SCALE 


1024: 


85 


E7 




48 
49 


* 


STA 


SCALE 










50 


*AND INITIAL 


ROTATION 










51 


* 






1026: 


A9 


00 




52 




LDA 


#*0 :ROT=0 DEGREES 


1028: 


85 


FF 




■5T 

54 
55 
56 


* 

♦ MAIN 1 
* 


STA 
LOOP 


ROT 


102A: 


A 2 


00 




57 


DRAWL OOP LDX 


#*0 ;L0 BYTE OF SHAPE ADDRESS 


1 02C : 


AO 


03 




58 




LDY 


#*03 ;HI BYTE OF SHAPE ADDRESS 


1 02E : 


A5 


FF 




59 




LDA 


ROT^ 


1030: 


20 


01 


F6 


60 




JSR 


DRAW 


1033: 


A5 


FF 




61 




LDA 


ROT 


1035: 


18 






62 




CLC 




1036: 


69 


10 




63 




ADC 


#*10 ; PRODUCES A ROTATION 


1038: 


85 


FF 




64 




STA 


ROT ;0F 90 DEGREES 


103A: 


E6 


E7 




65 




I NC 


SCALE ; INCREASE SIZE OF SHAPE 


1 03C : 


E6 


E7 




66 




I NC 


SCALE 


103E: 


A5 


E7 




67 




LDA 


SCALE 


1040: 


C9 


BD 




68 




CMP 


#*BD ; TOO LARGE' 


1042: 


DO 


E6 




69 




BNE 


DRAWLOOP sNO 










70 


tSPIRAI 


L IS NOW DRAWN. TIME TO 










71 


♦CHANGE COLOR 


(ALTERNATING 










72 


♦BETWEEN BLAG 


K AND WHITE) AND 










73 


*D0 IT 


ALL AGi 


r 1 1 n . 


1044: 


A5 


FE 




74 




LDA 


COLOR 


10461 


49 


03 




75 




EOR 


«*03 


10481 


85 


FE 




76 
t 


♦ 
♦CHECK 

♦ 


STA 


COLOR 










■ t 
73 
79 
BO 


FOR KEYPRESS 


104A: 


AD 




CO 


L DA 


•cooo 


104D: 




C5 




81 




BPL 


L00P1 


L04F: 


2C 


1 


CO 


82 




BIT 


•CO J 1 1 


1052: 


60 






S3 




RTS 




! ND ASSEMBLY 









rUTAL ERRORS: 



PYTES GENERATED miE ASSEMBLY 



258 



November 1982 c Creative Computing 



"What type of routines should a person 
use in machine language?" He goes on to 
say that he has seen the points for Apple- 
soft ROM routines, but believes there 
must be better routines around, such as 
those found in some assemblers. 

Before directly answering the question, 
1 would like to point out what I feel is the 
main reason for not using the ROM 
routines. If you are writing a program 
that accesses the ROM routines, you have 
already committed yourself to a fair 
amount of assembly language coding. 
Having gone this far, it isn't much of a 
leap to reach the point where you don't 
need the ROM routines. When you use 
ROM subroutines, you are restricting 
yourself to generalized code with rigid 
requirements and format. 

There are only two viable options: 
either use one of the specialized graphics 
packages on the market or write your 
own code. The choice depends on the 
application. There are some good anima- 
tion packages on the market that provide 
subroutines for many applications. But if 
you plan to have a really large number of 
objects moving at high speed, you may 
need specialized code. 

For instance, if you wanted to move 
twenty occurrences each of three shapes, 
it would be better to write three routines 
—one to draw each shape at maximum 
speed — than to use a general shape- 
drawing routine. Also, writing your own 
code is the best way to get a feel for 
graphics and to really understand what is 
going on. 

In general, the best routine is whatever 
routine accomplishes the job without 
taking too much time or placing too many 
restrictions on the programmer. The 
ROM routines fail to meet these criteria 
for most applications. 

In future articles, we'll be developing 
specialized routines for drawing shapes 
and performing other graphics functions. 
These will serve as building blocks or 
starting points, allowing you to develop 
the right routine for each job. 

Other Stuff 

Thanks to Dan Lazarowski who wrote 
a note concerning the circle-drawing 
program from August. He mentions that 
the FOR... NEXT loops can be calibrated 
by adding 

50S=ATN(1/RA) 

60 FOR 1=0 to 6.30 STEP S 
He points out that this produces "the 
smoothest circle possible without over- 
doing precision and thu